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Leadership & motivation workshop

Workshop in two days with 12 hrs duration for mid-management level.
Identify the characteristics of an effective leader & identify their leadership styles.
Obtain a deeper understanding of leadership by a review of appropriate theories
Understand the meaning of, and barriers to, motivation.
Evaluate & apply motivation theories to their current operation.
Develop their teams to maximize their strengths and enhance productivity
Motivate their teams with effective performance measurement
Leverage the complementary skills and styles of their teams
Eliminate barriers and chokepoints that block teamwork
Develop a personal action plan to develop their leadership style
Integrate their leadership responsibilities, competencies and behaviors into their management role
Optimize organization and work design for success in service delivery teams

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Leadership & motivation workshop

  2. 2. Workshop objectivesBy the end of this workshop, participants will be able to: Identify the characteristics of an effective leader & identify their leadership styles. Obtain a deeper understanding of leadership by a review of appropriate theories Understand the meaning of, and barriers to, motivation. Evaluate & apply motivation theories to their current operation. Develop their teams to maximize their strengths and enhance productivity Motivate their teams with effective performance measurement Leverage the complementary skills and styles of their teams Eliminate barriers and chokepoints that block teamwork Develop a personal action plan to develop their leadership style Integrate their leadership responsibilities, competencies and behaviors into their management role Optimize organization and work design for success in service delivery teams Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  3. 3. WORKSHOP OUTLINE - LEADERSHIP Leadership in Perspective  Importance of leadership for organizations  Definition of leadership  Leadership vs. management  How to create managerial leadership  What kind of leader are you: self-assessment Leadership Styles Leader’s source of power Creating Job Satisfaction for Your Team  Identifying the components of an effective team  Communication skills of leaders  Designing an effective team communication strategy Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
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  7. 7. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  8. 8. what’s the difference betweenmanagement and leadership? Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  9. 9. Difference between Leaders andManagers? “ A manager takes care of where you are; a leader takes you to a new place.” James Colvard, “Managers Vs. Leaders” Leadership cannot replace management; it should be in addition to management. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  10. 10. “A leaders job is To rallypeople Toward a Betterfuture” marcus buckingham Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  11. 11. why leadership isso important? Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  12. 12. “ The surplus society has a surplus of similar companies, employing similarpeople, with similar educationalbackgrounds. working in similar jobs, coming up withsimilar ideas, producing similar things,with similar prices, warranties, andqualities.” Jonas Ridderstrale and Kjel Nordstrom Authors, Funky Business Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  13. 13. “when people leave companies, theytend not to quit the company, they aremore likely to have quit the boss.” Ken Blanchard Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  14. 14. Characteristics of a Bad Leader.. Video Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  15. 15. Can’s Value ; Define the fundamental character of a business Help create the culture you want Create a sense of identity for the business Reduce game playing, politics and confusion Provide guidelines for managers and staff Provide guidance for acceptable and unacceptable behaviours Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  16. 16. Harley Davidson’s Values: Tell The Truth Be Fair Keep Your Promises Respect The Individual Encourage Intellectual Curiosity Mutually Beneficial Relationships Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  17. 17. Leadership Models – StylesTannenbaum & SchmidtBlake & MoutonLikertSituational LeadershipPeter DruckerJohn Adair Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  18. 18. Tannenbaum & Schmidt Style;The Manager “Core”1. …decides and announces the decision.2. …sells the decision to the group.3. …presents the decision with background ideas and invites questions.4. …suggests a provisional decision and invites discussion about it.5. …presents the situation or problem, gets suggestions, then decides.6. …explains the situation, defines the parameters and asks the team to decide.7. …allows the team to identify the problem, develop the options, and decide on the action, within the managers received limits. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  19. 19. Tannenbaum & Schmidt Style Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  20. 20. Blake & Mouton Style Concern for Production: The leader cares little about people and operates in fear of something going wrong. This persons focus is on achieving results and productivity. Concern for People: This leader cares little about productivity and operates wholly from a desire to be loved and approved of. The grid Blake and Mouton created from these two dimensions can help you to understand your predominant style on the scale of concern for productivity and concern for people. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  21. 21. Blake & Mouton Stlye Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  22. 