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Wiriting report


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Report Writing training course. course duration is 12hrs in 02 days tailored according to the client needs.

Published in: Business

Wiriting report

  1. 1. Gihan AboueleishWIRITING REPORT
  2. 2. OUTLINES What makes a good report? Clarity and Structure Figures and Tables (floats) Technical Issues Further reading Conclusions Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 2
  3. 3. BEFORE WE STARTDiscussion : what you find most difficult in writing a report… Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 3
  4. 4. THE PURPOSE.... The report exists to provide the reader with useful information It succeeds if it effectively communicates the information to the intended audience It fails otherwise!! Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 4
  5. 5. TO SUCCEED... The report must be  Clear  Well structured, clear, concise, suitable for the intended audience  Professional  statisticallycorrect, correctly spelled, produced with a decent word processor  Well illustrated  illustrations that aid understanding, integrated with text Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 5
  6. 6. VIDEO “9.30MIN” The Key Forms of Business Writing: Reports Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 6
  7. 7. HOW WE COMMUNICATE3• CVs, Resumes• Email, Web site, FAQs• Letters, Newsletters, Brochures, Articles, Catalogs• Advertisements, Notice Board, Pamphlets, Signs, Press Release• Presentations, multimedia, talks• Reports, Manuals, Proposals, Books Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 7
  8. 8. WHICH REPORTS? Sales Reports Inspection Reports Annual Reports Audit Reports Feasibility Reports Progress Reports White Papers Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 8
  9. 9. TECHNICAL WRITING REPORTS Proposals User Manuals Technical Manuals White Papers Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 9
  10. 10. CLASSIFICATION OF REPORTS Formal Reports and Informal Reports Information Reports Analytical Reports Recommendation Reports Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 10
  11. 11. ASSESSING THE AUDIENCE Any piece of written material is aimed at a specific audience:  Who are your readers? Professors, managers, engineers, scientists, or technicians? What terms will you have to define? What background information will you have to include?  Why is audience reading the document? Is the document supposed to inform or to convince?  How will they read your document? Will they read it straight through like a story or will they turn to specific sections? Based on Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 11
  12. 12. THE AUDIENCEOften 3 different audiences  The casual reader/big boss who wants the main message as painlessly as possible  The interested reader who wants more detail but doesn‟t want to grapple with all the gory technical details  The guru who wants the whole storyWriting Report - gihan aboueleish 12
  13. 13. WHAT TO DO?To address all 3 audiences effectively,  Include an abstract for the big boss  A main body for the interested non-specialist  A technical appendix for the guruThus, a structure emerges!Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 13
  14. 14. ELEMENTS OF STYLE: REPORT STRUCTURE There are no “set in stone” rules for the structure of your report but most reports will include some or all of the following***  Title Page  Abstract  Introduction  Experimental Method  Theory  Experimental Results  Discussion and Conclusion  References  Appendices of raw data and calculations where appropriate.***some sections have to be in a report Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 14
  15. 15. ELEMENTS OF STYLE: SOME KEY DOS AND DON’TSDO: DON’T: include an abstract that concisely summarises the  just list instructions on how to outcome of the experiment- perform the experiment including numbers!  give detailed arithmetic or use the appropriate tense-you are reporting on an experiment algebraic calculations that has been carried out in the  use jargon or undefined past abbreviations ensure all figures have  make excessive use of appropriate numbered captions personal style of “I” or “we” ensure you reference all source (but we often use impersonal material appropriately (see “we”!) later)  give long lists of experimental consider when words should results in the main text of the begin with a capital letter report-use appendices if really re-read and review your report necessary critically before handing in for marking Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 15
  16. 16. ELEMENTS OF STYLE: USE OUR TEMPLATE FOR REPORT WRITING Title first word starts with a capital Jack A Surname1 and (if joint) Jill Surname2 School of Physics and Astronomy The University of Manchester First Year Laboratory Report Nov 2003 This experiment was performed in collaboration with T Partnername. Abstract 16 Writing Report - gihan aboueleish
  17. 17. REPORT BODY Introduction  Purpose and Scope;Limitations, Assumptions, and Methods Background/History of the Problem Body  Presents and interprets data Conclusions and Recommendations References or Works Cited Appendixes  Interview transcripts, questionnaires, question tallies, printouts, and previous reports Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 17
  18. 18. TITLEShould be informative, “punchy”;Good  The perfidious polynomial (punchy, alliterative)  Diagnosing diabetes mellitus: how to test, who to test, when to test (dramatic, informative)Bad  Some bounds on the distribution of certain quadratic forms in normal random variables (boring, vague)  Performing round off analyses of statistical algorithms (boring, vague)Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 18
