Explotacion infantil 1


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  • 19/06/13
  • 19/06/13
  • 19/06/13
  • 19/06/13
  • 19/06/13
  • 19/06/13
  • 19/06/13
  • 19/06/13
  • 19/06/13
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  • Explotacion infantil 1

    1. 1. Child exploitation in theVictorian era
    2. 2. The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of its industrial revolution and theapex of the British Empire. Although this term is commonly used to refer to the extensive reignof Victoria I (20 June 1837-22 January 1901), some scholars anticipate the start of the period,characterized by profound changes in the cultural sensitivities and concerns policies, to theenactment of the 1832 Reform Act. Historically, this stage was preceded by the Regency andcontinued by the Edwardian period. Queen Victoria, with 64 years on the throne, had the longestreign in the history of British monarchs, and the cultural, political, economic, industrial andscientific that occurred during his reign were extraordinary. When Victoria ascended the throne,England was essentially agrarian and rural; to her death, the country was highly industrializedand most of its territory, connected by a rail network, continued to expand..The Young Victoria
    3. 3. Children exploited in theVictorian era
    4. 4. Charles Dickenss novel, Oliver Twist is the best reflection of child labor inVictorian times, which bursts onto the scene in 1838 and falls as "cold water" tothe British. With a scathing critique of social hypocrisy, justice institutions, hunger,working conditions and child mortality.The average life time was about 40 years. Adult death was from tuberculosis, whilechildren died of measles, smallpox and starvation. Child workers in the textileindustry could also have TB with dust and moisture, as well as asthma or allergies,scoliosis or rickets.Poor working conditionscaused childrens death
    5. 5. The industrial Revolutionmonopolized child labor for jobssuch as mining or textileindustry,often causing accidentsand deaths to children workingon the machines in operation.Disadvantaged children inEngland were in charge of thechurches, who sold them toindustries through newspaperadvertisements when they nolonger wanted to keep them orwhen they had too. Often tradewas done without parentalconsent.From the age of four were wantedto be "trained" on the machines,working in the mines, clean partsof machinery or broken threads.Child mining exploitation
    6. 6. Children at work
    7. 7. The working classObviously, the life of the working class was harder, and their main occupation in lifewas survival. In a low-class family usually worked all members. The childrendeveloped multiple jobs, some very dangerous and extreme hardness. The women,whose wages were lower than those of men, working as maids, seamstresses or inthe textile industry, even there were women who worked in the mines, althoughconsidered rigid Victorian morality was not a womens own work, not the risksinvolved, but because they believed that the proximity of men and women in aconfined space was not morally acceptable. Women who had been fortunate to havehad access to cultural preparation, could work as teachers or as nannies instructingthe children of wealthy families.
    8. 8. AgricultureFarmers in the Victorian Era were very common, especially within familymembers. Children started working in the field at around age five. Being afarmer during this era was risky because of the unpredictable weatherconditions. They had to be very careful with soil and watering. Even thoughpeople work for many hours on the field, the effort would be easily lost if thecrops weren’t fresh and healthy. Farming was not as easy at it seemed becausebeing outside in the beaming sunlight all day isn’t very comfortable.
    9. 9. ProstitutionProstitution in the Victorian Era was considered "a fate thats worsethan death" to women. Men with money were willing to pay a standardpricing of about twenty pounds for a healthy working-class girl betweenthe ages of fourteen and eighteen. Men were willing to pay a hundredpounds for a middle-class girl of the same age; and as much as fourhundred pounds for a child from the upper class under the age oftwelve. It was very common for a young girl to experience their firstsexual experience this way. Not only that, but it was also common toget a sexually transmitted disease because of no safe treatment.
    10. 10. Child MaidsAt around the age of twelve,children were hired to work asmaids or nursery maids. Maidswere normally girls that helpedtake care of children or cleanaround the house. When oldermaids were hired, they wereexpected to cook food for theirmaster. Life as a maid wasntvery good, but it wasconsidered alright because yourmaster would provide food foryou to eat.
