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Lab #1: The Cell and Nucleus
EGG (OVUM)Heterochromatin     (dark)nucleolus                  The egg (ovum) is a haploid                  cell in female...
SPERM                          flagellum        A sperm cell (spermatozoan) is        a haploid cell in males that        ...
GOLGI APPARATUS (EPIDIDYMIS)                       The golgi apparatus is similar to                       a warehouse tha...
VILLAE                                           flagellum                                  Small microvillae             ...
LiverMITOCHONDRIA                                flagellumMitochondria are thepowerhouses of the cell andproduce ATP. Here...
MAMMALIAN BLOOD                  Mammalian blood has three cellular                  components:                  erythroc...
STRIATED MUSCLE CELLS                        Striated / Skeletal Muscle is made                        of giant mutinuclea...
MELANIN PIGMENTS                   Structures at base                    with brown tint                        Melanin pi...
ZYMOGEN GRANULES (PANCREAS)               Nucleus                         Zymogen granules are precursors                 ...
NERVE CELLS              Nerve cells have specialized              organelles, axons and dendrites, to              transm...
DENDRITES                    Axon                    Hillock        Dendrites                    Axon                     ...
AXON       Axon         The axon conducts electrical         impulses away from the         perikaryon toward the synapse....
AVIAN BLOOD              Mature red blood cells in avian              blood contain nuclei, unlike              mammalian ...
EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX in: Loose (Areolar) Connective Tissue                                         Extracellular matrix is...
WHITE ADIPOSE TISSUE                                         Plasma Membrane                       Nucleus                ...
MICROTUBULES               Microtubules form the mitotic               spindle during cell division.               They ar...
METAPHASE CHROMOSOMES                    At metaphase, chromosomes                    are lined up at the center of the   ...
ANAPHASE CHROMOSOMES                   At anaphase, homologous pairs                   separate and chromosomes move      ...
Lab #2: Epithelium and Glands
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUMKidney glomerulus w/lining ofsimple squamous.                                Simple squamous epi...
MACERATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM                Macerated columnar epithelium                has simply been separated from  ...
KERATINIZED STRATIFIED SQUAMOUSEPITHELIUM                  Keratinized stratified squamous                  epithelium has...
PSUEDOSTRATIFIED CILIATEDCOLUMNAR EPITHELIUM                        Goblet Cell                   Pseudostratified ciliate...
COMPOUND ACINAR GLAND                  Compound acinar glands look like                  bunches of grapes. The secretory ...
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUMSimple cuboidal epithelium is a singlelayer of cube-shaped cells with veryround nuclei. The spec...
SIMPLE TUBULAR GLAND                                                     Large IntestineUterine GlandSimple tubular glands...
BASEMENT MEMBRANE OF SIMPLECOLUMNAR EPITHELIUM                     The basement membrane is a thin                     she...
GOBLET CELL                                             Conjunctiva                                             (Eye)     ...
LUMEN        A lumen is the clear space in a        tubular organ/gland/structure.30
LUMENS FOUND IN BONE         Two different kinds of lumens are found in bone. Haversian canals         run up the center o...
VILLI OF INTESTINE SHOWING SIMPLE COLUMNAREPITHELIUM WITH GOBLET CELLS  32
TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUMAlso known as “urothelium,”transitional epithelium hasumbrella-shaped epithelial cellsthat can expa...
ENDOTHELIUM OF ARTERY / Endothelial Cells              The endothelium is a single layer of squamous epithelium that      ...
SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM            Simple columnar epithelium has one layer of tall            rectangular cells. It is...
Lab #3: Connective Tissue
LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE (areolar tissue)                                                        Elastic Fibers      Collag...
DENSE IRREGULAR CONNECTIVETISSUE (DERMIS)                                                                           Perich...
DENSE REGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUETunica Albuginea                                                        Muscle-Tendon Junct...
VEINS             Dense Irregular             Connective TissueLarge Vein                                 Veins carry bloo...
MESENCHYMAL CELLS Ground Substance   Reticular Fibers           Mesenchymal Cells                          Mesenchyme is a...
MESENCHYMAL CELLS (Developing Bone)  Ground Substance                         Mesenchymal Cells                      Retic...
ERYTHROCYTE                Erythrocytes, or “red blood cells” are created by hemopoietic stem cells in                the ...
RETICULOCYTESReticulocytes are a stage of RBC formation right after the nucleus has beenejected but before all the polyrib...
PLATELET           Platelets are small fragments of cells produced by           megakaryocytes that extend long projection...
LYMPHOCYTE                                                            Natural Killer Cell             Lymphocytes are whit...
MONOCYTE           Monocytes circulate in the blood and in response to           inflammation, will move into tissues and ...
NEUTROPHILS          Neutrophils are the most common leukocyte in blood. They          help protect the body against bacte...
EOSINOPHIL             Eosinophils have basic granules (i.e. major basic protein) that             stain with acid dyes. T...
BASOPHILSBasophils are the least common of the granulocytes. Theycontain dark-staining acid granules. They are very simila...
MAST CELLS             Mast cells, similar to basophils, contain granules of histamine             (vasodilation) and hepa...
BONE MARROW        Bone marrow is where blood cells are formed. It contains        hemopoietic cells (red bone marrow) as ...
ADIPOSE TISSUE                 White adipose tissue is also                 called unilocular due to its                 s...
COLLAGEN FIBERS (Silver Stain, Decalcified Bone)                 Collagen fibers are produced by fibroblasts. They are    ...
ELASTIC FIBERS            Elastic fibers appear in both the ECM of connective tissue            (produced by fibroblasts) ...
ELASTIC FIBERS OF ARTERY             Elastic fibers appear in both the ECM of connective tissue             (produced by f...
RETICULAR FIBERS            Reticular fibers are produced by reticular cells (similar to            fibroblasts) and are m...
RETICULAR FIBERS (SPLEEN)                     Reticular fibers form the                     framework of the spleen and   ...
RETICULAR FIBERS (LIVER)                           These reticular                           fibers form the              ...
Lab #4: Adipose & Cartilage
FETAL HYALINE CARTILAGE Hyaline cartilage is blue-white in color with lots of collagen. The tissue is avascular but has a ...
RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM & CARTILAGE
CHONDROCYTESChondrocytes are the cells of cartilage. They produce the collagen and ground substance of thematrix and also ...
CHONDROCYTE                                    nucleus of chondrocyte  cartilage capsule                                  ...
EPITHELIUM (Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar)                             Respiratory epithelium is found lining        ...
ChondrocytesHyaline cartilage        Fibrocartilage                    CHONDROCYTES, ISOGENOUS                            ...
Elastic CartilageELASTIC CARTILAGE      Elastic cartilage appears in the outer      ear, larynx, and epiglottis. It is sim...
Elastic fibers           stain dark           blue/purple with           Verhoeff stain.ELASTIC FIBERS      Elastic Fibers
Fibrous Cartilage                    FIBROUS CARTILAGE                          Fibrous cartilage is found
Collagenous Fibers               COLLAGENOUS FIBERS
Fibrocartilage – Rows of Chondrocytes                    FIBROCARTILAGE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE       Connective Tissue
Fibroblasts              FIBROBLASTS
Lab #5: Bone
FETAL HYALINE CARTILAGEHyaline cartilage is blue-white in color with lots of collagen. The tissue is avascular but has asu...
OUTER CIRCUMFERENTIAL LAMELLAE                  Outer circumferential lamellae are thin                  sheets of lamella...
