Divisi Konservasi Insekta
Uni Konservasi Fauna
Bogor Agriculture University
Bogor, Maret 16th 2014
An Introduction to
Gilang Sukma Putra
A lateral view showing the major features of an insect.
(Illustration by Bruce Worden)
Insects have different mouth parts for feeding
1. Cricket (chewing); 2. House fly (mopping); 3. Horse fly (piercing and sucking); 4. Mosquito
(piercing and sucking); 5. Moth (sucking); 6. Froghopper (piercing and sucking). (Illustration by
1 2 3
4 5 6
Location /Seminar Title
Where to find
Larvae are mostly aquatic and are found under stones,
buried in mud or detritus, or clinging to vegetation in
stagnant and running freshwater. A few inhabit small
water reservoirs in plants; others live in moist terrestrial
burrows in forests. Adults occur over almost any kind of
freshwater, where they mate and oviposit (lay eggs).
Wingspans range from 6.5 in (162 mm) in the Australian
dragonfly, Petalura ingentissima, to 0.8 in (20 mm) in the
Southeast Asian damselfly, Agriocnemis femina. They have
large compound eyes and chewing mouthparts. The two
posterior segments of the thorax are fused together. The
legs are well developed for seizing prey and for perching;
locomotion is almost solely by flight. The large, strong,
multiveined wings usually have an opaque pterostigma
near the wing tip. The tensegmented abdomen is long and
slender. In males unique secondary genitalia evolved on the
underside of the second and third abdominal segments,
separated from the actual genital opening near the
abdomen tip. Damselfly and several dragonfly females have
well-developed ovipositors used to insert eggs into plant
tissue; in some dragonflies the ovipositor valves are
reduced, and eggs are dropped into water. Both sexes have
caudal appendages at the tip of the abdomen, which in
males work like claspers to grasp the female during mating.
Larvae are aquatic and have a unique lower jaw specialized
for grasping prey. Damselfly larvae are long and narrow and
have three caudal lamellae used for breathing. Dragonfly
larvae have broad bodies and breathe through tracheal gills
located in the rectum.
(Dragonflies and Damselflies)
Of the more than 5,500 known species of odonates, 137
are included on the IUCN Red List: two as Extinct; 13 as
Critically Endangered; 55 as Endangered; 39 as lnerable; 17
as Lower Risk/Near Threatened; and 11 as Data Deficient.
Little is known about distribution and habitat preferences
for most species.
Suborders of Odonata
Dragonflies (Anisoptera) Damselflies (Zygoptera)
Strongly tapering abdomen, with a black mid-dorsal
A cosmopolitan species, found in tropical and temperate
regions around the world. Common in the tropics but
rarely seen in Europe.
Breeds in small, shallow, often temporary pools. Adults
frequently are observed far from water.
Strong, high-gliding flight, rarely settling. The species is
gregarious and may form large feeding and migratory
swarms. Feeding flights may continue beyond dusk. They
have been seen far out at sea, flying even at night, when
they frequently are attracted to the lights of ships.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
A study of the gut contents of adults feeding over rice
fields in Bangladesh showed that their diet consisted
mainly of mosquitoes.
Males patrol territories about 30–150 ft (9–45 m) in
length. After mating, the male remains in tandem while
the female lays her eggs. Females oviposit by tapping the
surface of the water with the tip of the abdomen. Larval
development is rapid, an adaptation that allows for the
use of temporary pools (including swimming pools) as
Not listed by the IUCN.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
Libellula flavescens Fabricius, 1798, India.
Yellowish-red in color. The base of the hind wing is noticeably
broadened, with a small, diffuse yellowish patch at the base.
Pterostigma of the forewing longer than that of the hind wing.
(Grasshoppers, Katydids and Crickets)
Most species of the Orthoptera are large- or medium-sized insects.
Body lengths of less than 0.4 in (10 mm) are uncommon, while
many exceed 2 in (50 mm) in length, with some having bodies over
3.9 in (100 mm) long and a wingspan of 7.9 in (200 mm) or more.
Orthopterans are hemimetabolous insects, with larvae resembling
adult forms in their general appearance but lacking fully developed
wings and reproductive organs.
The overall body shape varies dramatically depending on the
lifestyle of the species. The mouthparts of orthopterans are of the
chewing/biting type. The head is hypognathous (mouthparts
pointing down), rarely prognathous (mouthparts pointing forward);
the antennae are usually long, threadlike, consisting of fewer than
ten to several hundred articles. The wings of orthopterans are either
fully developed or reduced to various degrees.
