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# Gct sfp cp-25112015

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Some complements to my paper posted on ArXiv (1507.00460)

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### Gct sfp cp-25112015

1. 1. Dark matter + energy as Mach’s ether in LCDM cosmology Gilles Cohen-Tannoudji Laboratoire de recherche sur les sciences de la Matière (LARSIM CEA-Saclay)
2. 2. 25/11/2015 DM+DE as Mach's ether vs LambdaCDM 2 Courbure de l’espace-temps Constante cosmologique Tenseur énergie de la matière La matière dicte à l’espace-temps comment il doit se courber: l’espace temps dicte à la matière comment elle doit se mouvoir L’inconnue: le champ de métrique de l’espace-tempsL’équation d’Einstein Constante de proportionnalité: 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 R x g x R g x T x     L   2 /G c
3. 3. 1 8 2 The Friedman-Lemaître equations of motion The Einstein equation Ng G T g      L   Matter content of the universe, perfect fluid T pg p u u         2 2 2 8 3 3 4 3 3 3 Friedman-Lemaître equations (1)NGR k H R R R G p R       L        L      ; 0 3 Energy conservation, via T H p         25/11/2015 DM+DE as Mach's ether vs LambdaCDM 3
4. 4.     2 2 2 2 0 3 8 / / 1 / 1 tot tot M R V Definition of cosmological parameters c N c H G k R H k R                  0 1 M b DM tot b R DM DE In CDM k L                 25/11/2015 DM+DE as Mach's ether vs LambdaCDM 4
5. 5. 25/11/2015 DM+DE as Mach's ether vs LambdaCDM 5 Eq. (19.8) has a simple classical mechanical analog if we neglect (for the moment) the cosmological term L. By interpreting −k/R2 Newtonianly as a ‘total energy’, then we see that the evolution of the Universe is governed by a competition between the potential energy, 8πGNρ/3, and the kinetic term .  2 /R R Big bang cosmology, K. Nakamura et al. (PDG), JP G 37 0750021 (2010) Vanishing of spatial curvature = vanishing of “total energy”
6. 6. 25/11/2015 DM+DE as Mach's ether vs LambdaCDM 6   2 3 1 / GR DE Ether QFT DM Ether QFT GR Ether Vac Ether Ether Matter B R Tot Matter Ether DM DE Ether Vac Our proposal HL                                  L Dark Matter, Mach’s ether and the QCDvacuum ArXiv: 1507.00460
7. 7. 25/11/2015 DM+DE as Mach's ether vs LambdaCDM 7 Scale factorPrimeval inflation Expansion Late inflation1 A B C D E LL Linf a w 10-60 LP Past event horizon Future event horizon Big-Bang ignition Today From radiation to matter dominance Color confinement LCDM cosmological SM HEP standard model BSM physics F EW symmetry breaking G Hubble radius L=H-1
8. 8. 25/11/2015 DM+DE as Mach's ether vs LambdaCDM 8 • « D'où l'on peut voir qu'il y autant de différence entre le néant et l'espace vide, que de l'espace vide au corps matériel ; et qu'ainsi l'espace vide tient le milieu entre le matière et le néant. C'est pourquoi la maxime d'Aristote dont vous parlez, "que les non-êtres ne sont point différents", s'entend du véritable néant, et non pas de l'espace vide. » Réponse de Blaise Pascal au très révérend père Noël, recteur de la Société de Jésus, à Paris, 29 octobre 1647 Pascal, Œuvres complètes, La Pléiade, p 384, ed. 1998
9. 9. 25/11/2015 DM+DE as Mach's ether vs LambdaCDM 9 At color confinement scale (Q2 ≈ 1Gev2)       0 ( ) 8 0 DE Ether Vac QCD Eff Zero pointQCD Vac Matter DM Zero point Matter Vac Vac D D D D c N c G               L       
10. 10. 25/11/2015 DM+DE as Mach's ether vs LambdaCDM 10 Baryonic to dark matter energy density ratio and the quark-gluon parton model Scaling observed in deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the confinement scale (about 1.5 GeV2 ) leads to the parton distribution functions used as input in the standard model: • Three valence “constituent quarks” (with a mass about 1/3 of the nucleon mass) carrying about 15% of the momentum of the nucleon • “Sea” quark anti-quark pairs and gluons ( that is the QCD vacuum) carrying the remaining 85% of the momentum of the nucleon Once confined, the valence quarks give rise of the baryonic matter and the QCD vacuum gives rise to the dark matter Quod erat demonstrandum!
