BASIC STEPS FOR READING Sección de Inglés para Otras CarrerasDr. Gilberto Hernández Quirósghernandezq@gmail.comDr. Alberto Delgado Álvarezbetioux@gmail.com
READING• According to Wikipedia, « reading a complex cognitive process of decoding symbols for the intention of deriving meaning and/or constructing meaning. Written information is received by the retina, processed by the primary visual cortex, and interpreted in Wernicke’s area. Reading is a means of language acquisition of communication, and of sharing information and ideas. »
READING and Inclusive Education • In the reading process, we should also take into consideration blind writing and reading methods utilized by people with a visual disability through the Braille System devised in 1825 by Louis Braille, a blind Frenchman.
Wernicke’s Area• Wernickes area is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex linked since the late nineteenth century to speech (the other is Brocas area). It is involved in the understanding of written and spoken language. It is traditionally considered to consist of the posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus in the dominant cerebral hemisphere (which is the left hemisphere in about 90% of people). (view video available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R4K9ROdC02k )
STAGE 1: PRE-READING STAGE• Prediction – The reader predicts the content of the text by using: » non-linguistic context such as pictures, graphs or charts » Linguistic context: • Title, subtitles, typographical clues, genre (a newspaper article, a poem, a song, an essay • The reader /the writer • Activation of prior knowledge • Key words and cognates
COGNATES• Cognates – In a technical sense, two words that have a common origin are cognates. Most often, cognates are words in two languages that have a common etymology and thus are similar or identical. For example, the English "kiosk" and the Spanish quiosco are cognates because they both come from the Turkish kosk.
REAL COGNATES NATIONALITY NACIONALIDAD INSPIRATION INSPIRACIÓNMULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICACIÓN INTERESTING INTERESANTE ELEPHANTS ELEFANTES AUTHOR AUTOR PINE PINO LAMP LÁMPARA QUIET QUIETO NARRATIVE NARRATIVO
OTHER COGNATES IN PORTUGUES PORTUGUÉS ESPAÑOLPINGA / PINGAR BEBIDA / BEBERSUCO DE MAMÃO JUGO DE PAPAYA BRINCADEIRA JUEGO BRINCAR JUGAR CADEIRA SILLA AULAS LECCIONES PINTO PENE BUSETA VAGINA PRESUNTO JAMÓN
STAGE 2: WHILE-READINGGuessing word meanings by using context or Using the dictionary effectively Scanning and skimming for specific pieces ofcognates informationPaying attention to the grammatical functiona Predicting text content Analyzing connectors and key wordsof unknown wordsIdentifying topic sentences that contain the Using “fix-up” strategies, such as re-reading to Using visual and sensory images such asmain idea of the paragraph repair comprehension when it breaks down graphic organizers to identify the main idea of a textParaphrasing for the purpose of summarizing Distinguishing between general and specific Paraphrasing for the purpose of summarizing ideasRecognizing connecting ideas via connectors Timing readings for achieving automaticity Recognizing lexical clues (e.g. reference words)Distinguishing between fact and opinion Analyzing and being critical Making conclusions and drawing inferencesTaking notes Relying on high frequency words Relying on morphological analysis
STAGE 3: POST READING• Reflect upon what has been read by: – Answering questions – Summarizing main ideas – Drawing conclusions – Applying the information to a new or different situation – Evaluation what has been ready by giving opinions of points of view – Criticizing/supporting the writer’s purposes with more than just personal opinions
TYPOGRAPHICAL SIGNS AND PUNCTUATION• Headings and images• Fonts• Symbols and punctuation• Superscript