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japanese management

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japanese management

  1. 1. GOOD MORNING TO EVERY BODY HEARTLY WEL-COME ALL TO MY PRESENTATION
  2. 5. TOKYO CITY
  3. 6. CONTENTS <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>MEANING OF MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>MAIN FEATURES & TECHNIQUES OF JAPANESE MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>COMPARISON BETWEEN INDIAN MANAGEMENT AND JAPANESE MANAGEMENT. </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUSION </li></ul>
  4. 7. 1945 HIROSHIMA &NAGASAKHI BOMB BLAST PICTURE
  5. 8. MEANING OF MANAGEMENT <ul><li>LOUIS.E.BOONE AND DAVID:” The use of people and other resources to accomplish objectives.” </li></ul><ul><li>MARY PARKER:” The act of getting things done through people.” </li></ul>
  6. 9. MANAGEMENT PROCESS <ul><li>INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT </li></ul>Land Labor Capital Organizer Planning Organizing Staffing Leading Controlling Attainment Organizational goals FUNCTION OF MANAGEMET
  7. 10. SPECIAL FEATURES OF JAPANESE MANAGEMENT <ul><li>SCIENTIFIC SELECTION PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>LIFETIME EMPLOYMENT </li></ul><ul><li>SENIORITY SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>CONTINUOUS TRAINING </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIS ON GROUP WORK </li></ul><ul><li>DECISION MAKING </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLICATED PERFORMANCE EVALUATION </li></ul><ul><li>FATHER LEADERSHIP </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD BENEFITS FOR EMPLOYEES </li></ul><ul><li>SIMPLE AND FLEXIBLE ORGANIZATION </li></ul>
  8. 11. 1 ) SCIENTIFIC SELECTION PROCESS <ul><li>Few Japanese attend graduate school and graduate training in business but percentage is rare because there are only 30 top business colleges who gain admission and study in that colleges only those student have the chance to work in large company. That large company conduct competitive examination. Those student passed the examination they can gain jobs but company provide their own training. </li></ul>
  9. 12. 2) LIFE TIME EMPLOYMENT <ul><li>Lifetime employment refers to recruitment of employees immediately upon graduation generation of employment until retirement, and mandatory retirement. Though there is no formal contract, employers and employees have an unwritten mutual understanding regarding their expectation about the job. Under lifetime employment an employee spends his entire working life with a single enterprise. This helps generate a feeling of job security in the employee and a feeling of belongingness towards the enterprise. </li></ul>
  10. 13. 3) SENIORITY SYSTEM <ul><li>This concept is closely related to the concept of lifetime employment companies following this concept, provide privileges to older employees who have been with it for a long time. Promotion and wage increases are based on employees length of service in the company, not job performance. </li></ul>
  11. 14. 4)CONTINUOUS TRAINING <ul><li>The secret of the success of Japanese managers may lie in “continuous training&quot; In western organizations, employees receive training only to acquire a new skill or to move to a new position. In Japanese firms howere,every young manager has a godfather ,who is never his boss or anyone in the direct line of authority. The godfather is not part of the top management, but is highly respected by others. </li></ul>
  12. 15. 5) EMPHASIS ON GROUP WORK <ul><li>In most Japanese organizations, a task is not assigned to an individual; instead several tasks are assigned to a group, which consists of a small number of people are treated like family members. Kaisha means my or one’s company the community to which one belongs and which is an important part of one’s life. probably this is the reason why employees take great pride in their company and its success. </li></ul>
  13. 16. 6) DECISION-MAKING <ul><li>The practice of managerial decision-making in Japan is built on the concept that change and new ideas should come primarily from personnel belonging to lower levels in the hierarchy. Thus in Japan lower level employees prepare proposals for higher-level personnel. The ‘ringi system’ refers to decision-making by consensus. The word ringi consists of two parts ‘rin’ which means submitting a proposal to one’s superior and getting his approval, and ‘gi’ meaning deliberations and decisions. </li></ul>
  14. 17. 7)COMPLICATED PERFORMANCE EVALUATION <ul><li>When job description are not well defined and when tasks are performed by groups, it becomes difficult to evaluate individual job performance objectively. The evaluation of workers and managers in Japanese corporations takes a very long time up to ten years and requires the use of qualitative and quantitative information about performance. </li></ul>
  15. 18. 8)FATHER LEADERSHIP <ul><li>As a kacho ,the task of a leader is not only to supervise his people at work, but also to show fatherly concern for their subordinate’s private life. Since, promotion is based on seniority, it is not easy to move on to a kacho position. Sufficient training and experience are essential for an individual to be promoted to this position. </li></ul>
  16. 19. 9)GOOD BENEFITS FOR EMPLOYEES <ul><li>Japanese companies provide substantial benefits to their employees are provided benefits such as family housing and transportation allowances. Some companies also provide bachelor accommodation, scholarships for employees children, and low-interest housing loans. Salary enhancements become rapid after about seven years of employment with the firm. Since the seniority-based wage system assumes that the longer the experience, the more valuable the employee. </li></ul>
  17. 20. 10)SIMPLE AND FLEXIBLE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>In Japanese firms, very often people are trained to be generalists. For this reason, the organization structure in Japan is relatively simple flexible, and it possible for people to take up a new challenge or a new task by forming a new formal or informal group. Informal organization wield considerable power in formal organization </li></ul>
  18. 21. JAPANESE Vs INDIAN MANAGEMENT <ul><li>JAPANESE MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>1) PLANNING </li></ul><ul><li>1)Long term orientation </li></ul><ul><li>2)Collective decision making with consensus </li></ul><ul><li>3)Involvement of many people in preparing and making the decision </li></ul><ul><li>4)Decisions flow bottom to top </li></ul><ul><li>5) Slow decision making and fast implementation of the decision </li></ul>
  19. 22. 2)ORGANIZING <ul><li>Collective responsibility and accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguity of decision responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Informal organization structure </li></ul><ul><li>Well-known common organization culture and philosophy; competitive sprite toward other enterprises </li></ul>
  20. 23. 3) STAFFING <ul><li>Young people hired out of school; hardly any mobility of people among companies </li></ul><ul><li>Slow promotion through the ranks </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty to the company </li></ul><ul><li>Very infrequent performance evaluation for new employees </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion base on multiple criteria </li></ul>
  21. 24. 4)LEADING <ul><li>Leader acting as a social facilitator and group member. </li></ul><ul><li>Paternalistic style </li></ul><ul><li>Common values facilitating cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-up communication </li></ul>
  22. 25. 5)CONTROLLING <ul><li>Control by peers </li></ul><ul><li>Control focus on group performance </li></ul><ul><li>Saving face </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive use of quality control circles. </li></ul>
  23. 26. CONCLUSION <ul><li>The study of Japanese and Indian management, the Japanese management is gaining importance because it deals with the process of planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling is better than Indian management. </li></ul>
  24. 27. THANK YOU ONE AND ALL

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