22. Likert leadership Style; Exploitive authoritativeLeader – Low people concern Methods of threats & fear-based – Toachieve conformance. Communication is almost entirely downwards and thepsychologically distant concerns of people are ignored. “Centrally”Benevolent authoritative Leader – High people concern –to an authoritative position Methods of rewards & listens with concern – To encourage high performance. Communication lower down the organization . Although there may be some delegation of decisions, almost all major decisions are still made centrally. “Centrally”Consultative The upward flow of information here is still cautious and rose-tinted to some degree, although the leader is making genuine efforts to listen carefully to ideas. Nevertheless, major decisions are still largely centrally made. “Centrally”Participative the leader makes maximum use of participative methods, engaging people lower down the organization in decision-making. People across the organization are psychologically closer together and work well together at all levels. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  23. 23. Likert leadership Style; Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  24. 24. Situational Leadership StylesTelling LeadersTelling leader defines roles & tasks - follower supervises veryclosely. Decisions are made by the leader, and announced to thefollowers. This means communication is predominantly one-way.Selling LeadersSelling leader defines roles & tasks - follower also seeks ideas andsuggestions from followers. Decisions are made predominantly bythe leader, but the communication style used is two-way. Theseleaders are good at "selling" their ideas. Participating LeadersParticipating leader passes along the day-to-day decisions, such asdividing up the workload, to their followers. The participatingleader will help to facilitate discussions, and takes part in thedecision-making process, but ultimate control is with thefollowers. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  25. 25. Situational Leadership StylesDelegating LeadersDelegating leader is still involved in the workgroups decisions, and helps to solveproblems, but the ultimate control is with the followers. In fact, with this situationalleadership style, the followers decide when to get the leader involved.Development Levels of FollowersBlanchard and Herseys situational leadership model also recognized the importance ofthe development level of those being led. Their theory states that the leaders styleneeds to reflect, in part, the competence and commitment of the followers. Thosetwo dimensions were then used to derive the following four development levels ofthose being led: Low Competence, High Commitment Some Competence, Low Commitment High Competence, Variable Commitment High Competence, High Commitment In Blanchards model of leadership, there exists an ideal type of leadership style to apply to each development level. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  26. 26. Situational Leadership Styles Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  27. 27. Peter Drucker Leadership style Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  28. 28. Peter Drucker Leadership style Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  29. 29. John Adair Leadership Style Achieve the task. Build and maintain the team. Develop the individual. This creates a clear distinction between leadership and management. Creating charismatic Great Man leaders is difficult and cannot be relied on. You cannot guarantee that such a person can be developed and, once developed, that they will be reliable. Adairs theory is more practical and shows that leadership can be taught and that it is a transferable skill. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  30. 30. John Adair Leadership Style Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  31. 31. Leadership Basic styles Authoritative Style Clear about what he is doing and why he is doing it Instills the same clarity in his followers Determines the end and leaves the choice of means to his people. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  32. 32. Authoritative Leader example ; The authoritative leadership style is best used in situations when a company or followers seem to be drifting aimlessly.Example : Bill GatesMr. Gates removed himself from some of thedaily operations of Microsoft, he was still thoughtof as an industry visionary - an authority. BillGates has done much to further itsadvancement. He had a vision, he told the world,and he aligned the resources of Microsoft withthat vision.  Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  33. 33. Leadership style… Autocratic Style Retains all authority and decision making power No suggestions – no considerations Instruct on what to do and how to do Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  34. 34. Autocratic Style examples At the extreme, autocratic leadership can take the form of a dictatorship. In this situation, the leaders word is "law." The typical autocratic leader does not involve others in the decision-making process. This type of leader might resort to force, manipulation, or even threats to accomplish their goals.Example : Martha Stewart; Martha Stewart built her empire with personal attention to every detail. Whether you liked her or not, she was meticulous and demanding. She was also very successful in her endeavors, and in using her autocratic management style. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  35. 35. Leadership style… Benevolent style  Keeps employees happy & in harmony  Ensures better communication  Relationship builder Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  36. 36. Benevolent style Examples; Benevolent leadership, is a leadership and management style that continually emerges as perhaps the most important, and one of the most captivating, behavior patterns accounting for career success.Benevolent style Examples;Ed Woolard, who began his career at a DuPont plant in Kinston, N.C.From these humble beginnings, he ascended over the next 40 years toultimately become DuPont’s chairman and CEO.Woolard said about his extraordinary success : “A good ‘B player’ cansurround himself with a lot of ‘A players." My job was really just tonurture them and make them successful.”It was his approach to leading and managing that made Woolard an"A player", creating an environment and culture in which to attractand retain the best people by supporting their ideas, bringing themalong, taking a proactive interest in their professional growth anddevelopment, fostering their creativity, and encouraging them to dotheir best. