Cyber Collaboration between Pre- and In-Service Teachers

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Cyber Collaboration between Pre- and In-Service Teachers by Gina WenChun Chen

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Cyber Collaboration between Pre- and In-Service Teachers

  1. 1. TESOL Convention 2010March 24-27, Boston<br />Cyber Collaboration between <br />Pre- and In-Service Teachers<br />Presenter: Gina Wen-Chun Chen, Ph.D.<br />National Chung-Cheng University, Taiwan<br />gina.visit@gmail.com<br />
  2. 2. Project Inspiration<br />What is it like in a real classroom?<br />Multimedia Language Teaching and Material Design, Spring, 2009<br />
  3. 3. TESOL Practicum<br />Prepares preservice/novice teachers for real teaching.<br />Starts in the last semester/year.<br />Focus on theory first then practice. <br />
  4. 4. TESOL Practicum<br />Prepares preservice/novice teachers for real teaching.<br />Starts in the last semester/year.<br />Focus on theory first then practice. <br />
  5. 5. TESOL Practicum<br />Prepares preservice/novice teachers for real teaching.<br />Starts in the last semester/year.<br />Focus on theory first then practice. <br />
  6. 6. Problems<br />Time and credit hour distributions: “theory sometimes wins out over practice [in TESOL curriculums]” (Richards & Crookes, 1988, p. 9)<br />Students are insensitive about the alignment between the knowledge learned from textbooks and the actual applicability in real classrooms (Brinton & Holten, 1989).<br />Premature career choice:郭丁熒, 1993; 朱苑瑜, 2006; 楊深坑, 1991;王素芸 & 賴光真,2004<br />
  7. 7. Problems<br />Time and credit hour distributions: “theory sometimes wins out over practice [in TESOL curriculums]” (Richards & Crookes, 1988, p. 9)<br />Students are insensitive about the alignment between the knowledge learned from textbooks and the actual applicability in real classrooms (Brinton & Holten, 1989).<br />Premature career choice:郭丁熒, 1993; 朱苑瑜, 2006; 楊深坑, 1991;王素芸 & 賴光真,2004<br />
  8. 8. Problems<br />Time and credit hour distributions: “theory sometimes wins out over practice [in TESOL curriculums]” (Richards & Crookes, 1988, p. 9)<br />Students are insensitive about the alignment between the knowledge learned from textbooks and the actual applicability in real classrooms (Brinton & Holten, 1989).<br />Premature career choice:郭丁熒, 1993; 朱苑瑜, 2006; 楊深坑, 1991;王素芸 & 賴光真,2004<br />
  9. 9. In Need<br />A reality checkbefore student teaching/internship<br />Testing the water before investing too much (time and money). <br />
  10. 10. Growth (PSTs) <br />A reality checkbefore student teaching/internship<br />Testing the water before investing too much (time and money). <br />Regular TESOL Program Curriculum<br />
  11. 11. Growth (ISTs) <br />Schick and Nelson (2001)<br />…in-service teachers often feel a gulf of separation between practice and the ‘ivory tower’ of the academy.<br />
  12. 12. The Study<br />
  13. 13. Professional Development<br />Journal sharing (between native and nonnative English speaking teachers): Pasternak and Bailey (2004) and Matsuda and Matsuda (2001)<br />Online teamwork:Arnold & Ducate, 2006; Hedberg & Harper, 1996<br />Same tier collaboration: PST-PST or IST-IST<br />
  14. 14. New Mechanism: Cross-tier Collaboration via Telecommunication<br />A collaborative telecommunication between in-service and preservice teachers (ISTs and PSTs)<br />13 PSTs<br />13 ISTs<br />
  15. 15. Learning Theory for 21st century: Connectivism<br />George Siemens and Stephen Downes<br />The theory "combines relevant elements of many learning theories, social structures, and technology to create a powerful theoretical construct for learning in the digital age.“<br />Donald G. Perrin, <br />Executive Editor of the International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning<br />
  16. 16. Where does learning take place in the new era?<br />Informal learning is a significant aspect of our learning experience…Learning now occurs in a variety of ways – through communities of practice, personal networks, and through completion of work-related tasks” (para 4)<br />
  17. 17. Participants<br />
  18. 18. Task-based Collaboration<br />13 PSTs vs. 13 ISTs13 dyads<br />6 weeks<br />Two tasks: <br />Professional Interview<br />Lesson Planning Activity<br />Project website: <br />
  19. 19. Task-based Collaboration<br />13 PSTs vs. 13 ISTs13 dyads<br />6 weeks<br />Two tasks: <br />Professional Interview<br />Lesson Planning Activity<br />Project website: <br />
  20. 20. Task Design Framework<br />Brinton and Holten’s framework (1989) which investigated novice teachers’ foci in TESOL practicum: <br />student population (personal information),<br />instructional setting,<br />curriculum and methodology,<br />methods and activities, <br />techniques, <br />material, <br />role of the teacher, <br />lesson organization, <br /> awareness of self. <br />
  21. 21. Data Collection<br />Work logs <br />Correspondence records (IM and email)<br />Brief reflection<br />Entry questionnaire <br />Personal information<br />CMC experience<br />Career Choice<br />
  22. 22. Data Analysis<br />Case study<br />Ground theory<br />Data drivenapproach<br />Thematic analysis<br />
  23. 23. Findings<br />Two themes emerged:<br />Reflective and reciprocal growth<br />Occupational validation.<br />
  24. 24. Findings<br />Two themes emerged:<br />Reflective and reciprocal growth<br />Occupational validation.<br />
