2014 2015 english iv honors summer podcast notes


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Rhetoric, English IV Honors, Summer Assignment, Logos, Pathos, Ethos

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2014 2015 english iv honors summer podcast notes

  1. 1. 2014-2015 English IV Summer Podcast Mr. Gilliand Northwest High School @mrgilliand
  2. 2. Rhetoric (n) - the art of thinking, speaking, or writing effectively. Of all of the things I could teach you in your final year of high school, I think that rhetoric is, by far, the most useful as you go off to the real world (college, military, career...whatever). The ability to think, reason, write and persuade is fundamental to all of these endeavors.
  3. 3. The Gilliand Precept (or, The Golden Rule of English IV Honors) Since this is an Honors class, let me just say that I am making the assumption, up front, that you are motivated, inquisitive, and talented young people with strong work ethic and a real desire to improve yourselves in advance of graduation. If that's not you, perhaps I can interest you in a slightly less rigorous, but nonetheless awesome course, like English IV Blended. Counselors are standing by.
  4. 4. Your Job, My Job, and Our Job Rhetoric demands careful thought and planning. You can't just "wing" complex thinking and discourse. They demand work on your part. In English IV Honors, complex thinking and discourse are your job. Everything we do in English IV Honors will have a rhetorical component. Sometimes you'll be analyzing the rhetoric contained in a classic work; sometimes you'll be formulating your own thoughts and using rhetoric to defend them. In the end, it doesn't matter much if you are enthralled by Shakespeare or devoted to English Romantic Poetry.
  5. 5. Your Job, My Job, and Our Job To engage in rhetorical discourse, each of you will have to develop the habit of reading and listening closely enough to form your own opinions about the material we read. You don't have to like all of the selections, but you do need to recognize that, despite your distaste for them, they have survived the ages precisely because their merit and scholarly consensus has made them the jewels of Western Cultural Heritage. The fact that YOU don't like them doesn't diminish their merit. It simply means you haven't reached a level of intellectual achievement to appreciate them...yet. It's my job to move you closer to that appreciation.
  6. 6. Your Job, My Job, and Our Job The reading selections are, to be honest, means to an end. We use them as tools to learn about the craft and practice of rhetoric...thinking, writing and speaking effectively. You can appreciate them later.
  7. 7. Something you already know: Thesis Rhetorical thinking is a continuing process of questioning yourself about what you think and then articulating why you think that way. It's a process of repeatedly developing and defending mini-thesis statements. Everyone should, by now, be able to tell me what an academic thesis is, or at least what one ought to include. Still, if I gave a quiz on day one (hmmm, now there's an idea), asking students to define a thesis statement and to write a quick example, I suspect that many of you would not do well.
  8. 8. Something you already know: Thesis It's really very simple.A thesis is simply a statement that includes a claim that is supported by arguments.A claim is an opinion that the writer has about his or her topic.An argument is just evidence that the writer uses to justify or support his or her claim.
  9. 9. Something you already know: Thesis Arbitrarily, your English teachers have determined that three arguments are the minimum for an academic essay at NWHS, but this is not a universal law of writing. One argument might work in some circumstances; many more than three will be required in your writing as you move through your academic careers. Three is simply a good number to learn the process. Ask me why in class some day.
  10. 10. Something you already know: Thesis Here’s an example:“Albert Camus uses a unique point of view(1), bleak imagery(2), and a flat tone(3) in his novel The Stranger to express his belief that (4)human beings are motivated primarily by detached self- interest(4).” (1), (2), and (3) are the arguments the writer hasselected to provide evidence of the claim, which is labeled (4).So, it’s simple, right?
  11. 11. Something you already know: Thesis Here's the catch. Every worthy discussion we have in academia requires that you, the student, constantly formulate, articulate, revise and defend thesis after thesis. You need to ask yourself repeatedly, "What do I think of this idea, reading selection, or discussion in the context of the unit and skills we are studying," and, "Why do I feel this way?".
  12. 12. Something you already know: Thesis "I hate this," "I cant do this", and, "I don't care'" cannot enter the process as they are outside the learning process and our academic discussions. They are lazy and defeatist statements, and clearly violate The Gilliand Precept. Don't even go there. When you reliably perform this cyclic routine of questioning and supporting, then you're ready to begin rhetorical discourse.Not so simple after all, is it?