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  37. 37. Leadership style… Coaching style Helps employees to identify their strengths & weakness Aligning employees Encourages long term development Issues challenging assignments Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  38. 38. Coaching style Examples ; If your companys intellectual capital is weak, or if youre simply looking for someone to share their knowledge, then you need to find someone that is good at, or willing to practice, the coaching leadership style. Coaching leaders are excellent at helping others to advance their skills, building bench strength, and providing career guidance.Examples of Coaching Leaders It is extremely difficult to find clear examples of modern coaching leaders. The best examples of this particular style would be leaders that were labeled as "famous" mentors, or those involved in well known mentoring pairings.Mentoring Pairings With that in mind, the following list of mentoring pairings provides examples of leaders exhibiting the coaching leadership style: Red Holtzman (NBA coach) mentored Phil Jackson (NBA coach) Andrew Carnegie (philanthropist) mentored Charles Schwab (first president of US Steel) Robert Patterson (CEO, National Cash Register) mentored Thomas Watson (founder of IBM) Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  39. 39. Leadership style… Democratic Style  Involves employees in decision making process  Gets ideas from his people  Creates trust  Sets realistic goals Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  40. 40. Democratic Style Examples When the workplace is ready for democratic leaders, the style produces a work environment that employees can feel good about. Workers feel that their opinion counts, and because of that feeling they are more committed to achieving the goals and objectives of the organization.Democratic Style Examples As a military leader, Eisenhower was faced with the difficult task of getting the Alliance forces to agree on a common strategy. Eisenhower labored hard to make sure everyone worked together to come to a common understanding. This was one of his greatest achievements. It was here that the democratic leadership style, and collaborative efforts, of Eisenhower shone through. The subsequent victory of the Alliance forces back up the correctness of the approach in that particular situation. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  41. 41. Leadership style… Pacesetting style Sets high standards and adheres on it Passionate about increase in quality and productivity You perform or leave organization is the attitude Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  42. 42. Pacesetting styleEffectively Using the Pacesetting Style The most effective way to use the pacesetting style is when you need to get quick results from a group that is already highly motivated and competent. The style is also effective when group members are highly competent in the task they are going to complete. Whether this comes from aptitude or experience, the group members are going to be asked to work quickly. There is no time to learn on the job, or teach someone a skill they may be lacking.Examples of Pacesetting Leaders Perhaps the best examples of pacesetting leaders come from the military. There is very little tolerance for making mistakes when the stakes are that high.Jack Welch Jack Welch began his career at General Electric in 1960, and by 1981 he was named the companys eighth Chief Executive Officer. While Jack Welch was also known for his informal approach that allowed him to interact with employees at all levels in his organization, he was also a persistent and demanding executive. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  43. 43. Leadership Styles ; Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  44. 44. Leadership styles Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  45. 45. Contingency Theory It’s leader match theory because it tries to match leaders to appropriate situations A leader’s effectiveness depends on how well the leader’s style fits the context The theory was developed by studying the styles of leaders in situations and whether they were effective (primarily in military organizations) Concerned with styles and situations Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  46. 46. LPC Scale Used to measure a person’s leadership style For example, it measures your style by having you describe a coworker with whom you had difficulty completing a job. (not necessarily someone you dislike, but someone with whom you least like to work with) After you choose this person, the LPC instrument asks you to describe your coworker on 18 sets of adjectives Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  47. 47. Least Preferred Coworker(LPC)Scale Application Application Attached Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  48. 48. Scoring Your final score is the total of the numbers you circled on the 18 scales 57 or less = Low LPC (task motivated) 58-63 = Middle LPC (socio-independent leaders, self directed and not overly concerned with the task or with how others view them) 64 or above = High LPC (motivated by relationships) Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  49. 49. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  50. 50. Contingency Theory  By measuring a leader’s LPC score and three situational variables, one can predict whether the leader is going to be successful in a particular setting.  It is important to note that contingency theory stresses that leaders are NOT successful in all situations. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  51. 