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Sharing divisi insect orders 3


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Sharing divisi insect orders 3

  1. 1. Divisi Konservasi Insekta Uni Konservasi Fauna Bogor Agriculture University Bogor, Maret 16th 2014 “Sharing Divisi” An Introduction to Insect (orders) Gilang Sukma Putra
  2. 2. A lateral view showing the major features of an insect. (Illustration by Bruce Worden)
  3. 3. Insects have different mouth parts for feeding 1. Cricket (chewing); 2. House fly (mopping); 3. Horse fly (piercing and sucking); 4. Mosquito (piercing and sucking); 5. Moth (sucking); 6. Froghopper (piercing and sucking). (Illustration by Ryan Burkhalter 1 2 3 4 5 6
  4. 4. Insect Orders Subclass APTERYGOTA (Primitive Wingless Insects) • Archaeognatha (Bristletail) • Thysanura (Silverfish) Subclass PTERYGOTA (Winged Insects) Division Exopterygota (Insects that develop by incomplete matamorphosis • Ephemeroptera (Mayflies) • Odonata (Dragonflies and Damselflies) • Ephemeroptera (Mayflies/One Day Flies) • Plecoptera (Stoneflies) • Grylloblattodea (Rock-crawlers) • Orthoptera (Grasshoppers and Crickets) • Mantodea (Praying Mantids) • Phasmatodea (Stick and Leaf Insects) • Mantophasmatodea (Mantophasmids) • Mantodea (Praying Mantises) • Dermaptera (Earwigs) • Blattodea/Blattaria (Cockroaches) • Embioptera (web-spinners) • Isoptera (Termites) • Zoraptera (Angel Insects) • Psocoptera (Booklice and Barklice) • Pthiraptera (Chewing and Sucking Lice) • Thysanoptera (Thrips) Division Endopterygota (Insects that develop by complete matamorphosis • Megaloptera (Dobsonflies) • Rhapidioptera (Snakeflies) • Neuroptera (Green Lacewings, Antlions, and Owlflies) • Coleoptera (Barks, Beetles , and Weevils) • Hemiptera (True Bugs) • Mecoptera (Scorpionflies) • Siphonaptera (Fleas) • Diptera (Flies, Mosquitoes, and Midges) • Thricoptera (Caddisflies) • Lepidoptera (Butterflies, Moths, and Skippers) • Hymenoptera (Bees, Ants, and Wasps)
  5. 5. Your Name Company Name Date Location /Seminar Title
  6. 6. Where to find Larvae are mostly aquatic and are found under stones, buried in mud or detritus, or clinging to vegetation in stagnant and running freshwater. A few inhabit small water reservoirs in plants; others live in moist terrestrial burrows in forests. Adults occur over almost any kind of freshwater, where they mate and oviposit (lay eggs). Physical characteristics Wingspans range from 6.5 in (162 mm) in the Australian dragonfly, Petalura ingentissima, to 0.8 in (20 mm) in the Southeast Asian damselfly, Agriocnemis femina. They have large compound eyes and chewing mouthparts. The two posterior segments of the thorax are fused together. The legs are well developed for seizing prey and for perching; locomotion is almost solely by flight. The large, strong, multiveined wings usually have an opaque pterostigma near the wing tip. The tensegmented abdomen is long and slender. In males unique secondary genitalia evolved on the underside of the second and third abdominal segments, separated from the actual genital opening near the abdomen tip. Damselfly and several dragonfly females have well-developed ovipositors used to insert eggs into plant tissue; in some dragonflies the ovipositor valves are reduced, and eggs are dropped into water. Both sexes have caudal appendages at the tip of the abdomen, which in males work like claspers to grasp the female during mating. Larvae are aquatic and have a unique lower jaw specialized for grasping prey. Damselfly larvae are long and narrow and have three caudal lamellae used for breathing. Dragonfly larvae have broad bodies and breathe through tracheal gills located in the rectum. Odonata (Dragonflies and Damselflies) Conservation status Of the more than 5,500 known species of odonates, 137 are included on the IUCN Red List: two as Extinct; 13 as Critically Endangered; 55 as Endangered; 39 as lnerable; 17 as Lower Risk/Near Threatened; and 11 as Data Deficient. Little is known about distribution and habitat preferences for most species.