  13. 13. Aristotle, Rhetoric and Appeals Many of you have studied rhetorical techniques before (#StegmanRocks), but here's a quick review.Aristotle formulated the most accepted definition of rhetoric, calling it, "the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion." According to Aristotle, all rhetorical arguments can all be sorted into one of three types of appeals: logos, pathos, and ethos. Each of these types of appeal has a variety of techniques (called rhetorical devices) associated with it. Writers use rhetorical devices to create appeals which serve as arguments supporting their claims.
  14. 14. Aristotle, Rhetoric and Appeals Learning to recognize and use these rhetorical devices will help you become a better thinker, writer and speaker, which is, of course, our job, together. Can you see now how everything you’ve been doing to learn academic writing is really just a framework, a pattern, for making you a better thinker and speaker?
  15. 15. Logos Logos refers to a rhetorical argument built on reason, logic, and/or fact. It is the most accepted form of argument in academic writing. As you write and think for academic coursework, recall that every thesis is simply a statement consisting of a claim supported by arguments; the strongest, most accepted arguments (in academia) are logical and fact- based.
  16. 16. Logos Features of Appeals to Logos •Facts •Analogies •Definitions •Data •Statistics •Expert opinions Tangible examples
  17. 17. Logos Rhetorical Devices Associated with Logos •Syllogism: the use of deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true. All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal. •Hypophora: a figure of speech in which the speaker poses a question and then answers the question. •Apophasis: The rejection of several reasons why a thing should or should not be done and affirming a single one, considered most valid. You either made, purchased, or stole the bomb. Since you lack the intelligence to make it and the funds to purchase it, it can only be that you have stolen it.
  18. 18. Logos Rhetorical Devices Associated with Logos •Antithesis: the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas (often, although not always, in parallel structure), usually showing preference to one idea. It has been my experience that folks who have no vices have very few virtues. •Concesssion: Admitting a weaker point to make a stronger one. •Repetition: Returning repeatedly to one’s strongest argument. •Definition: Classification based on an idea’s inherent traits. •Comparison: Classification based on comparing and contrasting an idea’s traits to others, already defined. •Testimonial: The use of expert opinion to strengthen an argument. •Cause and Effect: Revealing how events lead to other events.
  19. 19. Pathos Pathos refers to a rhetorical argument built on emotion. For academic writing, special care should be used when using Pathos. It is the easiest method of rhetorical persuasion for the writer, but it is also the least reliable; it depends, almost entirely, on a certainty that the audience is already sympathetic to the author's claim. When Pathos works, it most reliably motivates the audience to action.
  20. 20. Pathos Features of Appeals to Pathos Features of Appeals to PathosLoaded languageVivid imageryAnecdotes and testimonialsStrongly defined tone (amused, sarcastic, angry, joyous, contempt, fear)
  21. 21. Pathos Rhetorical Devices Associated with Pathos •Hyperbole: Exaggeration. Hyperbole is often accomplished via comparisons, similes, and metaphors. I've told you a million times not to exaggerate. • Aposiopesis: a sentence is deliberately left unfinished, giving an impression of unwillingness or inability to continue. My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar,And I must pause till it come back to me. •Emotional Appeals: calling on anger, happiness, patriotism, fear, joy, trust, love, optimism, contempt, etc. to gain your audience’s interest and confidence.
  22. 22. Ethos Ethos refers a rhetorical argument built on the authority, character or expertise of the speaker. Ethos helps the audience judge the writer/speaker to be trustworthy, credible, and reliable.
  23. 23. Ethos Features of Appeals to Ethos Lists of qualificationsProfessionalismConcession, where appropriateSincerity
  24. 24. Ethos Rhetorical Devices Associated with Ethos •Credentials: enumerating the qualifications of the writer/speaker in relation to the topic. •Pronuntiato: The use of appropriate body language and style for the audience and purpose. •Diction: The choice of words that are appropriate to the audience and purpose. •Syntax: The construction of sentences that are appropriate to the audience and purpose.
  25. 25. Aristotle, Rhetoric and Appeals All three of Aristotle’s appeals are effective and useful, but for academic writing, we focus on Logos. You will have plenty of opportunities to use Pathos this year and Ethos will creep into everything you do, IF you make yourself a confident expert with regards to your own thesis writing and argument.
  26. 26. Works Cited Burton, Gideon. "Silva Rhetoricae: The Rhetorial Forest." . BYU Press, n.d. Web. 20 May 2014. <http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/>. "Rhetoric." . Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 17 May 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/Rhetoric>.