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Energy flow in ecosystems


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Energy flow in ecosystems

  2. 2. 2. Ecosystems and Biomes <ul><li>2.1 Energy Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.1 Energy roles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Producers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.2 Food Chain and Food web </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.3 Energy Pyramids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2.2 Cycles of Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.2.1 Water cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.2.2 Carbon and oxygen cycles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Where does the energy come from?
  4. 4. Organisms and Energy <ul><li>All the energy on Earth comes from the sun!! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Producers <ul><li>Organisms that use the energy from the sun to produce their own food. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Plants, algae and some bacteria. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Photosynthesis
  7. 7. Consumers <ul><li>Organisms that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>3-Types </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivores </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scavengers and decomposers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Herbivores <ul><li>Heterotrophs that consume plants only. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: cows, deer, rabbits… </li></ul><ul><li>(First order consumers) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Carnivores <ul><li>Heterotrophs that consume other animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Humans, cats… </li></ul><ul><li>(Second… order consumers.) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Scavengers <ul><li>Feed on dead organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: vultures </li></ul>
  11. 11. Decomposers <ul><li>Break down wastes and dead organisms and return the raw materials to the ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Bacteria and fungus </li></ul>
  12. 12. Are the decomposer nature´s recyclers? <ul><li>While obtain energy for their own needs, decomposer return simple molecules to the environment. These molecules can be used again by other organisms. </li></ul>
  13. 13. How does energy flow through the ecosystem??? <ul><li>In ONE direction only </li></ul><ul><li>The movement of the energy through the ecosystem can be show in diagram called food chain </li></ul>
  14. 14. Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Sun-Producers-Consumers-Decomposers- Released as heat Autotrophs First-order heterotrophs Third-order heterotrophs Second-order heterotrophs Decomposers
  15. 15. Food chain and Food web <ul><li>The energy enter as sunlight and converted to food molecules by producer. </li></ul><ul><li>After this energy is transfer to each organism that eat a producer </li></ul><ul><li>And to another organism that feed on these consumers. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Food Chain <ul><li>DEFINITION: It´s a series of events in which one organism eats another to get energy </li></ul><ul><li>The figure represent a simplest exchange of energy. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Videos <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>d </li></ul>
  18. 20. Food Web: Many interconnected and overlapping food chains
  19. 21. Food Web FOOD WEB
  20. 22. Ecological Pyramids <ul><li>Shows how energy flows through the ecosystem </li></ul>
  21. 23. Energy Pyramid <ul><li>Shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web </li></ul><ul><li>Only 10% of the energy is passed onto the next level. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Energy Pyramid <ul><li>The most energy is available at the producer level of the pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>As you move up the pyramid, each level has less energy available than the level below. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Cycles of the matter <ul><li>What is a cycle? </li></ul><ul><li>Is a series of things that repeat over and over again </li></ul><ul><li>What are some example of cycles? </li></ul><ul><li>Water cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide cycle </li></ul>
  24. 26. Nutrients <ul><li>Nutrients cycle through the ecosystem, never disappearing. </li></ul>nutrients nutrients nutrients
  25. 27. Water Cycle <ul><li>3 parts… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Condensation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Evaporation <ul><li>The process by which molecules of liquid water absorb energy and change to a gas </li></ul><ul><li>From oceans, lakes, river. </li></ul><ul><li>From living things: Leaves of trees, liquid wastes and when you exhale. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Condensation <ul><li>This process by which a gas changes to a liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>When the gas rises the atmosphere , it cool down and a little drop are formed. </li></ul><ul><li>The water droplets collect around particles of dust , eventually forming clouds. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Precipitation <ul><li>To more water condenses the drop grow larger and heavy then fall back to earth as precipitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Over ocean and lake </li></ul><ul><li>When fall in land may soak and become groundwater. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Water Cycle
  30. 32. Carbon Cycle
  31. 33. Class work <ul><li>See the video and complete the worshhet. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  32. 34. Carbon cycle
  33. 35. Oxygen Cycle
  34. 36. Oxygen and carbon cycle <ul><li>These two elements are essential to the life on the earth </li></ul><ul><li>In ecosystems the process of carbon and oxygen cycles are linked </li></ul><ul><li>Producers, consumers, and decomposers play important roles in recycling carbon and oxygen. </li></ul>
  35. 37. Carbon cycle <ul><li>The cycle can start when producers take in carbon dioxide gas from the air and release oxygen during photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>They take the carbon and make food molecules such as sugar and starches to get energy </li></ul>
  36. 38. Carbon cycle <ul><li>When consumers eat producers, they take in the carbon-containing food molecules to obtain energy. </li></ul><ul><li>The consumer break down the carbon compounds in a process called respiration in this time they release </li></ul><ul><li>Then carbon dioxide is cycled back into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide </li></ul>
  37. 39. Oxygen cycle <ul><li>The oxygen is found through the ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Producers release oxygen in the photosynthesis process. </li></ul><ul><li>The organisms take the oxygen from air or water and use it to carry out their life process. </li></ul>
  38. 40. Human Impact (Released CO2) <ul><li>Industrial pollutions, when people burn oil or fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear forests and burn </li></ul><ul><li>Less trees – less absortion f CO2 from the environment. </li></ul>