  7. 7. The Differences
  8. 8. Suborders of Odonata Dragonflies (Anisoptera) Damselflies (Zygoptera)
  9. 9. Identification Strongly tapering abdomen, with a black mid-dorsal stripe. DISTRIBUTION A cosmopolitan species, found in tropical and temperate regions around the world. Common in the tropics but rarely seen in Europe. HABITAT Breeds in small, shallow, often temporary pools. Adults frequently are observed far from water. BEHAVIOR Strong, high-gliding flight, rarely settling. The species is gregarious and may form large feeding and migratory swarms. Feeding flights may continue beyond dusk. They have been seen far out at sea, flying even at night, when they frequently are attracted to the lights of ships. FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET A study of the gut contents of adults feeding over rice fields in Bangladesh showed that their diet consisted mainly of mosquitoes. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY Males patrol territories about 30–150 ft (9–45 m) in length. After mating, the male remains in tandem while the female lays her eggs. Females oviposit by tapping the surface of the water with the tip of the abdomen. Larval development is rapid, an adaptation that allows for the use of temporary pools (including swimming pools) as breeding sites. CONSERVATION STATUS Not listed by the IUCN. SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. Wandering glider Pantala flavescens FAMILY Libellulidae TAXONOMY Libellula flavescens Fabricius, 1798, India. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Yellowish-red in color. The base of the hind wing is noticeably broadened, with a small, diffuse yellowish patch at the base. Pterostigma of the forewing longer than that of the hind wing.
  10. 10. Orthoptera (Grasshoppers, Katydids and Crickets) Physical characteristics Most species of the Orthoptera are large- or medium-sized insects. Body lengths of less than 0.4 in (10 mm) are uncommon, while many exceed 2 in (50 mm) in length, with some having bodies over 3.9 in (100 mm) long and a wingspan of 7.9 in (200 mm) or more. Orthopterans are hemimetabolous insects, with larvae resembling adult forms in their general appearance but lacking fully developed wings and reproductive organs. The overall body shape varies dramatically depending on the lifestyle of the species. The mouthparts of orthopterans are of the chewing/biting type. The head is hypognathous (mouthparts pointing down), rarely prognathous (mouthparts pointing forward); the antennae are usually long, threadlike, consisting of fewer than ten to several hundred articles. The wings of orthopterans are either fully developed or reduced to various degrees. Wing polymorphism, or the occurrence of individuals with well-developed and reduced wings within the same species, is not uncommon. The forewings are somewhat thickened, forming leathery tegmina. Body coloration of species of the Orthoptera varies greatly, usually being cryptic, thus resembling the species’ immediate surroundings. Arboreal forms are mostly green, often exhibiting a remarkable similarity to leaves, both fresh and those in various states of decomposition. Habitat Members of the order Orthoptera inhabit virtually all terrestrial habitats, from the rock crevices of the littoral zone of the oceans, subterranean burrows, and caves, to rainforest treetops and peaks of the alpine zones of mountain ranges. The greatest diversity of the Orthoptera, however, is found in tropical forests, both dry and humid. Thousands of species of katydids, crickets, and grasshoppers have already been described from forest habitats, ranging from crickets in the forest-floor litter, to katydids on low understory plants, to grasshoppersin the forest canopy. Conservation status As of 2002, the IUCN Red List included 74 species of the Orthoptera. Two of these species, the central valley grasshopper (Conozoa hyalina) and Antioch dunes shieldback (Neduba extincta), are listed as Extinct, and the Oahu deceptor bush cricket (Leptogryllus deceptor) is listed as Extinct in the Wild. Eight species are listed as Critically Endangered, eight as Endangered, and 50 as Vulnerable.
