Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

COCONUT (Cocos Nucifera) INDUSTRY AND PRODUCTS IN SRI LANKA

The coconut is known for its great versatility as seen in the many uses of its different parts and found throughout tropics and subtopics. Coconuts are different from any other fruits because they contain a large quantity of “water” and when immature they are known as tender- nuts or jelly- nuts and may be harvested for drinking. When mature, they still contain some water and can be used as seed nuts or processed to give oil from kernel, charcoal from the hard shell and coir from the fibrous husk.

  • Be the first to comment

COCONUT (Cocos Nucifera) INDUSTRY AND PRODUCTS IN SRI LANKA

  1. 1. CS 2102 HANDLING OF PRODUCTS PARENNIAL, FIELD AND HORTICULTURAL CROPS COCONUT (Cocos Nucifera) INDUSTRY AND PRODUCTS IN SRI LANKA FIELD VISIT- 02 (10th MARCH 2015) W.A.G.E.WIJELATH AG/12/FT/024
  2. 2. 2 | P a g e Table of Content 1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………… 3 2. Dunagaha Coconut Producers Co-operative Society Ltd….. 4 3. Scientific Classification of Coconut…………………………………. 4 4. Coconut Industry in Sri Lanka…………………………………………. 4 5. Institutional Set up of Coconut Industry in Sri Lanka………. 5 6. Coconut Products…………………………………………………………… 6 6.1. Kernel Products…………………………………………………………. 6 6.2. Shell Products……………………………………………………………. 7 6.3. Fibre Based Products…………………………………………………. 7 6.4. Husk Chip Products…………………………………………………… 7 7. Desiccated Coconut………………………………………………………… 7 7.1. The Production Process……………………………………………… 8
  3. 3. 3 | P a g e 1. Introduction The coconut is known for its great versatility as seen in the many uses of its different parts and found throughout tropics and subtopics. Coconuts are different from any other fruits because they contain a large quantity of “water” and when immature they are known as tender- nuts or jelly- nuts and may be harvested for drinking. When mature, they still contain some water and can be used as seed nuts or processed to give oil from kernel, charcoal from the hard shell and coir from the fibrous husk. It is a large palm, growing up to 30 m (98 ft) tall, with pinnate leaves 4–6 m (13– 20 ft) long, and pinnae 60–90 cm long; old leaves break away cleanly, leaving the trunk smooth. Coconuts are generally classified into two general types: tall and dwarf. On very fertile land, a tall coconut palm tree can yield up to 75 fruits per year, but more often yields less than 30, mainly due to poor cultural practices. In recent years, improvements in cultivation practices and breeding have produced coconut trees that can yield more. Given proper care and growing conditions coconut palms produce their first fruit in six to ten years, it takes 15-20 years to reach peak production. Optimum growth is with a mean annual temperature of 27 °C (81 °F), and growth is reduced below 21 °C (70 °F). Some seasonal variation is tolerated, with good growth where mean summer temperatures are between 28 and 37 °C (82 and 99 °F), and survival as long as winter temperatures are above 4–12 °C (39–54 °F). Coconut production contributes to the national economy of Sri Lanka. According to figures published in December 2009 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, it is the world’s fifth largest producer of coconuts, producing 2,200,000 tons in 2009. In this field visit, we went to Dunagaha Coconut Producers Co-operative Society Ltd. It is a prominent and leading Co-operative Society among other coconut producer Co-operative Societies in Sri Lanka. They produce desiccated coconut. Their products have been accredited for its high quality and international standards in the foreign market.
  4. 4. 4 | P a g e Coconut and coconut based products can be categorized into kernel, shell husk, and fiber based products. 2. Dunagaha Coconut Producers Co-operative Society Ltd. A Co- operative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly- owned and democratically- controlled enterprise. The society was established with the intention of fulfilling the motives of assisting the people of Dunagaha on 1940. Being proud owners of agriculture based economy; the cooperation of the people has always been part and parcel of our culture. Being a renowned and foremost agricultural society in the industrialized western province of Sri Lanka, the society was awarded with several national and provincial awards for the unique and unsurpassed quality of its products. 3. Scientific Classification of Coconut Kingdom: Plantae Class: Monocots Order: Arecales Suborder: Commelinids Family: Arecaceae Subfamily: Arecoideae Tribe: Cocoeae Genus: Cocos Species: Nucifera 4. Coconut Industry in Sri Lanka Sri Lanka is fortunate that coconut palm is native to the island and forms a major tree crop covering the bulk of coastal areas of the country. Sri Lanka’s production of coconut today stands at around 2.7 million nuts per annum. About 70% of such production is absorbed by direct domestic consumption. The balance is used for
  5. 5. 5 | P a g e commercial exploitation in forms of manufacture of desiccated coconut, coconut oil, coconut milk, and coconut cream. Sri Lanka is rich in coconut plantation and it has paved the way to establish many industries based on coconut. Coconut based products are from the kernel, shell, husk, and fiber based. Coir made from husk and copra made from kernel are major export income earners. The coconut tree grows on sandy soils close to the sea, and thrives up to 600 feet from the sea level. It grows on well drained areas Table 1: extent under coconut by districts during 1992 & 2002 5. Institutional Set up of Coconut Industry in Sri Lanka The government is supportive of the overall coconut industry and in fact established a separate ministry for the industry. Under this ministry, functions statutory institutions namely the Coconut Development Authority, the Coconut Cultivation Board, and the Coconut Research Institute. The ministry aims to increase coconut