OSTEON         Haversian canal          Osteons are cylindrical structures that are          the functional units of compa...
OSTEOBLASTS              Osteoblasts are responsible for the formation of              bone. Once they become surrounded b...
OSTEOBLASTS              Osteoblasts are responsible for the formation of              bone. Once they become surrounded b...
PERIOSTEUM
LACUNAE
CANALCULI
MATURE HYALINE CARTILAGE                     Interterritorial matrix
PERICHONDRIUM
LAMELLAE
CEMENT LINE
DECALCIFIED BONE What is the tissue type based on the preparation?
DECALCIFIED BONE What is the tissue type based on the preparation?
GROUND BONE                   What is the tissue type based on the preparation?(2) To study the lamellar and canalicular p...
GROUND BONE      What is the tissue type based on the preparation?
GROUND BONE      What is the tissue type based on the preparation?
DENSE REGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE     What is the tissue type based on the arrangement of cells and     fibers?
INTERTERRITORIAL MATRIX /INTERSTITIAL LAMELLAE                      Interstitial lamellae are remnants of                 ...
Lab #6: Nervous Tissue
MOTOR NEURON                                             “Motor neuron” refers to                                         ...
NISSL BODIES                                                          Most of the neuron’s organelles                     ...
NUCLEOLUS                                                 The nucleolus contains densely                                  ...
AXON HILLOCK                                                    The axon hillock is a pyramid-                            ...
DENDRITES                                                   Dendrites receive external stimuli                            ...
AXON                                                   The axon conducts nerve                                            ...
White is in the   Gray matter isCEREBELLUM                     interior.         on the surface.      The cerebellar      ...
GRAY MATTER                                                         Gray matter occurs at the                             ...
MOLECULAR GRAY MATTER                                              Molecular gray matter is the                           ...
MOLECULAR GRAY MATTER (silver stain) What is the name of the cell layer at the black bracket?
MOLECULAR GRAY MATTER (silver stain) What is the name of the cell layer at the tip of the arrow?
GRANULAR GRAY MATTER                                              Granular gray matter shows:                             ...
WHITE MATTER (Cerebral Medulla)                                                               White matter contains       ...
PURKINJE CELL                                                             Purkinje cells are                              ...
CEREBRAL CORTEX                                           The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer                      ...
CEREBRAL CORTEX (made of Gray Matter) What is the name for this tissue layer?
WHITE MATTER (below Cerebral Cortex) What is the name for this tissue layer based on its myelination?
PYRAMIDAL CELLS                                            Pyramidal neurons look like small triangles.                   ...
NEUROGLIAL CELLSWhat is the name for the structures at the tips of the arrows?
DENDRITESWhat is the name for the structures at the tips of the arrows?
PACINIAN CORPUSCLESWhat is the name for the circular structures at the tips of the arrows?
SKIN CORPUSCLEWhat is the name for the structure at the tip of the pointer?
SPINAL CHORD
GANGLION (Dorsal Root Ganglion)
GANGLION (Dorsal Root Ganglion)
MENINGES           The meninges is           composed of three           layers of connective           tissue that surrou...
MENINGES
CENTRAL CANAL
POSTERIOR HORN
ANTERIOR MEDIAN FISSURE
ASTROCYTES             Astrocytes are star-             shaped glial cells in the             CNS. This image comes       ...
ASTROCYTES
PERINEURIUM
PERINEURIUM
Lab #7: Muscle Tissue
NUCLEI (Small Intestine)                                                                      villi                       ...
DENSE REGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE(Tendon)             collagen fibers                                                      T...
ENDOMYSIUM                                                                  individual                                    ...
PERIMYSIUM                                                 nerve fibers                   fascicle        Perimysium is a ...
NERVE FIBERS                                                     Myelinated motor nerves branch                           ...
RETICULAR TISSUE (Immune/Lymphatic)                                                          Medullary fiber              ...
RETICULAR FIBERS (Immune/Lymphatic)                                                             Reticular fibers          ...
A BAND and H ZONE                                    PURPLE SPACES                                                    The ...
PINK SPACESI BAND                           A                       The I Band contains only actin.
one “sarcomere”Z LINE                 RED LINES                                                       The Z line bisects t...
INTERCALATED DISC                                              Cardiac muscles fuse together with gap                     ...
SMOOTH MUSCLE (of stomach)Smooth muscle                                                 Dense irregular connective tissue ...
CARDIAC MUSCLEWhat type of tissue is shown?
SKELETAL MUSCLE                                AWhat type of tissue is shown?
SMOOTH MUSCLE FIBERS                                             Smooth muscle fibers are made                            ...
CAPILLARY                                              Capillaries are extremely                                          ...
BRANCHING OF CARDIAC MUSCLE                                                        Cells within one fiber will            ...
TUNICA MEDIA (of artery)                                           The tunica media around                                ...
MUSCLE/TENDON JUNCTION                                          skeletal muscle      tendon                               ...
SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS (Cross Section)                                  In cross section, skeletal muscle                 ...
Lab #8: Circulatory System
ARTERY         Arteries carry blood away from the         heart. They often have lots of         elastic fibers with a pro...
VEIN       Veins carry blood to the heart, usually deoxygenated blood. Veins contain       valves that help prevent backfl...
CAPILLARY            Capillaries are extremely small            blood vessels, the diameter of a            single blood c...
ENDOTHELIUMEndothelium is a single layer of simple squamous epithelium. It acts as a non-thrombogenicsurface to prevent bl...
INTERNAL ELASTIC LAMINA   The internal elastic lamina is the outermost layer of the tunica intima. It makes the   vessels ...
SMOOTH MUSCLE                Smooth muscle is made of single                cells connected by gap junctions              ...
TUNICA MEDIA
TUNICA ADVENTITIA
ARTERIOLES
VENULES
Lab #9: Blood and Bone Marrow
WHOLE BLOOD              Whole mammalian blood contains              formed elements              (erythrocytes, leukocyte...
BLOOD (FISH)               Unlike mammalian blood, fish               erythrocytes contain nuclei.
BLOOD (FROG)               Unlike mammalian blood, frog               erythrocytes contain nuclei.
BLOOD (SNAKE)                Unlike mammalian blood, snake                erythrocytes contain nuclei.
BLOOD (BIRD)               Unlike mammalian blood, bird               erythrocytes contain nuclei.
ERYTHROCYTE       Erythrocytes, or “red blood cells” are created by hemopoietic stem cells in       the bone marrow and lo...
NEUTROPHILS              Neutrophils are the most common leukocyte in blood. They              help protect the body again...
EOSINOPHIL             Eosinophils have basic granules (i.e. major basic protein) that             stain with acid dyes. T...
BASOPHIL       Basophils are the least common of the granulocytes. They contain dark-       staining acid granules. They a...
MONOCYTES            Monocytes circulate in the blood and in response to            inflammation, will move into tissues a...
LYMPHOCYTES
ADIPOCYTES
ERYTHROBLAST
MEGAKARYOCYTE
MYELOCYTE
NEUTROPHILIC METAMYELOCYTE
Lab #9: Lymphatic System
LYMPHOCYTES          Lymphocytes are white blood cells important in the immune          system system. The three types are...
PEYER’S PATCHESPeyer’s patches, aka “aggregated lymphoid nodules,” are small groups of lymph follicles located inthe ileum...
LYMPH NODE             Lymph nodes are small round/oval organs in the immune             system. They act as filters/traps...