Wing polymorphism, or the occurrence of individuals
with well-developed and reduced wings within the same
species, is not uncommon. The forewings are somewhat
thickened, forming leathery tegmina. Body coloration of
species of the Orthoptera varies greatly, usually being
cryptic, thus resembling the species’ immediate
surroundings. Arboreal forms are mostly green, often
exhibiting a remarkable similarity to leaves, both fresh
and those in various states of decomposition.
Members of the order Orthoptera inhabit virtually all
terrestrial habitats, from the rock crevices of the littoral
zone of the oceans, subterranean burrows, and caves, to
rainforest treetops and peaks of the alpine zones of
The greatest diversity of the Orthoptera, however, is
found in tropical forests, both dry and humid. Thousands
of species of katydids, crickets, and grasshoppers have
already been described from forest habitats, ranging
from crickets in the forest-floor litter, to katydids on low
understory plants, to grasshoppersin the forest canopy.
As of 2002, the IUCN Red List included 74 species of
the Orthoptera. Two of these species, the central valley
grasshopper (Conozoa hyalina) and Antioch dunes
shieldback (Neduba extincta), are listed as Extinct, and
the Oahu deceptor bush cricket (Leptogryllus deceptor) is
listed as Extinct in the Wild. Eight species are listed as
Critically Endangered, eight as Endangered, and 50 as
Small, 0.5–0.7 in (13–19 mm); completely wingless.
Legs and all appendages very long and slender, giving
the appearance of a long-legged spider. Extremely
agile and can jump long distances. Body is yellow
brown with dark mottling.
Originally from Far East (probably China), now
Wild populations probably inhabited caves, now
found in greenhouses and warm, humid cellars and
asements of houses.
Exclusively nocturnal, spends the day hidden in
crevices and under large objects; strongly gregarious.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Feeds on variety of organic matter, including other
insects and plants.
Females lay eggs in soil; larvae hatch and join groups
of older individuals.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
Can injure young plants in greenhouses. Disliked by
humans because of its agility and spiderlike
Greenhouse camel cricket
Tachycines asynamorus Adelung, 1902, St. Petersburg botanical
Where to find
Mantids are entirely terrestrial and inhabit rainforests,
dry forests, primary and secondary forests, grasslands,
and deserts. In temperate regions, mantids complete
one entire life cycle per season, whereas in the tropics,
mantids can have overlapping generations.
The majority of species are tropical and are
concentrated in the rainforests of South America,
Africa, and Southeast Asia. Mantid diversity decreases
in temperate regions, and they are not found in boreal
and tundra climates. Although most of these insects
are limited in their distributions, a few species are
widespread and found on more than one continent,
such as the Chinese mantid, Tenodera aridifolia
sinensis, and the European mantid, Mantis religiosa.
These two species have become widespread since
humans began transporting nursery stock with
attached egg cases (ootheca) around the world.
Although there are perhaps a few rare extant mantid
species (one species is known only from a few islands
in the Galapagos archipelago), there are little data
regarding the overall status of mantid populations.
Global warming, habitat destruction, and misuse of
pesticides, however, have a detrimental effect on
species. One species is listed in the IUCN Red Book:
Apteromantis aptera, found in localized areas of Spain
and categorized as Lower Risk/Near Threatened.
Mantids generally are large, ranging in size from just under 0.4 in (1
cm) to more than 6.7 in (17 cm). Females usually are larger than
males, sometimes twice their size. Their coloration depends rimarily
on where they live. Mantids that are found in savannas and eadows
are straw-colored or light green. Those that inhabit leaf litter tend to
be dark brown. Mantids that frequent flowers in search of prey
typically are yellow, white, pink or light green. All mantids are
perhaps best known for their raptorial forelegs, which they use to
capture live prey. Flexible neck muscles allow mantids to turn their
heads a full 180 degrees.
The chewing mouthparts are directed downward. The
antennae consist of numerous segmented annuli and
usually are longer than the body. Compound eyes typically
are present, but they may be reduced in size or absent,
especially in cavernicolous (cave-dwelling) species. The
pronotum is large and often shieldlike and covers the
When present, the forewings typically are modified into
hardened tegmina, which may be abbreviated or absent;
hind wings may be reduced in size or absent, if present,
they are membranous, with well-developed veins. Legs
are adapted for running or sometimes digging. The coxae
are adpressed against the body. The tarsi have five
segments, often with pulvilli, which may be reduced, or
absent. Tarsal claws almost always are present, with or
without an arolium between them.