  11. 11. Grasshoppers (Acrididae) Katydids (Tettiigonidae)
  12. 12. True Crickets (Gryllidae) Other Crickets
  13. 13. Identification PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Small, 0.5–0.7 in (13–19 mm); completely wingless. Legs and all appendages very long and slender, giving the appearance of a long-legged spider. Extremely agile and can jump long distances. Body is yellow brown with dark mottling. DISTRIBUTION Originally from Far East (probably China), now osmopolitan. HABITAT Wild populations probably inhabited caves, now found in greenhouses and warm, humid cellars and asements of houses. BEHAVIOR Exclusively nocturnal, spends the day hidden in crevices and under large objects; strongly gregarious. FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET Feeds on variety of organic matter, including other insects and plants. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY Females lay eggs in soil; larvae hatch and join groups of older individuals. CONSERVATION STATUS Not threatened. SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS Can injure young plants in greenhouses. Disliked by humans because of its agility and spiderlike appearance. Greenhouse camel cricket Tachycines asynamorus FAMILY Rhaphidophoridae TAXONOMY Tachycines asynamorus Adelung, 1902, St. Petersburg botanical garden, Russia. None known.
  14. 14. Mantodea (Mantids) Where to find Mantids are entirely terrestrial and inhabit rainforests, dry forests, primary and secondary forests, grasslands, and deserts. In temperate regions, mantids complete one entire life cycle per season, whereas in the tropics, mantids can have overlapping generations. Distribution The majority of species are tropical and are concentrated in the rainforests of South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Mantid diversity decreases in temperate regions, and they are not found in boreal and tundra climates. Although most of these insects are limited in their distributions, a few species are widespread and found on more than one continent, such as the Chinese mantid, Tenodera aridifolia sinensis, and the European mantid, Mantis religiosa. These two species have become widespread since humans began transporting nursery stock with attached egg cases (ootheca) around the world. Conservation status Although there are perhaps a few rare extant mantid species (one species is known only from a few islands in the Galapagos archipelago), there are little data regarding the overall status of mantid populations. Global warming, habitat destruction, and misuse of pesticides, however, have a detrimental effect on species. One species is listed in the IUCN Red Book: Apteromantis aptera, found in localized areas of Spain and categorized as Lower Risk/Near Threatened. Physical characteristics Mantids generally are large, ranging in size from just under 0.4 in (1 cm) to more than 6.7 in (17 cm). Females usually are larger than males, sometimes twice their size. Their coloration depends rimarily on where they live. Mantids that are found in savannas and eadows are straw-colored or light green. Those that inhabit leaf litter tend to be dark brown. Mantids that frequent flowers in search of prey typically are yellow, white, pink or light green. All mantids are perhaps best known for their raptorial forelegs, which they use to capture live prey. Flexible neck muscles allow mantids to turn their heads a full 180 degrees.