LYMPH NODE
COREX (LN)             The cortex is the outermost region of the             lymph node. It is directly underneath the    ...
GERMINAL CENTERS                   Germinal centers are areas of                   proliferating B lymphocytes within     ...
PARACORTEX (LN)            The paracortex is the part of the lymph node between the            cortex and medulla. It has ...
MEDULLA (LN)               The medulla is at the center of the               lymph node. It is composed of (1)            ...
MEDULLARY SINUSES (LN)                           Direction of Lymph Flow                         Medullary sinuses are ves...
MEDULLARY CORDS (LN)                       Medullary cords are the parts of                       the medulla that contain...
RETICULAR FIBERS (LN)                        Reticular fibers form a supporting                        “reticular network”...
Lab #11: Digestive System
Mucous Secretory CellsSALIVARY GLAND     Serous Secretory Cells                 Duct                                   Sal...
ESOPHAGUS            The esophagus is a muscular tube            that moves food from the pharynx            to the stomac...
STOMACH                                   The stomach releases mucous,                                   proteases (to dig...
PARIETAL CELLS                 Parietal cells are larger than chief                 cells, with more rounded central      ...
CHIEF CELLS              Chief cells have nuclei closer to the              periphery and produce pepsinogen,             ...
GASTRIC PIT                                Gastric pits are indentations in the                                stomach tha...
Connective Tissue                              Muscularis Mucosa (Smooth Muscle)SMALL INTESTINE                           ...
DUODENUM   Bruner’s Glands                             The duodenum is the first section                             of th...
VILLI        Intestinal villi are fingerlike projections that increase the        surface area for absorption of materials...
MUCOSA         The mucosa is made up of:         (1) An epithial lining         (2) Lamina propria of loose             co...
SUBMUCOSA            The submucosa has denser            connective tissue with blood and            lymph vessels, as wel...
The muscularis has smooth muscle             cells divided into two layers. TheMUSCULARIS   first layer closer to the lume...
SEROSA         The serosa is a thin         layer of connective         tissue with a simple         squamous epithelium  ...
LYMPHATIC NODULELymphatic nodules are smallergroups of lymphoid tissue locatedin the digestive and respiratorysystems and ...
CAPILLARY            Capillaries are extremely small            blood vessels, about the            diameter for only one ...
LARGE INTESTINE                  The large intestine the third-to-last                  part of the digestive system. Its ...
LIVER        The liver is important in        detoxification, glycogen storage, plasma        protein synthesis, hormone  ...
CENTRAL VEIN               The liver is made up of polygonal               lobules, and each lobule is centered on a      ...
CENTRAL VEIN
PANCREAS           The pancreas is both a digestive organ and endocrine           gland. It secretes hormones like insulin...
PANCREATIC ISLET                   Pancreatic islets, aka “Islets of                   Langerhans” contain the hormone-   ...
Lab #12: Reproductive Systems
TESTIS         The testis are the male gonads, and their         primary function is to produce sperm         and androgen...
EPIDIDYMIS             The epididymis is a narrow, tightly-             coiled tube that connects the testis             t...
SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES                       Seminiferous tubules are located in                       the testis. Meiosis o...
TUNICA ALBUGINEA                   The tunica albuginea is a layer of                   dense regular connective tissue th...
SPERMTestis   Epididymis                      Sperm are male reproductive cells. They                      combine with ha...
Sertoli cells are “nurse” cells in the testes.                They are a permanent population andSERTOLI CELLS   nourish t...
SPERMATOGONIA   Spermatogonia                         Spermatogonia are stem cells                         located near th...
PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTES                    Primary Spermatocytes                    Primary spermatocytes are in the cell   ...
SPERMATIDS        Early Spermatids                                     Late Spermatids   Sertoli Cell    Nucleus          ...
ARTERIES           Arteries carry blood away from the           heart. They often have lots of           elastic fibers wi...
VEIN       Veins carry blood       to the heart, usually       deoxygenated       blood. Veins       contain valves that  ...
OVARY        The ovaries produce ovum in        females, and they are both gonads        and endocrine glands.
PRIMARY OOCYTE                 Primary oocytes are cells arrested                 meiosis. Oogonia will begin to enter    ...
OVARIAN STROMA       Ovarian Stroma                               Ovarian stroma is the surrounding                       ...
ZONA PELLUCIDA                 The zona pellucida is a layer of four secreted                 glycoproteins that lies betw...
GRANULOSA CELLS                  Granulosa cells are cuboidal cells arranged in a                  stratified epithelium s...
Follicular AntrumANTRUM                             The antrum is filled with a fluid                             called l...
CORPUS LUTEUM         After ovulation occurs, the follicle develops into a corpus luteum. Inside         are granulosa cel...
CORPUS ALBICANS                  A corpus albicans develops from                  the follicle if the oocyte is not       ...
GERMINAL EPITHELIUM                      Germinal epithelium is a single                      layer of cuboidal cells that...
CUMULUS OOPHORUS                   The cumulus oophorus is a group                   of cells that forms a small pedestal ...
GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE                    A graafian follicle is a mature                    follicle where the egg has reached...
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Electronic Notebook -- Stacie

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Electronic Notebook -- Stacie

  1. 1. Lab #1: The Cell and Nucleus
  2. 2. EGG (OVUM)Heterochromatin (dark)nucleolus The egg (ovum) is a haploid cell in females that combines with sperm to form the zygote.
  3. 3. SPERM flagellum A sperm cell (spermatozoan) is a haploid cell in males that combines with egg to form the zygote. It has an organelle called a flagellum with a core axoneme of microtubules that is used for movement.
  4. 4. GOLGI APPARATUS (EPIDIDYMIS) The golgi apparatus is similar to a warehouse that packages proteins for intracellular use in organelles or for secretion.
  5. 5. VILLAE flagellum Small microvillae at the surfacesVillae and smaller microvillaeare found in the intestines.They increase surface area forbetter absorption of nutrients.
  6. 6. LiverMITOCHONDRIA flagellumMitochondria are thepowerhouses of the cell andproduce ATP. Here they areseen in the liver, along withmasses of pigment granules.
  7. 7. MAMMALIAN BLOOD Mammalian blood has three cellular components: erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. Erythrocytes have no nuclei, unlike reptilian blood.
  8. 8. STRIATED MUSCLE CELLS Striated / Skeletal Muscle is made of giant mutinucleated cells that come from multiple myoblasts fusing together. It contains orderly, repeating contractile units of myosin and actin called sarcomeres.
  9. 9. MELANIN PIGMENTS Structures at base with brown tint Melanin pigments are produced by melanocytes in the epidermis. They protect chromosomes in the metabolically active basal cells against UV damage.
  10. 10. ZYMOGEN GRANULES (PANCREAS) Nucleus Zymogen granules are precursors of pancreatic enzymes. They appear at the apical ends of acinar gland cells, with nuclei at the base.
  11. 11. NERVE CELLS Nerve cells have specialized organelles, axons and dendrites, to transmit electrical impulses for cell- to-cell communication.
  12. 12. DENDRITES Axon Hillock Dendrites Axon Nucleus Nucleolus Perikaryon w/Nissl bodies Dendrites receive signals from other cells and convey them to Glial Cells the perikaryon. On their surfaces are small dendritic spines that are important in neural plasticity.
  13. 13. AXON Axon The axon conducts electrical impulses away from the perikaryon toward the synapse. Axons are often sheathed in myelin as a way of insulating and speeding up the signal.