  6. 6. 6 | P a g e cultivation and expand the existing area from the current 395,000 hectares to 450,000 hectares by the year 2015, an ambitious target. Ministry of plantation industry Permanent secretary Coconut development authority Coconut research board Coconut cultivation board Coconut research institute Assistant regional manager Coconut development officers Field assistants 6. Coconut Products Coconut is a commonly used ingredient in a variety of food recipes. The white, fleshy part of coconut fruit is used to prepare various delicious dishes such as coconut ice cream, coconut cake, coconut cookies, coconut pie and several other recipes. It is also used to make gravy for a number of vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Coconut milk is obtained by processing a grated coconut. It can be used to prepare a variety of mouth-watering preparations. However, fresh coconut is perishable and may not be available every time, when required. In that case, desiccated coconut is a very good alternative. It is finely grated, dried, unsweetened form of coconut, and is obtained by drying shredded or ground coconut kernel. It is used as a substitute to raw grated coconut in confectioneries, different desserts such as puddings, cookies, cakes, pastries, and other food preparations.
  7. 7. 7 | P a g e 6.1. Kernel Products Desiccated coconut (DC) and coconut oil are the major produced out of coconut kernel for exports. Sri Lankan DC has fetched a tremendous demand all over the world due to the unique characterizes such as pure whiteness in colour, taste and aroma. It is identified as one of the finest product frequently used in the food processing and confectionery industries all over the world. The virgin coconut oil extracted from fresh coconut meat without chemical processes is said to be very rich in medium chain fatty acids particularly lauric acid, minerals, vitamins, antioxidants and considered as an excellent neutraceutical. It contains about 50% lauric acid having qualities similar to mother's milk, thus confirming its disease fighting ability. Virgin coconut oil is widely used as a cosmetic ingredient. 6.2. Shell Products Activated carbon is the most value added product developed from coconut shells and it is used in purification processors such as cleaning of gold, purification of water etc. Activated carbon is exported to markets such as USA, Italy, UK and China. 6.3. Fibre Based Products Sri Lanka is the largest supplier of brown fibre to the world and annual exports of fibre is more than 100,000 metric tons.Sri Lanka is famous for its value added coir products such as coir twine, brushes, brooms, coir mats, rugs and geotextiles. Sri Lanka also produces a range of rubberized coir based horticulture products such as coir pots, baskets, basket liners, seed trays, hanging baskets, weed control mats and coir poles. 6.4. Husk Chip Products Husk chips are produces from the husk of coconut. Husk chips are one of the best soil conditioners found in the grow world which bear comparatively high water holding capacity. Ideally to retain moisture in soil during hot summers.
  8. 8. 8 | P a g e 7. Desiccated Coconut Desiccated coconut is coconut meat which has been shredded or flaked and then dried to remove as much moisture as possible. Sri Lanka is the third largest producer of DC in the world following the Philippines and Indonesia respectively. Sri Lanka’s share of global output is around 25%. There are about 55 DC mills in the country. The absorption capacity of an average mill varies from 40,000 to 60,000 nuts a day. Desiccated coconut is used commonly in various industries like confectionery and bakery products, frozen foods, food service, and consumer products. It is a coconut product that is prepared and preserved by removing the natural moisture in the coconut fruit. Desiccated coconut usually contains about 3% of moisture, and is produced from the white part of fresh, mature coconut kernel. The white part is disintegrated or shredded into desired sizes such as flakes, granules, chips or shreds. Then it is dried in hot air at 50-55 degree centigrade. It is available in toasted, sweetened or sweetened toasted forms. It also comes in two variations such as low fat (maximum 50% fat) and high fat (minimum 60% fat). 7.1. The Production Process 1. Coconut husk is removed and stacked fort nearly 2 weeks 2. Hard coconut shell is removed (splitting)
  9. 9. 9 | P a g e 3. Brown skin is removed 4. Coconut meat is washed with hot chlorine water to remove foreign materials
  10. 10. 10 | P a g e 5. Coconut meat is blanched to reduce number of microorganisms to a safe level 6. White coconut meat is cut into desired size 7. Hot air is blown through small, grated coconut meat to reduce the moisture content from 19% to less than 3%
  11. 11. 11 | P a g e 8. The desiccated coconut is cooled and then sieved to separate desiccated coconut as according to the desired size. 9. Desiccated coconut is packed.

    Be the first to comment

    Login to see the comments

  • RajaKumar58

    Oct. 9, 2018
  • pasindulaksara1

    Sep. 2, 2019
  • ShirmithNirmal1

    Mar. 9, 2020
  • HIRANPIUMAL

    Jul. 18, 2021

The coconut is known for its great versatility as seen in the many uses of its different parts and found throughout tropics and subtopics. Coconuts are different from any other fruits because they contain a large quantity of “water” and when immature they are known as tender- nuts or jelly- nuts and may be harvested for drinking. When mature, they still contain some water and can be used as seed nuts or processed to give oil from kernel, charcoal from the hard shell and coir from the fibrous husk.

Views

Total views

3,411

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

3

Actions

Downloads

12

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

4

×