  15. 15. Biodiversities of Mantodea 3 Main Ordo : Mantidae; Hymenopodide; Amorposchelidae 1. Wandering violin mantid (Gongylus gongylodes); 2. Boxer mantid (Theopropus elegans); 3. Chinese mantid (Tenodera aridifolia sinensis); 4. Orchid mantid (Hymenopus coronatus); 5. Dead-leaf mantid (Deroplatys lobata); 6. Choeradodis rhomboidea; 7. Liturgusa charpentieri; 8. European mantid (Mantis religiosa). (Illustration by Gillian Harris) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  16. 16. Blattodea (Cockroaches) Physical characteristics The chewing mouthparts are directed downward. The antennae consist of numerous segmented annuli and usually are longer than the body. Compound eyes typically are present, but they may be reduced in size or absent, especially in cavernicolous (cave-dwelling) species. The pronotum is large and often shieldlike and covers the head. When present, the forewings typically are modified into hardened tegmina, which may be abbreviated or absent; hind wings may be reduced in size or absent, if present, they are membranous, with well-developed veins. Legs are adapted for running or sometimes digging. The coxae are adpressed against the body. The tarsi have five segments, often with pulvilli, which may be reduced, or absent. Tarsal claws almost always are present, with or without an arolium between them. Distribution Cockroaches are worldwide in distribution, although some genera are endemic to certain countries. The greatest number of species occurs in the tropics. Some pest species, if not controlled, may build up huge populations in homes, businesses, and other buildings and in sewers. Conservation status No species is listed by the IUCN. Where to find Cockroaches are found in caves, mines, animal burrows, bird nests, ant and termite nests, deserts, and water (subaquatic). Most cockroaches live outdoors and, during the day, usually are found near the ground and hiding under bark, dead leaves, soil, logs, or stones. Numerous species have adapted to human beings and live in man-made structures (homes, restaurants, food stores, hospitals, and sewers) where temperatures and levels of humidity are relatively stable and the cockroaches are protected from adverse climatic conditions.
  17. 17. Biodiversities of Blattodea 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1. Oriental cockroach (Blatta orientalis); 2. Madeira cockroach (Rhyparobia maderae); 3. Cinereous cockroach (Nauphoeta cinerea); 4. German cockroach (Blattella germanica); 5. Asian cockroach (Blattella asahinai); 6. American cockroach (Periplaneta americana); 7. Brownbanded cockroach (Supella longipalpa); 8. Suriname cockroach (Blatta surinamensis). (Illustration by Amanda Smith)
  18. 18. Hemiptera (True bugs, cicadas, leafhoppers, aphids, etc.) Physical characteristics The body shapes are extremely diverse, ranging from plump, short, and cylindrical—such as the terrestrial scutellerid bugs and the aquatic pygmy backswimmers—to very slender—such as the semiaquatic water measurers, and some members of the assassin bug family—or even extremely flat— such as the aradid bugs. The sizes range from 0.03 in (0.8 mm: litter-dwelling bugs and some plant lice) to about 4.3 in (110 mm: giant water bug); of course, larvae in every case are much smaller. Where to find Hemiptera may be either terrestrial or aquatic. They occur in almost all habitats, including deserts and at high altitudes. Those that have aquatic tendencies occur in every freshwater, brackish water, and saline habitat, including the open sea. Most hemipterans are terrestrial and dwell on plants (including roots), on the ground, in soil litter, or as external parasites on vertebrates. Many are linked to running or standing freshwater, living on the surface (semiaquatic bugs) or in the water (aquatic). Some live in water-filled tree holes or in epiphytic plants. Few are marine—only five species live on the surface of the open ocean. Certain species dwell in natural caves or those excavated by crabs. Others live in nests of social insects (ants and termites), or of birds. Still others live in spider webs. Conservation status Among insects, hemipterans are not a frequently mentioned group of conservation concern. By 2002 the IUCN Red List had cited only five species of Homoptera (two Extinct and three Near Threatened) and no species of Heteroptera.