  14. 14. AVIAN BLOOD Mature red blood cells in avian blood contain nuclei, unlike mammalian erythrocytes which have no nuclei.
  15. 15. EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX in: Loose (Areolar) Connective Tissue Extracellular matrix is composed of (1) fibers and (2) ground substance, including glycoproteins, proteoglycans, & glycosaminoglycans.
  16. 16. WHITE ADIPOSE TISSUE Plasma Membrane Nucleus White adipose tissue is also called unilocular due to its single large drop of stored lipid. Nuclei appear at the periphery of cells.
  17. 17. MICROTUBULES Microtubules form the mitotic spindle during cell division. They are also found in cilia and flagella.
  18. 18. METAPHASE CHROMOSOMES At metaphase, chromosomes are lined up at the center of the mitotic spindle. Homologous pairs are still connected at the centromere.18
  19. 19. ANAPHASE CHROMOSOMES At anaphase, homologous pairs separate and chromosomes move toward opposite poles aided by kinetochore microtubules.19
  20. 20. Lab #2: Epithelium and Glands
  21. 21. SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUMKidney glomerulus w/lining ofsimple squamous. Simple squamous epithelium is a single layer of flattened cells. It isLung alveoli with simple usually very permeable and allowssquamous lining. molecules to pass through quickly.
  22. 22. MACERATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM Macerated columnar epithelium has simply been separated from the epithelium to show individual cells.
  23. 23. KERATINIZED STRATIFIED SQUAMOUSEPITHELIUM Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium has many layers of flattened cells. The top layers lack nuclei entirely, are full of keratin, and form a waterproof barrier.
  24. 24. PSUEDOSTRATIFIED CILIATEDCOLUMNAR EPITHELIUM Goblet Cell Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium has nuclei at different levels that makes it appear like several layers of cells. However, each cell contacts the basal lamina.
  25. 25. COMPOUND ACINAR GLAND Compound acinar glands look like bunches of grapes. The secretory portion is enlarged, and when cut in cross-section, shows a rounded structure.25
  26. 26. SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUMSimple cuboidal epithelium is a singlelayer of cube-shaped cells with veryround nuclei. The specialize insecretion and absorption and arecommonly found at the surface of theovaries, lining nephrons & renaltubules, and in parts of the eye andthyroid.
  27. 27. SIMPLE TUBULAR GLAND Large IntestineUterine GlandSimple tubular glands retain their shape as a tubethroughout and do not have branching or division. 27
  28. 28. BASEMENT MEMBRANE OF SIMPLECOLUMNAR EPITHELIUM The basement membrane is a thin sheet of fibers that underlies epithelia. It is composed of both the basal lamina and underlying reticular lamina. 28
  29. 29. GOBLET CELL Conjunctiva (Eye) Goblet cells are simple glands with the Goblet cells sole function of secreting mucin, which becomes mucus when mixed with water. They are found in the epithelial lining of organs such as in the digestiveIntestinal Villi and respiratory tracts. 29
  30. 30. LUMEN A lumen is the clear space in a tubular organ/gland/structure.30
  31. 31. LUMENS FOUND IN BONE Two different kinds of lumens are found in bone. Haversian canals run up the center of osteons. Volkmann’s canals run perpendicular to Haversian canals and connect them to one another. At the center of the canal are nerves, blood vessels, and lymph vessels, to supply things like nutrients and immunological protection.31
  32. 32. VILLI OF INTESTINE SHOWING SIMPLE COLUMNAREPITHELIUM WITH GOBLET CELLS 32
  33. 33. TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUMAlso known as “urothelium,”transitional epithelium hasumbrella-shaped epithelial cellsthat can expand and contract. 33
  34. 34. ENDOTHELIUM OF ARTERY / Endothelial Cells The endothelium is a single layer of squamous epithelium that lines the interior of blood and lymphatic vessels. It forms a selective barrier for passage of materials in capillaries. It also secretes nitric oxide causing vasodilation.34
  35. 35. SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM Simple columnar epithelium has one layer of tall rectangular cells. It is commonly found the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and uterus.
  36. 36. Lab #3: Connective Tissue
  37. 37. LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE (areolar tissue) Elastic Fibers Collagen Fibers Fibroblasts Loose connective tissue is composed of fibroblast cells that produce an extracellular matrix with ground substance, as well as collagen and elastic fibers. It appears in serous membranes of the digestive tract, as well as in the skin and mucous membranes.37
  38. 38. DENSE IRREGULAR CONNECTIVETISSUE (DERMIS) PerichondriumDense irregular connective tissue has tightly-packed fibers that arenot organized in parallel bundles like dense regular. It is found in thedermis, submucosa of the GI tract, periosteum, and perichondrium. 38
  39. 39. DENSE REGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUETunica Albuginea Muscle-Tendon Junction(Testis) Fibroblast Skeletal MuscleDense regular connective tissue has tightly-packed fibers that are aligned in orderly, parallelbundles. It is commonly found in tendons (regularly arranged collagen fibers) and ligaments. Notethat in the tendon nuclei of fibroblasts can be seen throughout, whereas in muscle the nuclei ofthe multinucleated fibers appear towards the periphery.39
  40. 40. VEINS Dense Irregular Connective TissueLarge Vein Veins carry blood toward the heart, with most carrying deoxygenated blood. Compared to arteries, veins have less muscle and also contain valves. The have the same three layers as arteries: tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia, but the layers are usually thinner.40
  41. 41. MESENCHYMAL CELLS Ground Substance Reticular Fibers Mesenchymal Cells Mesenchyme is an embryonic connective tissue derived from mesoderm and contains ground substance, reticular fibrils, and unspecialized cells that can develop into connective tissue, bone, cartilage, the lymphatic system, and the circulatory system.
  42. 42. MESENCHYMAL CELLS (Developing Bone) Ground Substance Mesenchymal Cells Reticular Fibers This mesenchyme is visible in developing bone (lighter pink). Appearing also, in dark pink areas, are the trabeculae of woven bone, with rounded osteocytes inside, and osteoblasts lining the edges.
  43. 43. ERYTHROCYTE Erythrocytes, or “red blood cells” are created by hemopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and loose their nuclei before entering the blood stream. What is the namehave no organellesat the tipabundant hemoglobin which is an They of the cell but contain of the red pointer? allosteric protein that can bind oxygen and carbon dioxide.43
  44. 44. RETICULOCYTESReticulocytes are a stage of RBC formation right after the nucleus has beenejected but before all the polyribosomes have disappeared. These can beseen sometimes in circulating blood with a special dye that shows ribosomalRNA.
  45. 45. PLATELET Platelets are small fragments of cells produced by megakaryocytes that extend long projections from the bone marrow into the blood stream. They contain growth factors and are also involved in the formation of clots.
  46. 46. LYMPHOCYTE Natural Killer Cell Lymphocytes are white blood cells important in the immune system system. The three types are the smaller B and T lymphocytes and large, granular natural killer cells. B and T can only be differentiated by immunocytochemical methods.46
  47. 47. MONOCYTE Monocytes circulate in the blood and in response to inflammation, will move into tissues and differentiate into macrophages, dendritic cells, and other cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system.
