Characterization, Irony, Pardoner’s Tale, Wife of Bath, Federigo’s Falcon
Mr. Gilliand – English 4
•Characterization is the process by
which the writer creates the
personality of a character. A character’s
personality can be revealed
through direct characterization
and indirect characterization.
•Direct Characterization: The author
directly tells the audience what the
personality of a character is.
Direct Characterization: An Example
• Ed Johnson was confused as his boss
explained the new engine diagnostic
computer. The old mechanic hated
modern electronics, preferring the old
days when all he needed was a stack of
manuals and a good set of tools.
• Indirect Characterization: The author
implies the character’s personality, but
leaves it to the reader to figure out the
Indirect Characterization: STEAL
• Speech What does the character say? How does the
• Thoughts What is revealed through the character’s
private thoughts and feelings?
• Effects What is revealed through the character’s effect
on other people? How do other characters feel
or behave in reaction to the character?
• Actions What does the character do? How does the
• Looks What does the character look like? How does
the character dress?
Indirect Characterization: An Example
• “That Ed Johnson,” said Anderson, the head mechanic.
He watched the old mechanic scratch his head in
confusion as their boss explained the new engine
diagnostic computer. “He hasn’t got a clue about modern
electronics. Give him a good set of tools and a stack of
yellowing manuals with a carburetor needing repair, and
he’d be happy as a hungry frog in a fly-field.”
• What do we learn about Ed Johnson? How do we know?
• Let’s check your understanding…
•Irony is a mismatch between what we
expect and what actually happens.
There are three types of Irony.
•Verbal Irony occurs when what is said is the
opposite of what is meant; (sarcasm is a
form of verbal irony).
Verbal Irony: Examples
•This locker room smells fantastic!
•Great, another homework packet for the
•Johnny fumbled the ball and, because of
this, his team lost the game. His coach said
to him, as he entered the locker room,
“Great game, hero!”
•Situational Irony occurs when happens is
the opposite of what can be reasonably
expected to happen.
Situational Irony: Examples
•I cannot go to school today because I have a
math test to study for.
•I just heard on the news that the fire station
•My sister just updated her Facebook status;
it says, “Facebook is a complete waste of
•Dramatic Irony occurs when the audience or
the reader knows something that the
characters in a work of fiction don’t know.
• Dramatic irony is used to create tension.
Dramatic Irony: Examples
•A talented teenager wants the best of both
worlds, living a normal teenage life by day,
but hiding from her friends that she’s a
globe-trotting rock star. (The audience
knows, though; it’s hilarious!)
•A lovesick young man tragically takes his
own life when he discovers his true love is
dead; unfortunately, the audience knows
•Let’s check your understanding…
The Canterbury Tales
•A Frame Narrative
• A story (or multiple stories) within a story.
• The entire set of stories has The General
Prologue which introduces each of the
characters (like the Knight, the Squire, the
• Each tale has a prologue, like The Pardoner’s
Prologue, which introduces the storyteller.
The Pardoner’s Tale
• The Pardoner
• The Rioters
The Wife of Bath’s Tale
• The Queen
• The Knight
• The Old Hag