 Koran
 Shia Islam- Women presumed to be
  irrational beings
 Worth less than men
 Religious conservative traditionali...
Urges men to manage household affairs
Declares that women’s obligation is to remain loyal
to their husband
Polygamy enc...
oAlso referred to as
fundamentalist
oAdvocate close adherence to
Islamic law
oEnforce how women should
behave, and dictate...
 Women’s perception of themselves and
  men’s perception of women
 Women’s obligation to follow traditional
  norms
 Wo...
1960-1979, women protested the oppressive regime of the Shah Reza Pahlavi.
Many female activist were imprisoned and tortur...
According to Fazeh Hashemi, feminism is about defending
women’s rights and fighting for the equal rights of men and
women....
Symbol of the women’s struggle
During 1977-79, women wore the veil in defiance against the
shah. Women poured into the str...
 Regarded as indecent
 Compared to a prostitute
 Suppose to feel powerless
 Perceived as being influenced by the
  Wes...
 Some women co-opted, followed the
  regulations imposed by the state. By
  following regulations & remaining compliant
 ...
 Tool that contains female sexuality
 For modernist, it symbolizes
  backwardness and is a cultural marker of
  differen...
 Represents purity
 Obligation is to stay at home & take care
  of the family
 Can only be intimate with one man who
  ...
Struggle For  Gender  Equality  In  Iran
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Struggle For Gender Equality In Iran

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The presentation is based on the struggle Iranian women face from conservative (traditionalist). Traditionalist hold strong adherence to Islamic law, refusing to amend laws restricting women's rights. Women have protested regulations such as compulsory veil. The presentation provides an analysis why women face continual discrimination

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Struggle For Gender Equality In Iran

  1. 1.  Koran  Shia Islam- Women presumed to be irrational beings  Worth less than men  Religious conservative traditionalist (fundamentalist)  Women themselves, Those women who remain loyal to the Islamic state  Hejab (veil) marker of oppression
  2. 2. Urges men to manage household affairs Declares that women’s obligation is to remain loyal to their husband Polygamy encourages, no limit to the number of wives a man can have Prophet Mohammed had 13 wives and 3 concubines
  3. 3. oAlso referred to as fundamentalist oAdvocate close adherence to Islamic law oEnforce how women should behave, and dictate how women should dress oSelect sacred text of the Koran to assert their dominance oBelieve in compulsory veiling oMaintain gender segregation
  4. 4.  Women’s perception of themselves and men’s perception of women  Women’s obligation to follow traditional norms  Women deemed weaker and compassionate  Compassion is perceived as an impediment for the punishment of wrong doers
  5. 5. 1960-1979, women protested the oppressive regime of the Shah Reza Pahlavi. Many female activist were imprisoned and tortured 1979-1989 Iran Women’s Movement. The new regime was under Ayatollah Khomeini, instituted compulsory veiling, and removed women from professional positions. Women judges barred from office & took to look for administrative positions. In response, women wore the veil in defiance to his ruling 1989- Khomeini's death marked the beginning of the reformist period 1992 were able to enforce a law demanding wages for household work 1997 presidential election, women called for reform the law which barred women from becoming president, nine women stood as a form of protest. Mohammad Khatami won the election and announced publicly that women’s aspirations should be acknowledged. Under Khatami, restrictions on women’s education on studying abroad were removed, family planning and divorce laws were amended and women were appointed as judges Participated in presidential elections of 2000 and 2001
  6. 6. According to Fazeh Hashemi, feminism is about defending women’s rights and fighting for the equal rights of men and women. “ Women’ movement in Iran aimed at terminating gender discrimination and creating civic society of equal opportunities for both men and women” Conservatives attacked feminist by defining feminism as female domination, unrestrained behavior and lesbianism
  7. 7. Symbol of the women’s struggle During 1977-79, women wore the veil in defiance against the shah. Women poured into the streets shouting, “Freedom does not impose rules and regulations.” Tool of empowerment when wore with personal choice Worn in the streets as a form of protection from sexual harassment
  8. 8.  Regarded as indecent  Compared to a prostitute  Suppose to feel powerless  Perceived as being influenced by the West’s ideologies of capitalism  Not a suitable partner for a Muslim man  Anti-shah and as a rebel to Islam  In 1983, the punishment for not wearing the veil was 74 lashes
  9. 9.  Some women co-opted, followed the regulations imposed by the state. By following regulations & remaining compliant women were able to further their education  Defied court rulings, challenged laws, demanded wages and reforms to laws  Women’s newspapers advocated women’s participation in politics  Female film makers present women’s roles as mothers
  10. 10.  Tool that contains female sexuality  For modernist, it symbolizes backwardness and is a cultural marker of differences  The cause of gender segregation and homosexual practices because men marry women without seeing their physical appearance.  Perceived as a tool that shield women from the lustful gaze of men
  11. 11.  Represents purity  Obligation is to stay at home & take care of the family  Can only be intimate with one man who is her husband

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