  48. 48. NEUTROPHILS Neutrophils are the most common leukocyte in blood. They help protect the body against bacterial pathogens as part of the innate immune system. They are granulocytes, but their granules stain a neutral pink. Nucleus is polymorphonuclear, divided into 3-5 lobes.48
  49. 49. EOSINOPHIL Eosinophils have basic granules (i.e. major basic protein) that stain with acid dyes. They are part of the innate immune response and protect against helminth worms and parasites. They are also mediators of immune reactions.
  50. 50. BASOPHILSBasophils are the least common of the granulocytes. Theycontain dark-staining acid granules. They are very similar to mastcells and can secrete histamine (vasodilator) and heparin(anticoagulant) in response to antigens that they recognizethrough IgE surface receptors.50
  51. 51. MAST CELLS Mast cells, similar to basophils, contain granules of histamine (vasodilation) and heparin (anticoagulant), and are active in allergic actions as well as wound healing. Mast cells release granules in response to direct injury, cross-linking of IgE receptors, or activated complement proteins.
  52. 52. BONE MARROW Bone marrow is where blood cells are formed. It contains hemopoietic cells (red bone marrow) as well as adipocytes (yellow bone marrow). As people mature, most bone marrow becomes yellow, but if large amounts of blood are lost, yellow bone marrow can turn back into red bone marrow.52
  53. 53. ADIPOSE TISSUE White adipose tissue is also called unilocular due to its single large drop of stored lipid. Nuclei appear at the periphery of cells.53
  54. 54. COLLAGEN FIBERS (Silver Stain, Decalcified Bone) Collagen fibers are produced by fibroblasts. They are made of a triple helix of two identical chains (α1) and one slightly different (α2). Collagen is the most abundant protein in mammals.54
  55. 55. ELASTIC FIBERS Elastic fibers appear in both the ECM of connective tissue (produced by fibroblasts) and in the elastic lamina of arteries. When arties have large amounts of elastin in the tunica media, they are called elastic arteries. Here the elastin helps maintain a constant pressure despite the pulsing of blood from the heart.55
  56. 56. ELASTIC FIBERS OF ARTERY Elastic fibers appear in both the ECM of connective tissue (produced by fibroblasts) and in the elastic lamina of arteries. When arties have large amounts of elastin in the tunica media, they are called elastic arteries. Here the elastin helps maintain a constant pressure despite the pulsing of blood from the heart.56
  57. 57. RETICULAR FIBERS Reticular fibers are produced by reticular cells (similar to fibroblasts) and are made of collagen type III. They crosslink to form a mesh network that can support the cells of organs like in liver, bone marrow, and the lymphatic system.
  58. 58. RETICULAR FIBERS (SPLEEN) Reticular fibers form the framework of the spleen and support spleen cells.
  59. 59. RETICULAR FIBERS (LIVER) These reticular fibers form the framework of the liver and support the hepatocytes.
  60. 60. Lab #4: Adipose & Cartilage
  61. 61. FETAL HYALINE CARTILAGE Hyaline cartilage is blue-white in color with lots of collagen. The tissue is avascular but has a surrounding perichondrium (dense irregular conn. tissue) with blood vessels. All the bones of the fetus are originally made of cartilage and gradually turned into bone through endochondral ossification.
  62. 62. RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM & CARTILAGE
  63. 63. CHONDROCYTESChondrocytes are the cells of cartilage. They produce the collagen and ground substance of thematrix and also maintain it. Chondroblasts are found at the periphery of cartilage, andchondrocytes are found in the center surrounded by matrix.
  64. 64. CHONDROCYTE nucleus of chondrocyte cartilage capsule territorial matrix lacunaeinterterritorial matrix
  65. 65. EPITHELIUM (Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar) Respiratory epithelium is found lining the upper airways, where it moisturizes and protects. Below it are layers including the submucous layer, the fibrous membrane, hyaline cartilage, and fibrous membrane.
  66. 66. ChondrocytesHyaline cartilage Fibrocartilage CHONDROCYTES, ISOGENOUS GROUPS Isogenous GroupsElastic cartilage
  67. 67. Elastic CartilageELASTIC CARTILAGE Elastic cartilage appears in the outer ear, larynx, and epiglottis. It is similar to cartilage but also has many yellow elastic fibers in the matrix. The elastin makes the tissues very flexible.
  68. 68. Elastic fibers stain dark blue/purple with Verhoeff stain.ELASTIC FIBERS Elastic Fibers
  69. 69. Fibrous Cartilage FIBROUS CARTILAGE Fibrous cartilage is found
  70. 70. Collagenous Fibers COLLAGENOUS FIBERS
  71. 71. Fibrocartilage – Rows of Chondrocytes FIBROCARTILAGE
  72. 72. CONNECTIVE TISSUE Connective Tissue
  73. 73. Fibroblasts FIBROBLASTS
  74. 74. Lab #5: Bone
  75. 75. FETAL HYALINE CARTILAGEHyaline cartilage is blue-white in color with lots of collagen. The tissue is avascular but has asurrounding perichondrium (dense irregular conn. tissue) with blood vessels. All the bones ofthe fetus are originally made of cartilage and gradually turned into bone through endochondralossification.
  76. 76. OUTER CIRCUMFERENTIAL LAMELLAE Outer circumferential lamellae are thin sheets of lamellar bone that wrap around the groups of osteons collectively.
  77. 77. OSTEON Haversian canal Osteons are cylindrical structures that are the functional units of compact bone. They are made of many concentric layers of bone, called lamellae, around a central canal called the Haversian canal.
  78. 78. OSTEOBLASTS Osteoblasts are responsible for the formation of bone. Once they become surrounded by bone, they turn into osteocytes. Upon simulation by growth factors, osteoblasts arise from osteoprogenitor cells in the deeper layer of periosteum and bone marrow.
  79. 79. OSTEOBLASTS Osteoblasts are responsible for the formation of bone. Once they become surrounded by bone, they turn into osteocytes. Upon simulation by growth factors, osteoblasts arise from osteoprogenitor cells in the deeper layer of periosteum and bone marrow.
  80. 80. PERIOSTEUM
  81. 81. LACUNAE
  82. 82. CANALCULI
  83. 83. MATURE HYALINE CARTILAGE Interterritorial matrix
  84. 84. PERICHONDRIUM
  85. 85. LAMELLAE
  86. 86. CEMENT LINE
  87. 87. DECALCIFIED BONE What is the tissue type based on the preparation?
  88. 88. DECALCIFIED BONE What is the tissue type based on the preparation?
  89. 89. GROUND BONE What is the tissue type based on the preparation?(2) To study the lamellar and canalicular pattern of the calcified matrix, it is necessary to grind driedbone that has not been decalcified to a thickness that permits the microscope light to betransmitted ("ground bone").
  90. 90. GROUND BONE What is the tissue type based on the preparation?
  91. 91. GROUND BONE What is the tissue type based on the preparation?
  92. 92. DENSE REGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE What is the tissue type based on the arrangement of cells and fibers?
  93. 93. INTERTERRITORIAL MATRIX /INTERSTITIAL LAMELLAE Interstitial lamellae are remnants of osteons that have been mostly destroyed.
  94. 94. Lab #6: Nervous Tissue
  95. 95. MOTOR NEURON “Motor neuron” refers to neurons that control muscle movements.What type of cell is at the black pointer?
  96. 96. NISSL BODIES Most of the neuron’s organelles and ribosomes are located in the perikaryon and form a visible granular substance called Nissl bodies. What is the granular material located inside the cell?
  97. 97. NUCLEOLUS The nucleolus contains densely concentrated rRNA which is transcribed, processed, and complexed into ribosomal subunits in that area.What is the small dark purple structure indicated by the black pointer?