51. Contingency TheoryPros This theory is predictive and therefore provides useful information about the type of leadership that is most likely to be successful in a specific context Does not require people to be successful in all situations (perfection is not required) Data from this theory could be useful to organizations in developing leadership profiles Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  52. 52. Contingency TheoryCons Fails to fully explain why people with certain leadership styles are more effective in situations than others Questions regarding the LPC scale have been made because it does not correlate well with other standard leadership measures. LPC instructions are not clear – leaders are unsure how to choose a least preferred coworker Also fails to explain what to do when there is a mismatch between the leader and the situation in the workplace Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  53. 53. Path-Goal Theory Path Goal theory is about how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals The stated goal of leadership is to enhance employee performance and employee satisfaction by focusing on employee motivation Emphasizes the relationship between the leader’s style and characteristics of the subordinates and the work setting The leader must use a style that best meets the subordinates motivational needs Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  54. 54. Path-Goal Theory Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  55. 55. Path-Goal TheoryLeadership Behaviors Directive leadership – leader gives instructions, expectations, time lines, and performance standards Supportive Leadership- leader is friendly and approachable, attends to the well being of subordinates, and treats everyone as equals Participative Leadership- leader invites subordinates to give ideas, share opinions and integrates their suggestions into the decision making process Achievement-Oriented Leadership- leader challenges subordinates to perform at the highest level possible. Leader has high standards of excellence and seeks continuous improvement. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  56. 56. Path-Goal TheorySubordinate Characteristics Need for affiliation- prefer supportive leadership Preferences for structure – prefer directive leadership Desires of control- prefer participative leadership Self-perceived level of task ability- prefer achievement orientated leadership Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  57. 57. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  58. 58. Path-Goal TheoryPros Helps understand how leader behavior effects subordinates satisfaction and work performance Deals directly with motivation – one of the only theories to address this Provides a very practical model – make a clear path and follow it Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  59. 59. Team Leader Effectiveness Checklist- ApplicationInstructionsThink over the last 6 months and indicate by ticking theappropriate column how frequently you demonstratedthe behaviors described for each statement. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  60. 60. Leadership Questionnaire – Application An Assessment of Style - Task V People orientation The following items describe aspects of leadership behavior. Respond to each item according to the way you would most likely act if you were leader of a work group. Circle whether you would most likely behave in the described way: - always (A); frequently (F), occasionally (0); seldom (S), or never (N) Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  61. 61. Path-Goal TheoryCons This is a very complex theory that incorporates many aspects of leadership Research only partially supports the theory Fails to explain adequately the relationship between leader behavior and subordinate motivation Treats leadership as a one way street, places a majority of the responsibility on the leader Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  62. 62. Leadership skills &Tactics Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  63. 63. Leadership Skills ; Persuasion skills Motivational skills Conflict resolution skills Leadership tactics Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  64. 64. Persuasion skills Consider a situation where a company has to take an important decision about funding a lucrative yet risky project. …..! Learn how to persuade by analyzing whom to persuade Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  65. 65. How to persuade a Skeptics Skeptics are highly  Gain as much credibility suspicious Skeptics trust same  Find out something backgrounds common with him They don’t like oppositions  Handle them delicately, if or challenges thrown to they are wrong correct them smartly Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  66. 66. How to persuade a Charismatic Charismatic are talkative  Persuader should control the & enthusiastic urge to match his enthusiasm They look for facts to  Don’t hide the facts, discuss support their emotions the risk with him/her Charismatic have short  Present information at attention span earliest While deciding they take  Give them one and give time suggestions from high profile executes Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  67. 67. How to persuade a Followers Followers rely on past  Make them feel confident decisions made give E.g. They fear making  Provide testimonials & take a wrong choices safe dwell in past  Don’t suggest out of box Followers like proven ideas and reliable ideas. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  68. 68. How to persuade a Charismatic Thinker are more  Persuader should communicate academic and logical the draw – backs initially They like arguments  Using presentations and which are quantitative arguments to appeal their and backed by data intelligence They don’t forget bad  Talk intellectually and proposal experiences and have should appear to be best option contradictory view Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  69. 