  25. 25. Theme 1: Reflective and Reciprocal Growth<br />PSTs verified their assumptions of teaching with ISTs:<br />E.g., Tracy’s fear of “unmanageable” children. <br />IST 1: “i keep quiet and they would know i m angry… but kids now are clever, they would [get] loud again after few times, then I would talk to their homeroom teacher. ”<br />IST 2: giving a quick review or quiz<br />IST 3: small talks related to young students’ favorite topics<br />IST 4: making a to-do list for the day<br />
  26. 26. Words of Wisdom<br />These techniques might be available in some teacher’s manuals; but when they were from real people who had personally practiced and guaranteed the feasibility in a real classroom, they are invaluable and meaningful. <br />
  27. 27. Work Ethics<br />Fall-out <br />IST felt that Sophie’s (PST) ideas were far from well-rounded and realistic: “Have they [PSTs] learned to plan a lesson!”<br />PST didn’t know what IST wanted. <br />In fact, Sophie stood up her IST partner on IM appointments. <br />A timely lesson was given about work ethics. <br />
  28. 28. Creativity<br />Weather<br />TPR<br />Rhyme<br />
  29. 29. Inspiration<br />IST reflected: “…I never wanted to waste my time to design various activities. However, Tina’s fresh ideas and creative design arouse my interest in altering my teaching habits and method as well as help me hit upon many new ideas about designing more effective, attractive, and appropriate activities to assist learners…than before.” They inspired each other.<br />
  30. 30. CMC’s Pedagogical Capacity:From Doubtful to Confirmative <br />8 PSTs and 9 ISTs acknowledged the merits of telecommunication. <br />Some were aware of possible misunderstandings during online interactions. <br />Phoebe (IST): “I don’t whether or not I am willing to share more on the online chat, especially when I don’t know and don’t see my partner….”<br />At the end of the project, she acknowledged the unique capacity and the potential of the medium: “This is a wonderful experience, and I think this can be used in my students’ language learning. Of course, it might still have some technical problems…CMC [computer-mediated communication] will become popular in the teaching environment.”<br />
  31. 31. CMC Has Personal Meaning<br />To Millie (IST), she paid attention to her own language accuracy during IM: “…in IM, we type what we think as soon as possible so that the transcript can almost show what is wrong in our spoken language [English]….it [IM] is a good way to examine my English speaking and writing abilities”.<br />Interaction and textual display can raise learners’ linguistic awareness (Chen & Chen, 2009; Shekary & Tahririan, 2006).<br />
  32. 32. NES—NES Interaction<br />Literature shows that NESs tend to be more critical to each other due to the anticipation. <br />Literature also shows that NESs linguistically learn from each other. <br />The participants complained about typing speed but not language proficiency.<br />
  33. 33. Occupational Validation<br />Is teaching your calling and a good career choice?<br />50% were negative or uncertain. <br />
  34. 34. “Bu-Shi-Ban” vs. Public School<br /> A PST Lucy asked her IST partner about her decision to enter a teacher’s certificate program: <br />Lucy (PST): Do you think it is worth making efforts to be [a] formal [certified] English teacher?” <br />IST partner: teaching in cram school is more [money]. I taught in cram school for 3 years.<br />…<br />IST: in cram school, it is easy for teacher. Not so many students and their English level is the same. You could do any activities you want. But in elementary school … too many students. Some have learned English for many years, but some have never learned English before.<br />
  35. 35. ISTs offered suggestions or diverse insights based on their personal experiences. When PSTs gathered in class meetings, they exchanged their findings from their IST partners and discussed with the instructor and their peers. The knowledge co-construction and regeneration are desirable for cultivating autonomous learners. This echoed with Connectivism. <br />Blended Learning<br />
  36. 36. Burn-out<br />IST Jamie: “It was [my calling and a good career choice] before, but it isn’t now”. <br />Dolly (IST) : “Before I felt happy and energetic [everyday morning], but now I feel tired and unwilling to go to school [to work].”<br />
  37. 37. Mutual Empowerment<br /> Judy (IST):“After chatting with Yvonne (PST), I feel more confident of my competence as an English teacher because Yvonne expressed her approval and admiration for my teaching philosophy.”<br />As PSTs were not self assured due to inadequate knowledge of the field, ISTs were presented an opportunity to re-acknowledge their social value as a knowledge source to their PST partners. In the meantime, ISTs made new, young friends and re-kindled their passion as well as creativity in teaching. <br />
  38. 38. Conclusions and Implications<br />The need of a collaborative mechanism between PSTs and ISTs outside of student teaching contexts.<br />A motivational teaching program for English teachers in an EFL region (Kubanyiova, 2006).<br />More critical to the TESOL students who are outside of the “normal school” system.<br />Limitation: <br />Software + Hardware + Humanware<br />

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