11. 11. 25/11/2015 DM+DE as Mach's ether vs LambdaCDM 11 The Mach-Einstein doctrine, which has come to be known as Mach’s principle, holds that the basic inertial frame is defined by distant bodies (Mach’s fixed stars in the original formulation, now to be understood as the galaxies). According to this view, all inertial effects arise as a consequence of accelerations relative to the system of distant galaxies. In particular, inertia of matter is due entirely to the mutual action of matter. It has been suggested by Einstein that such a mutual action arises from gravitational forces. Then, inertial forces on a body would reduce to gravitational forces exerted by galaxies when the body and the galaxies are in relative accelerated motion. Since, according to this point of view, the need for distinguishing between inertial and gravitational forces disappears, the weaker principle of equivalence follows from the stronger Mach-Einstein principle. Reformulation of General Relativity in Accordance with Mach’s Principle Feza Gürsey Annals of Physics 24, 211-242 (1973)
12. 12. 25/11/2015 DM+DE as Mach's ether vs LambdaCDM 12 It also appears that the function f shows up as an inertial coefficient in the equation of motion. This is directly relevant to Mach’s principle as f, not being a true scalar, will change when masses in the universe are redistributed by a coordinate transformation. Thus, the inertia of a test particle will depend on the cosmological structure. It is shown later in the paper that in virtue of our boundary conditions, the inertial mass of a particle in an otherwise empty universe vanishes. Section IV is devoted to the study of the properties of a special cosmological background uniform in space and time in agreement with the Perfect Cosmological Principle. This is known to be a de Sitter Universe. It is a special conformally flat universe with metric of the form ( 1.1) with lf, f being a definite function of the Lorentz invariant length. It is shown that, although the de Sitter universe cannot contain stable matter, it may be interpreted as being associate with a uniform distribution of mass scintillations, that is, unstable masses that give rise to a singularity in the equation determining the metric. In the case of a spatially closed de Sitter world a total mass may then be defined. The metric is expressed in terms of the radius of curvature and the total mass in that case, all the mass coming from mass scintillations.  4 ( )x
13. 13. 25/11/2015 DM+DE as Mach's ether vs LambdaCDM 13 Finally, an important problem that arises from our discussion concerns the stability and uniqueness of the cosmological structure. We have assumed the universe to have a de Sitter geometry in the first approximation. This corresponds, as we have seen, to a background of uniformly spread mass scintillations which could be interpreted as virtual pairs of massive particles in a quantum field theoretical picture. In the second approximation, taking the average contribution of uniformly distributed stable matter into account, we may regard the overall geometry of the universe as conformally flat. Repulsive forces between stable bodies are introduced at this stage. In the third approximation we also allow for the deviations of the Riemannian geometry from the conformally flat structure and thus introduce attractive gravitational forces which are superimposed on an expanding universe. This leads us to question the validity of these successive approximations to the geometry of space-time. Now, in a conformally flat universe we have found the relation (9.6) in which, according to (6.13), part of the total mass M’, namely, N comes from stable matter and another part M(0) from the mass scintillations of the de Sitter background. If our approximation is a good one, we must have (0)M N According to McVittie’s (39) discussion of recent cosmological data, if we take as M’ the stable mass in the universe (M(0)=0), then the equation (9.6) is off by a factor of about 30. This suggests that / (0) 3%N M 
14. 14. A new cosmological paradigm • A non static (“running”) Einstein’s universe, in which the “running” cosmological constant exactly compensates, at all epochs the effect of gravity • The equilibrium thus obtained would be unstable in a static universe • But in an expanding universe, such an equilibrium is perfectly admissible, because it is dynamical • Rather that “running”, the Einstein’s universe should be said “biking” 25/11/2015 DM+DE as Mach's ether vs LambdaCDM 14
15. 15. 25/11/2015 DM+DE as Mach's ether vs LambdaCDM 15