  98. 98. AXON HILLOCK The axon hillock is a pyramid- shaped region right next to the perikaryon. It is somewhat clear due to the absence of organelles.What is the name of the clear area at the end of the black arrows?
  99. 99. DENDRITES Dendrites receive external stimuli and convey them to the perikaryon. One neuron can have many dendrites.What is the name of the organelle at the end of the black arrows?
  100. 100. AXON The axon conducts nerve impulses to other nerve cells or effector organs (e.g. muscle, gland). A neuron will have only ONE axon.What is the name of the organelle at the end of the black arrows?
  101. 101. White is in the Gray matter isCEREBELLUM interior. on the surface. The cerebellar CORTEX coordinates muscle activity and has three layers.
  102. 102. GRAY MATTER Gray matter occurs at the surface/cortex of the cerebellum and cerebrum. It is made of: (1) Neuronal cell bodies (2) Dendrites (3) Initial unmyelinated portions of axons (4) Astrocytes (5) Microglial cells *Syapses occur hereOf what type is the cell layer with the black bracket?
  103. 103. MOLECULAR GRAY MATTER Molecular gray matter is the layer closest to the surface of the cerebellum. Dendrites from the Purkinje cells branch profusely here, but the axons extend back toward the white matter (medullary layer)What is the name of the cell layer circled?
  104. 104. MOLECULAR GRAY MATTER (silver stain) What is the name of the cell layer at the black bracket?
  105. 105. MOLECULAR GRAY MATTER (silver stain) What is the name of the cell layer at the tip of the arrow?
  106. 106. GRANULAR GRAY MATTER Granular gray matter shows: (1) Numerous granule cells – small neurons whose axons terminate in the molecular layer. They have nuclei about the size and shape of lymphocytes (purple). (2) Glomeruli – islands of synapses within the granular layer. (3) Axons and dendritesWhat is the name of the cell layer circled?
  107. 107. WHITE MATTER (Cerebral Medulla) White matter contains primarily: (1) myelinated axons (2) microglial cells (3) myelin-producing oligodendrocytes The WHITE color comes from the myelinated axons. What is the name of the cell layer at the tip of the arrow?
  108. 108. PURKINJE CELL Purkinje cells are especially large nerve cells located between the granular and molecular layers of gray matter. The dendrites extend down into the molecular layer and have many branches. The axons go up through the granular layer to join tracts in the medulla.What is the name of the structure at the tip of the arrow?
  109. 109. CEREBRAL CORTEX The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of neural tissue in the cerebrum of the brain (purple). This image comes from a macaque brain. GRAY MATTER is present here at the cerbral cortex, and WHITE MATTER makes up other layers farther inside.What is the name of outer dark purple layer?
  110. 110. CEREBRAL CORTEX (made of Gray Matter) What is the name for this tissue layer?
  111. 111. WHITE MATTER (below Cerebral Cortex) What is the name for this tissue layer based on its myelination?
  112. 112. PYRAMIDAL CELLS Pyramidal neurons look like small triangles. They have long dendrites that extend toward the cortical surface.What is the name for the structures at the tips of the arrows?
  113. 113. NEUROGLIAL CELLSWhat is the name for the structures at the tips of the arrows?
  114. 114. DENDRITESWhat is the name for the structures at the tips of the arrows?
  115. 115. PACINIAN CORPUSCLESWhat is the name for the circular structures at the tips of the arrows?
  116. 116. SKIN CORPUSCLEWhat is the name for the structure at the tip of the pointer?
  117. 117. SPINAL CHORD
  118. 118. GANGLION (Dorsal Root Ganglion)
  119. 119. GANGLION (Dorsal Root Ganglion)
  120. 120. MENINGES The meninges is composed of three layers of connective tissue that surround the spinal cord. This slide shows only a small portion. Layers (from inside out) include: (1) Pia mater (2) Arachnoid (3) Dura mater
  121. 121. MENINGES
  122. 122. CENTRAL CANAL
  123. 123. POSTERIOR HORN
  124. 124. ANTERIOR MEDIAN FISSURE
  125. 125. ASTROCYTES Astrocytes are star- shaped glial cells in the CNS. This image comes from the gray matter of the spinal cord.
  126. 126. ASTROCYTES
  127. 127. PERINEURIUM
  128. 128. PERINEURIUM
  129. 129. Lab #7: Muscle Tissue
  130. 130. NUCLEI (Small Intestine) villi Dense irregular connective tissue smooth muscle Connective tissue nuclei are typically more oval in shape than those of fibroblasts. What is the name of the structure at the tip of the black arrows?
  131. 131. DENSE REGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE(Tendon) collagen fibers Tendons hold together parts of the musculoskeletal system. Due to richness in collagen fibers, they are white and inextensible. They also contain fibroblasts with nuclei parallel to the fibers. What type of tissue is shown based on the arrangement of cells and fibers?
  132. 132. ENDOMYSIUM individual muscle fiber Endomysium is a delicate connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers. It is made of reticular fibers and fibroblasts and also has a basal lamina. This and other surrounding connective tissues help transmit the mechanical forces generated by the contracting muscles.What is the name of the tissue at the tips of the black arrows? (small lines)
  133. 133. PERIMYSIUM nerve fibers fascicle Perimysium is a connective tissue that surrounds a single “fascicle,” or a bundle of fibers within a muscle.What is the name of the white tissue outlined in yellow? (small lines)
  134. 134. NERVE FIBERS Myelinated motor nerves branch through the perimysim. Each nerve branches into terminal twigs, which become “motor end-plates” or the neuromuscular junction.What are the structures at the tips of the arrows?
  135. 135. RETICULAR TISSUE (Immune/Lymphatic) Medullary fiber chambers – collect filtered lymph Trabeculae – form baffles which direct lymph over germinal centers Germinal center -- houses immune cells and enlarges during infection. What type of tissue is shown here based on its fibers?
  136. 136. RETICULAR FIBERS (Immune/Lymphatic) Reticular fibers provide structure and anchor Lymphocytes macrophages. (round purple) What are the black structures at the tips of the arrows?
  137. 137. A BAND and H ZONE PURPLE SPACES The A Band is darker and contains both actin and myosin. A narrow region called the H Zone is in the middle of the A band and contains only myosin. What is the name for the dark lines?
  138. 138. PINK SPACESI BAND A The I Band contains only actin.
  139. 139. one “sarcomere”Z LINE RED LINES The Z line bisects the lighter I band. Protein actin attaches to the Z line. The Z line also attaches to the sarcolemma to give stability to the muscle. One “sarcomere” is the distance from one Z line to the next. What is the name for the structure down the center of the light bands?
  140. 140. INTERCALATED DISC Cardiac muscles fuse together with gap junctions that work as “electrical synapses” to allow the cells to contract together in a wave. These areas are visible in the microscope as thin lines, called intercalated discs.What is the structure at the black pointer?
  141. 141. SMOOTH MUSCLE (of stomach)Smooth muscle Dense irregular connective tissue What type of tissue is at the black pointer?
  142. 142. CARDIAC MUSCLEWhat type of tissue is shown?
  143. 143. SKELETAL MUSCLE AWhat type of tissue is shown?
  144. 144. SMOOTH MUSCLE FIBERS Smooth muscle fibers are made of individual cells that are long but nonstriated. Each cell has only one nucleus.What type of tissue is at the black arrow?
