Medical image analysis

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING FIRST REPORT

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Medical image analysis

  1. 1. MEDICAL IMAGE ANALYSIS
  2. 2. Introduction• Technology today is extremely advanced and now physicians can call upon a variety of imaging techniques to help examine the inside of the body and therefore make an accurate diagnosis such as Scans and images of the body.
  3. 3. Goal and purpose• To see host of health problems and abnormalities – Prevention – Cure• Purpose of study – More ethical – Simpler – convenient
  4. 4. Digital image• In modern medicine, medical imaging has undergone major advancements. Today, this ability to achieve information about the human body has many useful clinical applications. Over the years, different sorts of medical imaging have been developed, each with their own advantages and disadvantages.
  5. 5. Types of medical imagery• Radiologic technology• Ultrasound technology• CT Scans• MRI Scan
  6. 6. 2 Broad Category• The first is the imaging of the anatomy.• The second is imaging of function‘
  7. 7. Radiologic technology
  8. 8. Radiologic technology• This is much more commonly known as X-ray technology, and this is probably the most well known type of image taken of the body. A radiologic technologist is responsible for carrying out x-ray examinations.
  9. 9. X-ray procedure• a procedure where a small dose of radiation passes through the body, some of the rays being absorbed as they go and all traveling at different speeds. These rays are projected onto special film which produces an image of the inside of the body.
  10. 10. X ray Samples
  11. 11. Ultrasound technology
  12. 12. Ultrasound technology• Usually an ultrasound is the imaging solution for examining fetuses within the womb. Ultrasound technology can view body structures in a way that X- rays cannot and provides a clearer and more in depth picture. Although pregnancy is a common reason for using ultrasound technology.
  13. 13. Ultra sound Process• A transducer, or probe, is used to project and receive the sound waves and the return signals.• A gel is wiped onto the patients skin so that the sound waves are not distorted as they cross through the skin.
  14. 14. Process Continuation• Using their understanding of human anatomy and the machine, the technician can evaluate specific structures• The goal will be to "paint" a shadow picture of the inner organ that the health care practitioner has asked to be visualized.
  15. 15. Ultrasounds• Ultrasound produces sound waves that are beamed into the body causing return echoes that are recorded to "visualize" structures beneath the skin.• The technology is especially accurate at seeing the interface between solid and fluid filled spaces.
  16. 16. Ultra Sound Facts• Sound waves cannot penetrate deeply, and an obese patient may be imaged poorly.• Ultrasound does not penetrate bone easily.• The accuracy of the test is very much operator dependent. This means that the key to a good test is the ultrasound technician.
  17. 17. Ultrasound vs. Sonogram• Ultra sound – An ultrasound is the machine that allows you to see your baby during your pregnancy.• Sonogram – A sonogram is the picture taken of your baby during the ultrasound.
  18. 18. Sample Pictures
  19. 19. Sample Pictures
  20. 20. CT Scans / CAT scans• CT scan – Computer Tomography• CAT scan – Computerized Axial Tomography
  21. 21. CT scan / CAT scan• A more advanced type of scan that can be used to examine the whole body from the brain to the ligaments.• It uses radiation in the same way of traditional X-rays, however images that are taken are processed by CT software to provide doctors with a 3D image of the body.
  22. 22. Advantages• way it is a very effective type of scan• It is a non-invasive procedure• capable of detecting most serious illnesses including the majority of cancers and tumors
  23. 23. CT Scan At A Glance• CT scanning adds x-ray images with the aid of a computer to generate cross-sectional views of anatomy.• CT scanning can identify normal and abnormal structures and be used to guide procedures.• CT scanning is painless.
  24. 24. Basic CT Scan Set-up
  25. 25. CT Scan Images
  26. 26. MRI Technology
  27. 27. MRI• An MRI stands for magnetic resonance image.• A special radiology technique designed to image internal structures of the body using magnetism, radio waves, and a computer to produce the images of body structures.
  28. 28. Image Acquisition• MRI does not depend on ionizing radiation• Instead, while in the magnet, radio waves redirect the axes of spinning protons, which are the nuclei of hydrogen atoms, in a strong magnetic field.• The magnetic field is produced by passing an electric current through wire coils in most MRI units. Other coils, located in the machine, send and receive radio waves, producing signals that are detected by the coils.
  29. 29. Image Acquisition• A computer then processes the signals and generates a series of images each of which shows a thin slice of the body. The images can then be studied from different angles by the interpreting radiologist.
  30. 30. Basic MRI Set-up
  31. 31. MRI images
  32. 32. Nuclear Imaging
  33. 33. Nuclear Medicine• Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine the severity of or treat a variety of diseases, including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body
  34. 34. Nuclear Imaging• 2 types – Positron emission tomography – single photon emission computed tomography
  35. 35. Positron emission tomography• PET. A highly specialized imaging technique that uses short-lived radioactive substances to produce three-dimensional colored images of those substances functioning within the body. These images are called PET scans and the technique is termed PET scanning.
  36. 36. About PET• provides information about the bodys chemistry• studies metabolic, blood flow, oxygen use, and sugar activity of body function.• PET has been used primarily in cardiology, neurology, and oncology.
  37. 37. Procedure• the patient receives a short half-lived radiopharmaceutical or radiotrace• This radioactive material accumulates in the organ or area being examined, where it gives off a small amount of energy in the form of gamma rays.• A gamma camera, PET scanner, or probe detects this energy and creates pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your body.
  38. 38. PET scan images
  39. 39. SPECT• single photon emission computed tomography• is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays.• It is very similar to conventional nuclear medicine planar imaging using a gamma camera.• However, it is able to provide true 3D information. This information is typically presented as cross-sectional slices through the patient
  40. 40. PET vs. SPECTPositron emission single photon emission computedtomography tomography• cardiology, neurology, and • SPECT Scan is capable of oncology use PET Scanning. providing information about• PET image can map the blood flow to tissue. biological function of an • It is a sensitive diagnostic organ, can detect subtle tool used to detect stress metabolic changes, fracture and tumor. determine if a disease is • Analyzing blood flow to an active or dormant. organ may help to determine how well it is functioning.
  41. 41. Agpalakpak Kayo met Ahhh• 4 types of medical imagery• Meaning of PET and SPECT• differentiate sonogram to ultrasound

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