69. Persuasion skills Exercise ; ApplicationObjectiveEach team has to persuade an independent delegate to join their team.Setup Dividing the group into two teams with the exception of one person who acts as an independent delegate. Each team occupies one side of the room while the independent person sits on a chair in the middle of the room between the two teams. Each team has five minutes to brainstorm and make a case to pursue the independent delegate to join their team. Finally, one representative from each team has one minute to present their case to the independent person and pursue him or her to join their team. TimingActivity: 10 minutesGroup Feedback: 20 minutes. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  70. 70. Motivational Skills  How do one ensures high level of enthusiasm and commitment during bad times?????????................  Motivating people is not as easy as it sounds Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  71. 71. General Methods of Motivation Truth as the highest virtue Desire to be great Communicate, communicate & communicate Sharing the burden of risk Motivating by caring Motivating people at different levels Motivating by setting difficult goals Motivating in times of crisis Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  72. 72. Motivating frontline staff Emotionally energies frontline people How? Take an example of US Marine Corps Who invested time and energy to cultivate strong values, Encouraging to take up leadership positions Clarity between team and leader Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  73. 73. Motivating Problem PeopleMotivational lectures, cash incentives, or memos etc … will it motivate all of them?What about problem employees… or difficult people…! Learn more about them, about yourself and about situation Have a range of alternatives Have a formal one to one sessions Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  74. 74. Conflict resolution skills What to do? Skills required are:  Listening  Questioning  Communicating  Non verbal signs  Mediation skills Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  75. 75. Workshop - Application You are highly recommended to do the following steps by yourself; A model of Power & Influence Relations with Subordinates Relations with superiors How do effective leaders deal with their superiors? Model of effectiveness and influence Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  76. 76. Leadership TacticsA model of Power & Influence Relationships beyond chain of command  Step 1: identify the people who have to be led How do leaders identify these relationships?  Step 2: identify people who may resist cooperation How do leaders assess power?  Step 3: develop relationship with resisting parties How do leaders develop such relationships?  Step 4: good relations & good communication Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  77. 77. A model of Power & Influence continue…. Relations with Subordinates Relations with superiors How do effective leaders deal with their superiors ? Evaluate your boss strength and weakness Evaluate your strength and weakness Build a relationship & maintain it Communicate, utilize his time prudently Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  78. 78. Model of effectiveness and influence Setting Agenda Building Network Implementing agenda Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  79. 79. Assignment – Application Develop a personal action plan to develop Your leadership style  Sample is attached … Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  80. 80. Thank You Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  81. 81. GIHAN ABOUELEISH Motivating Employees Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  82. 82. LEARNING OUTLINEWhat Is Motivation?  Define motivation.  Explain motivation as a need-satisfying process.Theories of Motivation  Old Theories of Motivation  Contemporary Theories of Motivation  Motivators.  Motivation & Goals.  Motivation and Behavior  Designing Motivating Jobs.  Motivation and Perception .  Issues in Motivation.  From Theory to Practice; Guidelines for Motivating Employees Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  83. 83. motivation Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  84. 84. What Is Motivation? Motivation  Is the result of an interaction between the person and a situation; it is not a personal trait.  Is the process by which a person‟s efforts are energized, directed, and sustained towards attaining a goal. Energy: a measure of intensity or drive. Direction: toward organizational goals Persistence: exerting effort to achieve goals.  Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goals. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  85. 85. Definition Getting results through people Getting the best out of people Peters&Waterman: “Management‟s principal job is to get the herd heading roughly west.” Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  86. 86. Motivation“A great man is one who can make a smallman feel great, and perform great.” Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  87. 87. Motivation theoriesPeople work to satisfy their needs. People work to satisfy their needs. They work at their best when they are achieving the greatest satisfaction from their work. The motivational theorists focus on  examining human needs  considering how the needs are met and can be better met in work Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  88. 88. Whom do we need to motivate?  “telling role”: the subordinates  “selling role”: equals and superiors “There is nothing I cannot achieve provided that my boss gets the credit for it.” Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  89. 89. Theories of Motivation Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs MacGregor‟s Theories X and Y Herzberg‟s Two-Factor Theory Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  90. 90. Theories of MotivationMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory  Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higher-order needs. Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs. Satisfied needs will no longer motivate. Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy.  Hierarchy of needs Lower-order (external): physiological, safety Higher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  91. 91. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Most Needs Have To Do With Survival Physically And Psychologically PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS Food, drink, shelter, sex, warmth, physical comfort Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  92. 92. Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsOn the whole an individual cannot satisfy any level unlessneeds below are “satisfied”Robinson Crusoe’s first thoughts were to find water, food and shelter. His second was to build a stockade and to get in reserves of food and water. SAFETY NEEDS Freedom from danger and want PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  93. 93. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SOCIAL NEEDS Friendship, love, affection, belongingness SAFETY NEEDS PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  94. 94. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ESTEEM NEEDS Ego, status, respect, prestige, promotion, influence, power, recognition,et. LOVE, AFFECTION, AND BELONGINGNESS NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  95. 95. Maslow’s Definition of aSelf-actualized Person Has no mental illness Satisfied in basic needs Fully exploited talents Motivated by values Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  96. 96. Characteristics of Self-actualizing persons Superior perception of reality Increased acceptance of self, of others, and of nature Increased spontaneity Increased detachment and desire for privacy Greater freshness of appreciation and richness of emotional reaction Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  97. 97. Characteristics of Self-actualizing persons Increased autonomy and resistance to conformity Higher frequency of peak experiences Increased identification with the human species Improved interpersonal experiences More democratic character structure High levels of creativity Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  98. 98. The Relevance of the theory Deprivation at a lower level, causes loss of interest in higher level needs. A satisfying job at the higher levels will raise the level of tolerance or deprivation at the lower levels. When a need at a given level is satisfied, the law of diminishing returns set in. Oversatisfying of a need may produce a sense of guilt and/or deliberate self- deprivation. Different people will feel needs with different levels of intensity. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  99. 99. Theories of MotivationMcGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y  Theory X Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision.  Theory Y Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility, and like to work.  Assumption: Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  100. 100. McGregors Theory Y The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. People can exercise self-direction and self- control in the service of objectives to which they are committed. The average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility. The capacity for creativity in solving problems is widely distributed among population. Motivation occurs at the social, ego, and self- realization levels as well as at the first two levels. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  101. 101. McGregors Theory X People inherently dislike work and will avoid it if they can. People must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened in order to make them work. The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, and has relatively little ambition. Most people have little capacity for creativity for solving problems. Motivation occurs only at the first two levels. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  102. 102. Theories of Motivation;Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors.  Hygiene factors: extrinsic ( job environment) factors that create job dissatisfaction.  Motivators: intrinsic (psychological factors/job content) factors that create job satisfaction. Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  103. 103. Contrasting Views of Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction Exhibit 16–3 Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  104. 104. Exhibit 16–2 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  105. 105. Motivators Achievement: This is a measure of the opportunities for you to use your full capabilities and make a worthwhile contribution. Responsibility: A measure of freedom of action in decision-taking, style and job development. Recognition: An indication of the amount and quality of all kinds of „feedback‟, whether good or bad, about how you are getting on in the job. Advancement: This shows the potential of the job in terms promotion. The story of the monkey. Work itself: The interest of the job, usually involving variety, challenge and personal conviction of one‟s significance. Personal Growth: Opportunities of learning and maturing. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  106. 106. Contemporary Theories of Motivation Three-Needs Theory Goal-Setting Theory Reinforcement Theory Designing Motivating Jobs Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  107. 107. Motivation and NeedsThree-Needs Theory (McClelland)There are three major acquired needs thatare major motives in work. Need for achievement (nAch) The drive to excel and succeed Need for power (nPow) The need to influence the behavior of others Need of affiliation (nAff) The desire for interpersonal relationships Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  108. 108. Examples of Pictures Used for Assessing Levels of nAch, nAff, Exhibit 16–4and nPow Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  109. 109. McCleland’s Self-Motivated AchieverMost people have a motivation to achieve but only in 10% ofthe population achieve their goals.The percentage (10%) is likely to be much higher in certainjobs, like management.High-achievers share three major characteristics.  