  145. 145. CAPILLARY Capillaries are extremely small, only large enough for one red blood cell to pass at a time.What is the structure at the black pointer?
  146. 146. BRANCHING OF CARDIAC MUSCLE Cells within one fiber will connect to cells of another fiber forming a branching pattern.What is the structure called at the tip of the arrow?
  147. 147. TUNICA MEDIA (of artery) The tunica media around the artery is made of smooth muscle cells and elastic fibers. What is the structure at the arrow tip?
  148. 148. MUSCLE/TENDON JUNCTION skeletal muscle tendon Tendons attach skeletal muscles to bone allowing for contraction and movement.What type of tissue is at the black pointer to the left?
  149. 149. SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS (Cross Section) In cross section, skeletal muscle fibers show as round bundles. Cells are mutinucleated, and nuclei are pushed to the outer edges. What type of fibers are shown?
  150. 150. Lab #8: Circulatory System
  151. 151. ARTERY Arteries carry blood away from the heart. They often have lots of elastic fibers with a pronounced elastic lamina, as well as a thick layer of smooth muscle for the tunica media.
  152. 152. VEIN Veins carry blood to the heart, usually deoxygenated blood. Veins contain valves that help prevent backflow. The thickest layer is the tunica adventitia, made of connective tissue. Veins do have smooth muscle usually, but the layers are thin because veins do not have contractile function like arteries.
  153. 153. CAPILLARY Capillaries are extremely small blood vessels, the diameter of a single blood cell. They have a wall with a single thin layer of epithelial cells that allows for passage of materials. The three types are continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoid capillaries.
  154. 154. ENDOTHELIUMEndothelium is a single layer of simple squamous epithelium. It acts as a non-thrombogenicsurface to prevent blood clotting unless the endothelium is damaged/missing. Upon stimulationby acetylcholine, endothelium secretes nitric oxide, which quickly diffuses into smooth musclecells and signals smooth muscle relaxation, causing vasodilation.
  155. 155. INTERNAL ELASTIC LAMINA The internal elastic lamina is the outermost layer of the tunica intima. It makes the vessels resilient to moderate the high pressure of blood coming from the heart. In large muscular arteries, elastic lamellae will be regularly distributed between muscle layers.
  156. 156. SMOOTH MUSCLE Smooth muscle is made of single cells connected by gap junctions that help spread chemicals (calcium) or action potentials between cells. The contractions are
  157. 157. TUNICA MEDIA
  158. 158. TUNICA ADVENTITIA
  159. 159. ARTERIOLES
  160. 160. VENULES
  161. 161. Lab #9: Blood and Bone Marrow
  162. 162. WHOLE BLOOD Whole mammalian blood contains formed elements (erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets) and plasma.
  163. 163. BLOOD (FISH) Unlike mammalian blood, fish erythrocytes contain nuclei.
  164. 164. BLOOD (FROG) Unlike mammalian blood, frog erythrocytes contain nuclei.
  165. 165. BLOOD (SNAKE) Unlike mammalian blood, snake erythrocytes contain nuclei.
  166. 166. BLOOD (BIRD) Unlike mammalian blood, bird erythrocytes contain nuclei.
  167. 167. ERYTHROCYTE Erythrocytes, or “red blood cells” are created by hemopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and loose their nuclei before entering the blood stream. They have no organelles but contain abundant hemoglobin which is an allosteric protein that can bind oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  168. 168. NEUTROPHILS Neutrophils are the most common leukocyte in blood. They help protect the body against bacterial pathogens as part of the innate immune system. They are granulocytes, but their granules stain a neutral pink. Nucleus is polymorphonuclear., divided into 3-5 lobes.
  169. 169. EOSINOPHIL Eosinophils have basic granules (i.e. major basic protein) that stain with acid dyes. They are part of the innate immune response and protect against helminth worms and parasites. They are also mediators of immune reactions.
  170. 170. BASOPHIL Basophils are the least common of the granulocytes. They contain dark- staining acid granules. They are very similar to mast cells and can secrete histamine (vasodilator) and heparin (anticoagulant) in response to certain antigens that they recognize through IgE surface receptors.
  171. 171. MONOCYTES Monocytes circulate in the blood and in response to inflammation, will move into tissues and differentiate into macrophages, dendritic cells, and other cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system.
  172. 172. LYMPHOCYTES
  173. 173. ADIPOCYTES
  174. 174. ERYTHROBLAST
  175. 175. MEGAKARYOCYTE
  176. 176. MYELOCYTE
  177. 177. NEUTROPHILIC METAMYELOCYTE
  178. 178. Lab #9: Lymphatic System
  179. 179. LYMPHOCYTES Lymphocytes are white blood cells important in the immune system system. The three types are the smaller B and T lymphocytes and large, granular natural killer cells. B and T can only be differentiated by immunocytochemical methods.
  180. 180. PEYER’S PATCHESPeyer’s patches, aka “aggregated lymphoid nodules,” are small groups of lymph follicles located inthe ileum of the small intestine. They are what differentiate the ileum from the jejunum andduodenum. Their epithelium has specialized M cells (microfold cells) that sample antigens fromthe lumen and take them to the base. B cells, macrophages, or other cells may respond to theantigens by stimulating an immune response.
  181. 181. LYMPH NODE Lymph nodes are small round/oval organs in the immune system. They act as filters/traps for foreign particles and are packed with lymphocytes. They are common, e.g., in the stomach, armpits, head and neck, etc.
  182. 182. LYMPH NODE
  183. 183. COREX (LN) The cortex is the outermost region of the lymph node. It is directly underneath the connective tissue capsule and contains primarily B lymphocytes.
  184. 184. GERMINAL CENTERS Germinal centers are areas of proliferating B lymphocytes within a lymph node, found in the cortex.
  185. 185. PARACORTEX (LN) The paracortex is the part of the lymph node between the cortex and medulla. It has a mix of both mature and immature T cells, and lymphocytes will enter the lymph nodes through special endothelial venules here in the paracortex.
  186. 186. MEDULLA (LN) The medulla is at the center of the lymph node. It is composed of (1) cords and (2) sinuses.
  187. 187. MEDULLARY SINUSES (LN) Direction of Lymph Flow Medullary sinuses are vessel-like spaces that allow for the flow of lymph fluid. Lymph flows in through the cortex, to the paracortex and medulla, and out at the hilum (very center) into efferent lymph vessels.
  188. 188. MEDULLARY CORDS (LN) Medullary cords are the parts of the medulla that contain most of the cells, primarily B cells and plasma cells.
  189. 189. RETICULAR FIBERS (LN) Reticular fibers form a supporting “reticular network” that allows for adhesion of dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes.
  190. 190. Lab #11: Digestive System
  191. 191. Mucous Secretory CellsSALIVARY GLAND Serous Secretory Cells Duct Salivary glands are exocrine glands with ducts that produce saliva (mucous) and amylase (serous, breaks down starch).
  192. 192. ESOPHAGUS The esophagus is a muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach. It has several layers: (1) Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (2) Submucosa (3) Muscle - The type varies depending on whether it is the early esophagus (swallowing) or later esophagus (peristalsis, smooth muscle).
  193. 193. STOMACH The stomach releases mucous, proteases (to digest protein) and hydrochloric acid (to lower the pH to kill bacteria and to provide the acid pH for enzymes to work). Tubular gastric glands
  194. 194. PARIETAL CELLS Parietal cells are larger than chief cells, with more rounded central nuclei. They secrete HCl.