  19. 19. Suborders Sternorrhyncha (Jumping Plant-Lice, Whiteflies, Aphids, and Scale Insects)
  20. 20. Suborders Auchenorrhyncha (Cicadidae, Membracidae, Cicadellidae, and Achilidae)
  21. 21. Suborder Heteroptera (Belostomatiidae, Nepidae, Miridae, and Reduviidae)
  22. 22. Suborder Heteroptera (Phyrrocoreidae, Coreidae, and Pentatomidae)
  23. 23. Coleoptera (Barks, Beetles, and Weevills) Physical characteristics Beetles are very diverse in form and are elongate or spherical, cylindrical or flattened, slender or robust. The integument generally is tough and rigid, although in some families, such as the fireflies (Lampyridae), soldier beetles (Cantharidae), and net- winged beetles (Lycidae), it typically is soft and pliable. The soft abdominal tergites usually are covered by the elytra. But in rove, clown (Histeridae), and many sap beetles (Nitidulidae), the elytra are short, leaving the tergites exposed. The tip of the abdomen is modified to facilitate egg laying and insemination. The three thoracic segments are very similar to one another, but the prothorax may have a more heavily sclerotized dorsal plate. When present, the legs may have six (Adephaga), five (Polyphaga), or fewer segments. The abdomen usually is divided into 10 egments, but there may be nine or even eight segments; it typically is completely membranous in nature. The segments may bear ambulatory warts, or ampullae. Conservation status The 2002 IUCN Red List contains 72 species of beetles, primarily from the families Dytiscidae, Carabidae, Lucanidae, Scarabaeidae, and Curculionidae. Listed species are categorized as Lower Risk (three), Vulnerable (27), Endangered (15), Critically Endangered (10), or Extinct (17). Most of the listed extant species have very restricted ranges within sensitive habitats, such as caves or sand dunes. All 14 species of the flightless South African genus Colophon (Lucanidae) are listed by the IUCN and in Appendix I of CITES primarily because of the high prices they command on the market. Habitat Small and compact, beetles are well equipped for seeking shelter, searching for food, and reproducing in nearly every terrestrial and freshwater habitat, from coastal sand dunes to wind-swept rocky fields 10,000 ft (3,050 m) above sea level. They are equally well adapted to humid tropical forests, cold mountain streams, and parched deserts, where they forage high in the canopy, hunt in roiling water, or scavenge in deep, dark caverns. Others have managed to colonize nearby continental or distant oceanic islands.
  24. 24. Suborder Adephaga (Carabidae, Cicindelidae, Trachypachidae)
  25. 25. Suborder Polyphaga (Scarabaeidae, Lucanidae, Dysticidae)
  26. 26. Suborder Polyphaga (Coccinellidae, Chrysomelidae, Lycidae)
  27. 27. Suborder Polyphaga (Lamprydae, Cerambycidae, Buprestidae)
  28. 28. Suborder Polyphaga (Elateridae, Meloidae, Curculionidae)
  29. 29. Lepidoptera (Butterflies, Moths, And Skippers) Physical characteristics Adult lepidopterans vary widely in size and structure. The smallest species are leaf-miner moths in the families Nepticulidae (forewing 0.06 in, or 1.5 mm) and Heliozelidae (forewing 0.07 in, or 1.7 mm); the largest known species is Thysania agrippina (Noctuidae) from the American tropics, with a wingspan of up to 11.2 in (280 mm). The smallest known butterfly species probably is Micropsyche ariana from Afghanistan or the Western pygmy blue of the United States. Both have a forewing length of 0.20–0.28 in (5–7 mm). The largest is Queen Alexandra’s birdwing of New Guinea, with females attaining a forewing length of up to 5.16 in (129 mm). Wings usually are large compared with the small, elongate bodies and frequently are densely covered with overlapping scales that assume a wide variety of patterns and combination of colors. Wing venation varies. Conservation status More than any other order of insects, lepidopterans have attracted the attention of conservationists. In all, 284 lepidopterans of 747 total insects are listed on the Red List of the World Conservation Union (IUCN); 25 are on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service list of endangered species; and several others, including the giant birdwing butterflies of the Indo-Australian region, are listed by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Butterflies, in particular, have been accorded conservation status because they are easily seen, colorful, day-flying insects and favorites with collectors. Where to find Eggs, larvae, and pupae occur in nearly all terrestrial habitats, where they often are found on or near their food plants. Larvae of a few species of moths are associated with aquatic plants in freshwater streams and ponds, and a few others (some species of Lycaenidae) live in ant nests. Adults visit nectar sources, and some species are attracted to carrion, oozing tree sap, or excrement. Adults often rest on foliage, tree trunks or any other substrate. Some species aggregate on shrubs, trees, or cave entrances.