Cockroaches are worldwide in distribution, although some
genera are endemic to certain countries. The greatest
number of species occurs in the tropics. Some pest
species, if not controlled, may build up huge populations
in homes, businesses, and other buildings and in sewers.
No species is listed by the IUCN.
Where to find
Cockroaches are found in caves, mines, animal burrows, bird
nests, ant and termite nests, deserts, and water (subaquatic).
Most cockroaches live outdoors and, during the day, usually are
found near the ground and hiding under bark, dead leaves, soil,
logs, or stones. Numerous species have adapted to human
beings and live in man-made structures (homes, restaurants,
food stores, hospitals, and sewers) where temperatures and
levels of humidity are relatively stable and the cockroaches are
protected from adverse climatic conditions.
(True bugs, cicadas, leafhoppers, aphids, etc.)
The body shapes are extremely diverse, ranging from plump,
short, and cylindrical—such as the terrestrial scutellerid bugs and
the aquatic pygmy backswimmers—to very slender—such as the
semiaquatic water measurers, and some members of the assassin
bug family—or even extremely flat— such as the aradid bugs. The
sizes range from 0.03 in (0.8 mm: litter-dwelling bugs and some
plant lice) to about 4.3 in (110 mm: giant water bug); of course,
larvae in every case are much smaller.
Where to find
Hemiptera may be either terrestrial or aquatic. They occur in
almost all habitats, including deserts and at high altitudes. Those
that have aquatic tendencies occur in every freshwater, brackish
water, and saline habitat, including the open sea. Most
hemipterans are terrestrial and dwell on plants (including roots),
on the ground, in soil litter, or as external parasites on
vertebrates. Many are linked to running or standing freshwater,
living on the surface (semiaquatic bugs) or in the water (aquatic).
Some live in water-filled tree holes or in epiphytic plants. Few are
marine—only five species live on the surface of the open ocean.
Certain species dwell in natural caves or those excavated by crabs.
Others live in nests of social insects (ants and termites), or of
birds. Still others live in spider webs.
Among insects, hemipterans are not a frequently mentioned
group of conservation concern. By 2002 the IUCN Red List had
cited only five species of Homoptera (two Extinct and three Near
Threatened) and no species of Heteroptera.
(Jumping Plant-Lice, Whiteflies, Aphids, and Scale Insects)
(Cicadidae, Membracidae, Cicadellidae, and Achilidae)
(Belostomatiidae, Nepidae, Miridae, and Reduviidae)
(Phyrrocoreidae, Coreidae, and Pentatomidae)
(Barks, Beetles, and Weevills)
Beetles are very diverse in form and are elongate or spherical,
cylindrical or flattened, slender or robust. The integument
generally is tough and rigid, although in some families, such as
the fireflies (Lampyridae), soldier beetles (Cantharidae), and net-
winged beetles (Lycidae), it typically is soft and pliable.
The soft abdominal tergites usually are covered by the elytra.
But in rove, clown (Histeridae), and many sap beetles
(Nitidulidae), the elytra are short, leaving the tergites exposed.
The tip of the abdomen is modified to facilitate egg laying and
insemination. The three thoracic segments are very similar to
one another, but the prothorax may have a more heavily
sclerotized dorsal plate. When present, the legs may have six
(Adephaga), five (Polyphaga), or fewer segments. The abdomen
usually is divided into 10 egments, but there may be nine or
even eight segments; it typically is completely membranous in
nature. The segments may bear ambulatory warts, or ampullae.
The 2002 IUCN Red List contains 72 species of beetles, primarily
from the families Dytiscidae, Carabidae, Lucanidae,
Scarabaeidae, and Curculionidae. Listed species are categorized
as Lower Risk (three), Vulnerable (27), Endangered (15),
Critically Endangered (10), or Extinct (17). Most of the listed
extant species have very restricted ranges within sensitive
habitats, such as caves or sand dunes. All 14 species of the
flightless South African genus Colophon (Lucanidae) are listed by
the IUCN and in Appendix I of CITES primarily because of the
high prices they command on the market.
Small and compact, beetles are well equipped for seeking
shelter, searching for food, and reproducing in nearly every
terrestrial and freshwater habitat, from coastal sand dunes to
wind-swept rocky fields 10,000 ft (3,050 m) above sea level.
They are equally well adapted to humid tropical forests, cold
mountain streams, and parched deserts, where they forage
high in the canopy, hunt in roiling water, or scavenge in deep,
dark caverns. Others have managed to colonize nearby
continental or distant oceanic islands.