  195. 195. CHIEF CELLS Chief cells have nuclei closer to the periphery and produce pepsinogen, a precursor of the proteolytic enzyme pepsin.
  196. 196. GASTRIC PIT Gastric pits are indentations in the stomach that are the openings to gastric glands. Simple Columnar Epithelium
  197. 197. Connective Tissue Muscularis Mucosa (Smooth Muscle)SMALL INTESTINE Simple Tubular Gland This is the jejunum of the small intestine. The small intestine is Villi where most chemical digestion takes place.
  198. 198. DUODENUM Bruner’s Glands The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine where most chemical digestion takes place. It can be distinguished from other parts of the intestine due to the presence of Brunner’s glands which secrete mucus.
  199. 199. VILLI Intestinal villi are fingerlike projections that increase the surface area for absorption of materials from the lumen. Many nutrients pass through via diffusion, which is only effective over short distances. On the surface of villi are even smaller microvilli which are not visible here.
  200. 200. MUCOSA The mucosa is made up of: (1) An epithial lining (2) Lamina propria of loose connective tissue rich in blood, lymph vessels, and smooth muscle (3) Muscularis mucosae that separates muscosa from submucosa
  201. 201. SUBMUCOSA The submucosa has denser connective tissue with blood and lymph vessels, as well as autonomic nerves.
  202. 202. The muscularis has smooth muscle cells divided into two layers. TheMUSCULARIS first layer closer to the lumen has a circular orientation. The second layer has fibers arranged longitudinally. Some connective tissue exists between the layers with blood, lymph vessels, and more autonomic nerves.
  203. 203. SEROSA The serosa is a thin layer of connective tissue with a simple squamous epithelium covering (mesothelium). In the abdominal cavity, it is continuous with the mesenteries (thin membranes covered by mesothelium on both sides).
  204. 204. LYMPHATIC NODULELymphatic nodules are smallergroups of lymphoid tissue locatedin the digestive and respiratorysystems and urinary bladder (wetepithelial membranes).
  205. 205. CAPILLARY Capillaries are extremely small blood vessels, about the diameter for only one blood cell to pass through. Capillaries have only a thin wall of epithelial tissue and allow for exchange of gasses, nutrients, and other particles.
  206. 206. LARGE INTESTINE The large intestine the third-to-last part of the digestive system. Its primary function is to help absorb water from waste.
  207. 207. LIVER The liver is important in detoxification, glycogen storage, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, production of bile, and more.
  208. 208. CENTRAL VEIN The liver is made up of polygonal lobules, and each lobule is centered on a central vein, which is a branch of the hepatic vein. It takes deoxygenated blood from liver sinusoids and returns it to the inferior vena cava to go to the heart.
  209. 209. CENTRAL VEIN
  210. 210. PANCREAS The pancreas is both a digestive organ and endocrine gland. It secretes hormones like insulin and glucagon to regulate blood sugar and also digestive enzymes into the duodenum to help break down chyme from the stomach.
  211. 211. PANCREATIC ISLET Pancreatic islets, aka “Islets of Langerhans” contain the hormone- producing endocrine cells.
  212. 212. Lab #12: Reproductive Systems
  213. 213. TESTIS The testis are the male gonads, and their primary function is to produce sperm and androgens, esp. testosterone.
  214. 214. EPIDIDYMIS The epididymis is a narrow, tightly- coiled tube that connects the testis to the vas deferens. Sperm are stored and mature here.
  215. 215. SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES Seminiferous tubules are located in the testis. Meiosis occurs here and results in the formation of spermatoza.
  216. 216. TUNICA ALBUGINEA The tunica albuginea is a layer of dense regular connective tissue that surrounds the testis.
  217. 217. SPERMTestis Epididymis Sperm are male reproductive cells. They combine with haploid eggs to make a diploid zygote. A spermatozoon is a motile sperm cell.
  218. 218. Sertoli cells are “nurse” cells in the testes. They are a permanent population andSERTOLI CELLS nourish the sperm as they develop. The shape of the cytoplasm is somewhat like a tree, where early cells in sperm development are a the base, and move toward the branches as they mature. They have a dark-staining nucleus with a prominent nucleolus.
  219. 219. SPERMATOGONIA Spermatogonia Spermatogonia are stem cells located near the basement membrane which undergo meiosis. Some divide to make more spermatogonia and others differentiate to eventually produce sperm.
  220. 220. PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTES Primary Spermatocytes Primary spermatocytes are in the cell layer luminal to the spermatogonia (first cells of spermatogenesis). They are somewhat larger. Cell divisions are incomplete, and the cells remain connected by thin bridges of cytoplasm.
  221. 221. SPERMATIDS Early Spermatids Late Spermatids Sertoli Cell Nucleus Spermatids are products of the second meiotic division. They are transitioning into spermatoza so are visible in early through late forms.
  222. 222. ARTERIES Arteries carry blood away from the heart. They often have lots of elastic fibers with a pronounced elastic lamina, as well as a thick layer of smooth muscle for the tunica media.
  223. 223. VEIN Veins carry blood to the heart, usually deoxygenated blood. Veins contain valves that help prevent backflow. The thickest layer is the tunica adventitia, made of connective tissue. Veins do have smooth muscle, but the layers are thin because veins do not have contractile function like arteries.
  224. 224. OVARY The ovaries produce ovum in females, and they are both gonads and endocrine glands.
  225. 225. PRIMARY OOCYTE Primary oocytes are cells arrested meiosis. Oogonia will begin to enter prophase of the first meiotic division but stop after synapsis and recombination.
  226. 226. OVARIAN STROMA Ovarian Stroma Ovarian stroma is the surrounding tissue with a rich supply of blood Tunica Albuginea vessels. Mostly it contains spindle- shaped cells with connective tissue. At the surface, the tissue is more condensed and is called the tunica albuginea.
  227. 227. ZONA PELLUCIDA The zona pellucida is a layer of four secreted glycoproteins that lies between the oocyte and granulosa cells. ZP components bind proteins on sperm and induce acrosomal activation.
  228. 228. GRANULOSA CELLS Granulosa cells are cuboidal cells arranged in a stratified epithelium surrounding the oocyte. They produce sex steroids (e.g. follicle stimulating hormone) and growth factors that aid in development of the oocyte.
  229. 229. Follicular AntrumANTRUM The antrum is filled with a fluid called liquor folliculi. Filling of the antrum causes the follicle to swell and rupture, releasing the egg.
  230. 230. CORPUS LUTEUM After ovulation occurs, the follicle develops into a corpus luteum. Inside are granulosa cells and thecal cells. They accumulate lutein a few hours after ovulation, and become lutein cells that produce progesterone and estrogens. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates and becomes a corpus albicans.
  231. 231. CORPUS ALBICANS A corpus albicans develops from the follicle if the oocyte is not fertilized. It is composed of whitish scar tissue, with collagen laid down by fibroblasts as the corpus luteum is broken down by macrophages.
  232. 232. GERMINAL EPITHELIUM Germinal epithelium is a single layer of cuboidal cells that covers the outside of the ovary.
  233. 233. CUMULUS OOPHORUS The cumulus oophorus is a group of cells that forms a small pedestal for the egg. It also surrounds the oocyte and helps coordinate folicular and egg development.
  234. 234. GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE A graafian follicle is a mature follicle where the egg has reached its full size and includes one or more fluid-filled cavities.

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