  19. 19. TABLE OF CONTENTS Shows the structure of the document and lets the reader navigate through the sections Include for documents more than a few pages long. Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 19
  20. 20. ABSTRACT/EXECUTIVE SUMMARYDescribes the problem and the solution in a few sentences. It will be all the big boss reads!Remember the 2 rules  Keep it short  State problem and solution Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 20
  21. 21. THE INTRODUCTION State the question, background the problem Describe similar work Outline the approach Describe the contents of the rest of the paper  in Section 2 we ...  in Section 3 we ... Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 21
  22. 22. FURTHER SECTIONS Describe  Data  Methods  Analyses  Findings Don‟t include too much technical detail Divide up into sections, subsections Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 22
  23. 23. CONCLUSIONS/SUMMARY Summarize what has been discovered Repeat the question Give the answer Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 23
  24. 24. APPENDIX This is where the technical details go. Be as technical as you like. Document your analysis so it can be. reproduced by others Include the data set if feasible Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 24
  25. 25. REFERENCES Always cite (i.e. give a reference) to other related work or facts/opinions that you quote. Never pass off the work of others as your own – this is plagiarism and is a very big academic crime!! Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 25
  26. 26. USING EXTERNAL SOURCES For many documents we write, we use external sources. How do you use sources?  Go straight to Wikipedia and copy?  Use a single authorities source?  Use multiple sources without telling?  Use an old report as template? All of these have elements of academic cheating (plagiarism). So is there a correct way to use external material? Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 26
  27. 27. FAMOUS EXAMPLES George Harrison Martin Luther King Ibrahim Al-Marashi Madonna The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955) US (German-born) physicist Copy from one, its plagiarism; copy from two, its research. Wilson Mizner (1876 - 1933) US screenwriter Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 27
  28. 28. HOW TO CITE In the text Seber and Wild (1989) state that….. In the references Seber, G.A.F and C.J. Wild. (1989). Nonlinear Regression. New York: Wiley. Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 28
  29. 29. WRITING CLEARLY Structure alone is not enough for clarity – you must also write clear sentences. Rules:  Write complete short sentences  Avoid jargon and cliché, strive for simplicity  One theme per paragraph  If a sentence contains maths, it still must make sense! Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 29
  30. 30. AGHHHH! He wrote Although solitary under normal prevailing circumstances, raccoons may congregate simultaneously in certain situations of artificially enhanced resource availability. He meant.. Raccoons live alone but come together to eat bait. Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 30
  31. 31. MATHS Good From the equation y  ax  b it follows that x  ( y  b) / a. Bad y  ax  b x  ( y  b) / aWriting Report - gihan aboueleish
  32. 32. FIGURES AND TABLES (FLOATS)Golden rules for Figures and Tables: Describe float in text (integration), make sure it matches description Place after the first mention in the text Make sure float conveys the desired message clearly: keep it simple! Provide informative captions Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 32
  33. 33. FIGURES Always label and give a caption under the figure Be aware of good graphics principles: avoid  chart junk  low data/ink ratio  unlabelled axes  broken axes  Misleading scales See Cleveland, “The Elements of Graphing Data”, “Visualising Data” Using a good graphics package (R!) helps enforce good practiceWriting Report - gihan aboueleish 33
  34. 34. African elephant Asian elephant 8 Human Giraffe Horse Chimpanzee Cow Donkey 6 Gorilla Sheep Pig Rhesus monkey Jaguar log(Animals$brain) BrachiosaurusBad! Potar monkeywolf Grey Goat Triceratops Kangaroo 4 Dipliodocus Cat Rabbit Mountain beaver 2 Guinea pig Mole Rat Golden hamster 0 Mouse 0 5 10 log(Animals$body) Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 34
  35. 35. African elephant Asian elephant 8 Human Giraffe Horse Donkey Chimpanzee Cow 6 Sheep Gorilla Log Brain weight (gm) Rhesus monkey Pig Jaguar Brachiosaurus Potar monkey Grey wolf Goat Triceratops Kangaroo 4 DipliodocusBetter! Cat Rabbit Mountain beaver 2 Guinea pig Mole Rat 0 Golden hamster Mouse 0 5 10 Log Body weight (kg) Figure 1. Plot of log Brain weights (gm) versus log body weights (kg) for 28 species Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 35
  36. 36. TABLES Always label and give a caption over the table Be aware of rules for good tables:  avoid vertical lines  don‟t have too many decimal places  compare columns not rowsWriting Report - gihan aboueleish 36
  37. 37. Multiple Prefix Symbol 1012 tera T 109 giga G Too busy 106 mega M 103 kilo K 10-1 deci d Multiple Prefix Symbol 1012 tera T Better 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo K 10-1 deci dWriting Report - gihan aboueleish 37
  38. 38. Multiple 1012 109 106 103 10-1 HorizontalPrefix tera giga mega kilo deci hard to readSymbol T G M K d Multiple Prefix Symbol 1012 tera T Vertical 109 giga G easier to read 106 mega M 103 kilo K 10-1 deci d Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 38