(Butterflies, Moths, And Skippers)
Adult lepidopterans vary widely in size and structure. The
smallest species are leaf-miner moths in the families
Nepticulidae (forewing 0.06 in, or 1.5 mm) and Heliozelidae
(forewing 0.07 in, or 1.7 mm); the largest known species is
Thysania agrippina (Noctuidae) from the American tropics, with
a wingspan of up to 11.2 in (280 mm). The smallest known
butterfly species probably is Micropsyche ariana from
Afghanistan or the Western pygmy blue of the United States.
Both have a forewing length of 0.20–0.28 in (5–7 mm). The
largest is Queen Alexandra’s birdwing of New Guinea, with
females attaining a forewing length of up to 5.16 in (129 mm).
Wings usually are large compared with the small, elongate
bodies and frequently are densely covered with overlapping
scales that assume a wide variety of patterns and combination
of colors. Wing venation varies.
More than any other order of insects, lepidopterans have
attracted the attention of conservationists. In all, 284
lepidopterans of 747 total insects are listed on the Red List of
the World Conservation Union (IUCN); 25 are on the U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service list of endangered species; and several
others, including the giant birdwing butterflies of the
Indo-Australian region, are listed by the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Butterflies,
in particular, have been accorded conservation status because
they are easily seen, colorful, day-flying insects and favorites
Where to find
Eggs, larvae, and pupae occur in nearly all terrestrial habitats,
where they often are found on or near their food plants. Larvae
of a few species of moths are associated with aquatic plants in
freshwater streams and ponds, and a few others (some species
of Lycaenidae) live in ant nests. Adults visit nectar sources, and
some species are attracted to carrion, oozing tree sap, or
excrement. Adults often rest on foliage, tree trunks or
any other substrate. Some species aggregate on shrubs, trees,
or cave entrances.
(Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, and Nhympalidae)
Superfamily Hesperoidea, Saturnoidea, and Noctouidea)
(Hesperidae, Saturnidae, and Noctuidae)
(Bees, Ants, and Wasps)
Adult hymenopterans range in size from minute to large, at
0.006–4.72 in (0.15–120 mm) and from slender (e.g., many
wasps) to robust (e.g., the bumble bees). The head usually is
very mobile. The compound eyes often are large and sometimes
strongly convergent dorsally. Fine setae occasionally emerge
from between facets, and ocelli may be present, reduced, or
absent, especially in forms with reduced wings. The antennae
are long and multisegmented, and their surfaces are covered
with various sense organs. The mouthparts vary from the
generalized biting type to the combined sucking and chewing
type (e.g., bees). Mandibles typically are present and are used
by the adult to cut its way out of the pupal cell, for defense, for
killing and handling prey, and in nest construction.
Where to find
Hymenoptera occur in soil and litter or on vegetation. Most are
active on bright, sunny days, hunting insects, gathering pollen
and nectar, or assembling nest-building materials. Some
parasitic species are active at night, when their nocturnal hosts
The 2002 IUCN Red List includes 152 hymenopteran species. Of
these, 3 are listed as Critically Endangered; 142 as Vulnerable; 6
as Lower Risk/Near Threatened; and 1 as Data Deficient.
(Flies, Mosquitoes, and Midges)
Adults have a mobile head, with large compound eyes that can
be contiguous (holoptic condition, found usually in males)
or separated (dichoptic condition, most commonly encountered
in females) on top. The antennae have six or more segments in
nematoceran flies, and five or fewer in brachyceran flies.
Mouthparts are adapted for sucking and form a proboscis or
rostrum. In predatory species, the mandibles form a pair of
piercing stylets, and in cyclorrhaphan flies the labial palps form
the labella, membranous sponge-like apical lobes traversed by
sclerotized canals called pseudotracheae, through which liquids
ascend by capillary action. The major morphological feature that
distinguishes flies from other insects is the presence of only one
pair of functional wings, hence their scientific name (di = two,
pteron = wing).
Where to find
Larvae occur in aquatic, semiaquatic, and moist terrestrial
environments, as endoparasites of other animals or as miners
within plant tissues, but because their cuticle is soft and
susceptible to desiccation, only a few live in dry environments.
Several flies are threatened not by direct exploitation but by loss
or degradation of their habitats; they are at risk because their
ecosystems are at risk. The IUCN Red List includes seven species
from this order; three as Extinct, two as Endangered, one as
Critically Endangered, and one as Vulnerable.
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