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Biosphere

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Biosphere

  1. 1. Test is Thursday – these notes are pretty straight forward. I will have a test review sheet for you tomorrow and will be here for a review Thursday before school. If the following notes are in italics – no need to write them.
  2. 2. Now that we have discussed nutrient cycles, energy flow, and some of the types of symbiotic relationships that occur to pass energy and nutrients along, lets discuss where this happens.
  3. 3. The Biosphere
  4. 4. The Biosphere is the thin layer around the Earth’s surface in which life exists.
  5. 5. 1. It is about 32 miles thick.
  6. 6. <ul><li>1. It is about 32 miles thick. </li></ul><ul><li>extends from the deepest place in the ocean - Marianas Trench (7 miles) – bacteria are there. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>1. It is about 32 miles thick. </li></ul><ul><li>extends from the deepest place in the ocean - Marianas Trench (7 miles) – bacteria are there. </li></ul><ul><li>to about 25 miles above the Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>with bacteria spores have been collected. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>1. It is about 32 miles thick. </li></ul><ul><li>extends from the deepest place in the ocean - Marianas Trench (7 miles) – bacteria are there. </li></ul><ul><li>to about 25 miles above the Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>with bacteria spores have been collected. </li></ul><ul><li>On a globe, the atmosphere, to scale, would </li></ul><ul><li>be about as thick as the shellac covering it. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2. The biosphere is divided into three sections.
  10. 10. <ul><li>Atmosphere - thin layer of gases above the Earth’s surface. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Atmosphere - thin layer of gases above the Earth’s surface. 1. 78% Nitrogen </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Atmosphere - thin layer of gases above the Earth’s surface. 1. 78% Nitrogen 2. 21% Oxygen </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Atmosphere - thin layer of gases above the Earth’s surface. 1. 78% Nitrogen 2. 21% Oxygen 3. 0.03% Carbon Dioxide </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Atmosphere - thin layer of gases above the Earth’s surface. 1. 78% Nitrogen 2. 21% Oxygen 3. 0.03% Carbon Dioxide 4. less than 1% other gases </li></ul>
  15. 15. … those other gases …. A. water vapor (varies with latitude and proximity to an ocean) B. O3 Ozone C. Hydrogen gas, carbon monoxide, methane, etc.
  16. 16. <ul><li>Lithosphere - Land surface of the Earth. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Lithosphere - Land surface of the Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Divided into large ecosystems called biomes </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Lithosphere - Land surface of the Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Divided into large ecosystems called biomes (i.e. desert, tundra, taiga, Temp. Decid. Forest, Tropical Rainforest, Grasslands). </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Lithosphere - Land surface of the Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Divided into large ecosystems called biomes (i.e. desert, tundra, taiga, Temp. Decid. Forest, Tropical Rainforest, Grasslands). </li></ul><ul><li>Each biome has a diversity of organisms adapted to its climatic conditions. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Hydrosphere - Water in the Biosphere </li></ul><ul><li> 1. Covers about 71% of Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>2. 97.5% of Earth’s water is marine water - </li></ul><ul><li>not potable (drinkable). </li></ul><ul><li>3. 2.5% of water is freshwater (not salt water) </li></ul>
  21. 21. The next slides are about that 2.5% that is freshwater.
  22. 22. a. About 75% of Earth’s freshwater is frozen in glaciers and at the poles (changing)
  23. 23. <ul><li>a. About 75% of Earth’s freshwater is frozen in glaciers and at the poles (changing) </li></ul><ul><li>Another 15% is so deep in the ground we can’t get to it. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>a. About 75% of Earth’s freshwater is frozen in glaciers and at the poles (changing) </li></ul><ul><li>Another 15% is so deep in the ground we can’t get to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Of the remaining 10% of the Earth’s freshwater, half is too deep in ground for us to use. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>a. About 75% of Earth’s freshwater is frozen in glaciers and at the poles (changing) </li></ul><ul><li>Of the remaining 15% of the Earth’s freshwater, half is too deep in ground for us to obtain at a reasonable cost. </li></ul><ul><li>c. The remaining 10% of freshwater represents less than 1% of all (salt and freshwater) the </li></ul><ul><li>water on Earth that is clean, accessible </li></ul><ul><li>freshwater that we can use. </li></ul>
  26. 26. When you consider that we are trapped, with all other life, in a thin film around the Earth’s surface that provides us with the water, soil, and air we need to survive, it should be of the highest priority that we take care of it to insure our health and survival.
  27. 27. When you consider that we are trapped, with all other life, in a thin film around the Earth’s surface that provides us with the water, soil, and air we need to survive, it should be of the highest priority that we take care of it to insure our health and survival. Unfortunately that hasn’t been the case. Instead a relative few of one species (Homo sapiens) has exploited the biosphere to the detriment of ourselves and all other life on Earth.
  28. 28. When you consider that we are trapped, with all other life, in a thin film around the Earth’s surface that provides us with the water, soil, and air we need to survive, it should be of the highest priority that we take care of it to insure our health and survival. Unfortunately that hasn’t been the case. Instead a relative few of one species (Homo sapiens) has exploited the biosphere to the detriment of ourselves and all other life on Earth. Recognizing and understanding the damage and how to fix it is what Environmental Science is all about.

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