They like to set their own goals. They want the victory or defeat to be unmistakably theirs.  They tend to avoid extremes of difficulty in selecting goals. They prefer moderate goals.  They prefer tasks which provide them with more or less immediate feedback.  Effect of monetary incentives is rather complex. They are normally working at peak efficiency anyway. They prefer to place a high price on their jobs. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  110. 110. Motivation Exercise: What do You Want forReward - ApplicationPurpose We all want a better life, better job, more money, better recognition and so on. But do we really know what satisfies us the most in case we were going to be rewarded? Does your organization know what you would consider as a great reward?Objective Design a questionnaire on preferred rewards and recognitions for your subordinates. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  111. 111. Motivation Exercise: What do YouWant for Reward- QuestionnairePurpose This exercise is effectively a questionnaire that you can provide to members of staff on a periodic basis (e.g. annually) to collect ideas on rewards and recognitions.Objective Fill in the questionnaire on preferred rewards and recognitions. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  112. 112. Motivation and GoalsGoal-Setting Theory Proposes that setting goals that are accepted, specific, and challenging yet achievable will result in higher performance than having no or easy goals. Is culture bound to the U.S. and Canada.Benefits of Participation in Goal-Setting Increases the acceptance of goals. Fosters commitment to difficult, public goals. Provides for self-feedback (internal locus of control) that guides behavior and motivates performance (self-efficacy). Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  113. 113. Goal-Setting Theory Exhibit 16–5 Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  114. 114. Motivation and Behavior Reinforcement Theory  Assumes that a desired behavior is a function of its consequences, is externally caused, and if reinforced, is likely to be repeated. Positive reinforcement is preferred for its long-term effects on performance Ignoring undesired behavior is better than punishment which may create additional dysfunctional behaviors. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  115. 115. Designing Motivating JobsJob DesignThe way into which tasks can be combined toform complete jobs.Factors influencing job design: Changing organizational environment/structure The organization‟s technology Employees‟ skill, abilities, and preferences Job enlargement Increasing the job‟s scope (number and frequency of tasks) Job enrichment Increasing responsibility and autonomy (depth) in a job. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  116. 116. Designing Motivating Jobs;Job Characteristics Model (JCM) A conceptual framework for designing motivating jobs that create meaningful work experiences that satisfy employees‟ growth needs.Five primary job characteristics: Skill variety: how many skills and talents are needed? Task identity: does the job produce a complete work? Task significance: how important is the job? Autonomy: how much independence does the jobholder have? Feedback: do workers know how well they are doing? Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  117. 117. Exhibit 16–6 Job Characteristics ModelSource: J.R. Hackman and J.L. Suttle (eds.). Improving Life at Work (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman,1977). With permission of the authors. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  118. 118. Exhibit 16–7 Guidelines for Job RedesignSource: J.R. Hackman and J.L. Suttle (eds.). Improving Life at Work (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1977).With permission of the authors. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  119. 119. Designing Motivating Jobs;Suggestions for Using the JCM; Combine tasks (job enlargement) to create more meaningful work. Create natural work units to make employees‟ work important and whole. Establish external and internal client relationships to provide feedback. Expand jobs vertically (job enrichment) by giving employees more autonomy. Open feedback channels to let employees know how well they are doing. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  120. 120. Motivation and PerceptionEquity Theory  Proposes that employees perceive what they get from a job situation (outcomes) in relation to what they put in (inputs) and then compare their inputs-outcomes ratio with the inputs- outcomes ratios of relevant others.  If the ratios are perceived as equal then a state of equity (fairness) exists.  If the ratios are perceived as unequal, inequity exists and the person feels under- or over-rewarded.  When inequities occur, employees will attempt to do something to rebalance the ratios (seek justice). Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  121. 121. Motivation and Perception ; Equity Theory (cont’d)  Employee responses to perceived inequities: Distort own or others‟ ratios. Induce others to change their own inputs or outcomes. Change own inputs (increase or decrease efforts) or outcomes (seek greater rewards). Choose a different comparison (referent) other (person, systems, or self). Quit their job. Employees are concerned with both the absolute and relative nature of organizational rewards. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  122. 122. Equity Theory Exhibit 16–8 Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  123. 123. Motivation and Perception; Equity Theory (cont’d)  Distributive justice The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals (i.e., who received what). Influences an employee‟s satisfaction.  Procedural justice  The perceived fairness of the process use to determine the distribution of rewards (i.e., how who received what).  Affects an employee‟s organizational commitment. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  124. 124. Motivation and BehaviorExpectancy Theory (Vroom) States that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. Key to the theory is understanding and managing employee goals and the linkages among and between effort, performance and rewards.  Effort: employee abilities and training/development  Performance: valid appraisal systems  Rewards (goals): understanding employee needs Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  125. 125. Simplified Expectancy ModelExhibit 16–9 Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  126. 126. Motivation and Behavior;Expectancy RelationshipsExpectancy (effort-performance linkage) The perceived probability that an individual‟s effort will result in a certain level of performance. Instrumentality The perception that a particular level of performance will result in the attaining a desired outcome (reward). Valence The attractiveness/importance of the performance reward (outcome) to the individual. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  127. 127. Integrating Contemporary Theories of MotivationExhibit 16–10 Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  128. 128. Current Issues in Motivation Cross-Cultural Challenges Motivational programs are most applicable in cultures where individualism and quality of life are cultural characteristics Uncertainty avoidance of some cultures inverts Maslow‟s needs hierarchy. The need for achievement (nAch) is lacking in other cultures. Collectivist cultures view rewards as “entitlements” to be distributed based on individual needs, not individual performance. Cross-Cultural Consistencies Interesting work is widely desired, as is growth, achievement, and responsibility. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  129. 129. Current Issues in Motivation; Motivating Unique Groups of Workers Motivating a diverse workforce through flexibility: Men desire more autonomy than do women. Women desire learning opportunities, flexible work schedules, and good interpersonal relations. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  130. 130. Current Issues in Motivation; Flexible Work/Job schedules Compressed work week  Longer daily hours, but fewer days Flexible work hours (flextime)  Specific weekly hours with varying arrival, departure, lunch and break times around certain core hours during which all employees must be present.  Job Sharing  Two or more people split a full-time job.  Telecommuting Employees work from home using computer links. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  131. 131. Current Issues in Motivation;Motivating ProfessionalsCharacteristics of professionals  Strong and long-term commitment to their field of expertise.  Loyalty is to their profession, not to the employer.  Have the need to regularly update their knowledge.  Don‟t define their workweek as 8:00 am to 5:00 pm.Motivators for professionals Job challenge Organizational support of their work Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  132. 132. Current Issues in Motivation;Motivating Contingent Workers  Opportunity to become a permanent employee  Opportunity for training  Equity in compensation and benefitsMotivating Low-Skilled, Minimum-WageEmployees  Employee recognition programs  Provision of sincere praise Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  133. 133. Current Issues in Motivation;Designing Appropriate Rewards Programs  Open-book management Involving employees in workplace decision by opening up the financial statements of the employer.  Employee recognition programs Giving personal attention and expressing interest, approval, and appreciation for a job well done.  Pay-for-performance Variable compensation plans that reward employees on the basis of their performance: Piece rates, wage incentives, profit-sharing, and lump-sum bonuses Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  134. 134. Current Issues in Motivation;Designing Appropriate Rewards Programs  Stock option programs Using financial instruments (in lieu of monetary compensation) that give employees the right to purchase shares of company stock at a set (option) price. Options have value if the stock price rises above the option price; they become worthless if the stock price falls below the option price. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  135. 135. Exhibit 16–11 Recommendations for Designing Stock Options* Vesting refers to the time that must pass before a person can exercise the option.Source: P. Brandes, R. Dharwadkar, and G.V. Lemesis, “Effective Employee Stock Option Design: Reconciling Stakeholder, Strategic, and Motivational Factors,”Academy of Management Executive, February 2003, p. 84. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  136. 136. Recommendations for Designing Stock OptionsExhibit 16–11Source: P. Brandes, R. Dharwadkar, and G.V. Lemesis, “Effective Employee Stock Option Design: Reconciling Stakeholder, Strategic, and Motivational Factors,”Academy of Management Executive, February 2003, p. 84. Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  137. 137. The Leadership MotivationAssessment - ApplicationHow to Use the Tool: To use this tool, show the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements on a scale running from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree). For each statement, click the button in the column that best describes you. Please answer questions as you actually are (rather than how you think you should be), and dont worry if some questions seem to score in the wrong direction. When you are finished, please Calculate the Total Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  138. 138. From Theory to Practice:Guidelines for Motivating Employees Use goals  Check the system for equity Ensure that goals are  Use recognition perceived as attainable  Show care and concern for Individualize rewards employees Link rewards to  Don‟t ignore money performance Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish
  139. 139. Thank You Leadership & Motivation - Gihan Aboueleish