  30. 30. Superfamily Papilionidae (Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, and Nhympalidae)
  31. 31. Superfamily Hesperoidea, Saturnoidea, and Noctouidea) (Hesperidae, Saturnidae, and Noctuidae)
  32. 32. Hymenoptera (Bees, Ants, and Wasps) Physical characteristics Adult hymenopterans range in size from minute to large, at 0.006–4.72 in (0.15–120 mm) and from slender (e.g., many wasps) to robust (e.g., the bumble bees). The head usually is very mobile. The compound eyes often are large and sometimes strongly convergent dorsally. Fine setae occasionally emerge from between facets, and ocelli may be present, reduced, or absent, especially in forms with reduced wings. The antennae are long and multisegmented, and their surfaces are covered with various sense organs. The mouthparts vary from the generalized biting type to the combined sucking and chewing type (e.g., bees). Mandibles typically are present and are used by the adult to cut its way out of the pupal cell, for defense, for killing and handling prey, and in nest construction. Where to find Hymenoptera occur in soil and litter or on vegetation. Most are active on bright, sunny days, hunting insects, gathering pollen and nectar, or assembling nest-building materials. Some parasitic species are active at night, when their nocturnal hosts are active. Conservation status The 2002 IUCN Red List includes 152 hymenopteran species. Of these, 3 are listed as Critically Endangered; 142 as Vulnerable; 6 as Lower Risk/Near Threatened; and 1 as Data Deficient.
  33. 33. Shymphyta (Sawflies and wood wasps)
  34. 34. Apocrita (Bees, Ants and Wasps)
  35. 35. Diptera (Flies, Mosquitoes, and Midges) Physical characteristics Adults have a mobile head, with large compound eyes that can be contiguous (holoptic condition, found usually in males) or separated (dichoptic condition, most commonly encountered in females) on top. The antennae have six or more segments in nematoceran flies, and five or fewer in brachyceran flies. Mouthparts are adapted for sucking and form a proboscis or rostrum. In predatory species, the mandibles form a pair of piercing stylets, and in cyclorrhaphan flies the labial palps form the labella, membranous sponge-like apical lobes traversed by sclerotized canals called pseudotracheae, through which liquids ascend by capillary action. The major morphological feature that distinguishes flies from other insects is the presence of only one pair of functional wings, hence their scientific name (di = two, pteron = wing). Where to find Larvae occur in aquatic, semiaquatic, and moist terrestrial environments, as endoparasites of other animals or as miners within plant tissues, but because their cuticle is soft and susceptible to desiccation, only a few live in dry environments. Conservation status Several flies are threatened not by direct exploitation but by loss or degradation of their habitats; they are at risk because their ecosystems are at risk. The IUCN Red List includes seven species from this order; three as Extinct, two as Endangered, one as Critically Endangered, and one as Vulnerable.
  36. 36. Suborder Nematocera (Tipulidae, Ptychopteridae, Trichoceridae, Culicidae)
  37. 37. Suborder Brachycera (Tabanidae, Bombyliidae, Syrphidae)
  38. 38. References (Further learning) Grzimek, Bernhard.2003.Grzimek’s animal life encyclopedia.— 2nd ed. Canada : Schlager Group Inc. Resh, H.Vincent of Insects. ---2nd ed. China : Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved. Kaufman, Kenn. Eaton, Eric R..Kaufman Field Guide to Insects of North America. United States : Gullan, P. J., Cranston P.S..2010. The insects : an outline of entomology– 4th ed. Malaysia : John Willey and Sons, Inc. Subramanian, K.A..2005. Dragonflies and Damselflies of Peninsular India-A field guide---1st ed. India : Indian Institute of Science. Burnie, David. 2005. e.explore Insect. London: Dorling Kindersley Limited. Mound, Laurence. 2007. Eyewitness Insects. London: DK Publishing Inc.
  39. 39. Thank you