  39. 39. Number of Time (secs) Processors Busy – too 1 28.35221 many DP’s 4 7.218812 8 3.634951 16 1.929347 Number of Time (secs) Processors Better 1 28.35 4 7.21 8 3.63 16 1.92Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 39
  40. 40. TECHNICAL ISSUES Sectioning Table of Contents Spelling and Grammar Choice of word processor Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 40
  41. 41. SECTIONING Proper division of your work into sections and subsections makes the structure clear and the document easy to follow Use styles in word/ sectioning commands in Latex begin{section}….end{section} Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 41
  42. 42. TABLE OF CONTENTS Provides “navigation aid” Make sure TOC agrees with main body of text If you use styles (Word) and sectioning commands (Latex) this will happen automatically Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 42
  43. 43. SPELLING AND GRAMMAR Use a style manual/dictionary if in doubt. Spell check!!!! Proofread!!!! He meant…  This technique can also be applied to the analysis of golf balls He typed….  This technique cam also by applies to the analysis or gold bills Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 43
  44. 44. CHOICE OF WORD PROCESSOR Word or Latex? My spin…..  Use Word for a short document with few figures and tables and little mathematics  Use Latex for a longer document with many figures and tables and lots of complicated maths. Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 44
  45. 45. FURTHER READING There are many excellent books giving good advice on technical writing. Two I like are Higham, Nicholas (1993) Handbook of writing for the Mathematical Sciences, Philadelphia, SIAM. Silyn-Roberts, Heather (2000). Writing for Science and Engineering: Papers Presentations and Reports. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinmann. Both discuss writing reports and giving verbal presentations. Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 45
  46. 46. CONCLUSIONS Structure is vital Write clearly Good clear simple illustrations Spellcheck and proofread Reference all material used or quoted Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 46
  47. 47. VIDEO “7.20MIN” Seven Steps to Effective Writing Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 47
  48. 48. ASSESSMENT OF REPORTS: CRITERIA All reports are assessed according to standard criteria relating to:  Presentation and Organisation  Use of English (spelling, grammar etc.)  Use of Figures, Tables and References  Clarity and Conciseness  Physics Content Each of these five areas is scored out of a maximum mark of 10, with a resulting total mark out of 50. Feedback should be provided from marker. Feedback is crucial in learning the art of writing reports. If you are unsure about something, ASK!! Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 48
  49. 49. ASSESSMENT OF REPORTS: CRITERIAWriting Report - gihan aboueleish 49
  50. 50. ASSESSMENT: EXAMPLES OF REAL REPORTS Activity:  You have been provided with two anonymous (but real!) reports, and are requested to grade each of them using the criteria in the previous slide. NO CONFERRING!!!  You will then submit your total mark using the „clickers‟.  We will look at the distribution of marks. Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 50
  51. 51. Report A: As submitted Please enter your mark out of 50.Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 51
  52. 52. Report B:As Submitted Please enter your mark out of 50.Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 52
  53. 53. REPORTS DISCUSSION Report A : Discussion Report B : Discussion Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 53
  54. 54. REPORT MARKING EXERCISE: CONCLUSIONSTwo general points emerge from this exercise:1. Even with rather detailed mark schemes, there will always be some variation between assessors!  In practice, this variation is hopefully not too large: marks are monitored in 1st year lab for “big” variations and, if necessary, reports are re-marked by the lab tutor.2. Appreciating the perspective of your audience (i.e. the person marking your report) is essential.  Hopefully you now appreciate that a poorly written/presented report can be quite irritating and difficult to read: don‟t put the person marking your report in a bad mood!  Marks can be gained/lost easily: pay attention to the basics of report writing…don‟t make silly mistakes: always re-read and revise your completed report. Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 54
  55. 55. USING EXTERNAL SOURCES For many documents we write, we use external sources. How do you use sources?  Go straight to Wikipedia and copy?  Use a single authorities source?  Use multiple sources without telling?  Use an old report as template? All of these have elements of academic cheating (plagiarism). So is there a correct way to use external material? Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 55
  56. 56. CONCLUSIONS Writing is a skill to learn Need practice Large set of rules, do‟s and don‟ts But it is very personal Use all the feedback (from lab reports, vacation essays, dissertations,…) Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 56
  57. 57. REFERENCE1. Business Communication, Kity O Locker and Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek, 20042. “A Decent Proposal” by John Fellows,, 20023. Better Business Writing, The Sunday Times Writing Report - gihan aboueleish 57
  58. 58. Thank YouWriting Report - gihan aboueleish 58