    11. 11. Child thievesBeing a thief in the Victorian Era was a risky job. It took a lot of time to becomea skilled thief. They were usually taught techniques to use to take someonesbelongings. For example: in the book Oliver Twist, Charles Dickens uses thecharacter Fagin to show us how he taught his “students” to steal. When youwere a thief, your boss expected you to come back with money or something ofgood value. Therefore, if you came back empty handed, you would have mostlikely been punished.
    12. 12. ScavengersA scavengers job was to get under the factory’s machines, and get allthe bits of fluff that got caught there. Being a scavenger was ahazardous job for children because they could easily get caught underthe machinery and die, or get seriously injured.
    13. 13. Childrens rights are defined in numerous ways, including a widespectrum of civil, cultural, economic, social and political rights.Rights tend to be of two general types: those advocating forchildren as autonomous persons under the law and those placinga claim on society for protection from harms perpetrated onchildren because of their dependency. These have been labeledas the right of empowerment and as the right to protection. OneCanadian organization categorizes childrens rights into threecategories:Provision: Children have the right to an adequate standard ofliving, health care, education and services, and to play andrecreation. These include a balanced diet, a warm bed to sleep in,and access to schooling.Protection: Children have the right to protection from abuse,neglect, exploitation and discrimination. This includes the right tosafe places for children to play; constructive child rearingbehavior, and acknowledgment of the evolving capacities ofchildren.Participation: Children have the right to participate incommunities and have programs and services for themselves.This includes childrens involvement in libraries and communityprograms, youth voice activities, and involving children asdecision-makers.Current Rights of the child
    14. 14. The victims of the VictorianeraThe victims were women who earned a salary as occasionalprostitutes. The killings were perpetrated Jack typical in a publicor semi-public. The victims throat was cut from left to right (forwhat, at first it was suggested that it would be right-handed, butthen saw the possibility of a cut made grabbing the victim infront), to which was followed by a abdominal mutilation,although in some cases these mutilations spread to other partsof the body. Many today believe that the victims were strangledpreviously to silence. Due to the nature of the wounds in severalof the alleged victims of the Ripper, some extracted internalorgans such as the uterus, has proposed the idea that themurderer had a certain degree of knowledge of anatomy. Forthis reason, it may be that they were a physician, surgeon, oreven a butcher, but this, like most beliefs about the murdererand facts about the case, is much discussed.
    15. 15. The children of that time
    16. 16. The culture of opium andits derivativesDespite the strict Victorian morality, wereextended unholy practices such as opiuminculturation, whose story most significant wasthe contribution of Thomas de Quincey in"Confessions of an English Opium Eater" whichwas widely disseminated and translated intoseveral languages , and he portrays the useand addiction to opium. Quincey took opiumaround 1804 in the form of laudanum to treat adental neuralgia, which later became hisaddiction.This is not surprising if you know that the realpharmacy freely distributing opium to thecourtiers, the same Queen Victoria wasconsumed in the form of chewing gum withcocaine, with the young Winston Churchill and,in terms of fiction, Sherlock Holmes (who soldmillions of copies) was injected cocaine as itwas often considered for people "cerebral andvery nervous." Opium was freely consumed as"social drug", eventually changing their conceptto places like the clubs where you could alsofind prostitution.
    17. 17. The Victorian houseTo the Victorians the family was the center of their lives, and the home, idyllic place totake care of. The family model of the middle and upper class itself was Queen Victoriaand her beloved husband Albert. The royal marriage and their 9 children were themirror that looked British families: a peaceful home, loving and respectable. In thefamily the father role was responsible for keeping the family, and their decisions wereunquestionable. The role of women was to be a good wife and mother - in fact until1882 a married woman was the property of her husband, the woman was as the poetsaid "the angel of the home".
    18. 18. We thank the following forproviding information pageshttp://lacasavictoriana.wordpress.com/2009/12/31/la-vida-en-la-epoca-victoriana/www.wikipedia.comwww.google.comhttp://rodriguez9-7.pbworks.com/w/page/10300534/Labor%20and%20Child%20laborhttp://42382647.nhd.weebly.com/index.html