On becoming a
journalist
aka
Active Index
• Understanding news
• Gathering news
• Leads
• News story structure
• Writing news
• Layout
• Interviews
• F...
Understanding
news
Understanding
News
• Hard News = significant
events
• Soft News = less significant
but larger audience
Three factors to all
news:
•facts
•interest
•audience
Six qualities to all
news. It must be:
•Accurate
•Balanced
•Objective
•Concise
•Clear
•Timely
News Values
• Timeliness
• Proximity
• Consequence
• Prominence
• Drama
• Oddity
• Conflict
• Progress
• Emotions
• Sex
Gathering
news
GATHERING NEWS
•Research = 70%
•Writing = 20%
•Proofreading = 10%
Sources of news:
• Beats
• Handbook
• Press Releases
• City newspaper
• Magazines
• Tips
• Snack, lunch
• Club activities
...
To succeed...
•You must have a
Nose for
News
Characteristics of a
good reporter
• curiosity
• sincere concern and sense of
justice
• Objectivity
Characteristics of a
good reporter
• Ability to interview strangers
• Ability to inspire confidence
and make people feel a...
Characteristics of a good
reporter
• Resourcefulness and persistence
• Ability to write and speak
standard English
• Keen ...
5 Ws and H are basic
requirements but not
enough to make someone
remark, "Wow! Great
story."
• Dig deep • Make facts
inter...
Leads
All About Leads
• Feature the feature
• Clothesline WWWWHW
• Colored Clothesline -- quote,
eye-catcher, comment;
• Include...
Begin by
determining which
of the 5Ws&H is the
feature to feature
Leads
•"Fire raged through a
Chicago elementary school
on Sunday, injuring two
firemen and destroying a
brand new auditori...
"Two firemen were
injured in a Chicago
elementary school
fire that destroyed a
brand new
auditorium last
Sunday."
"The brand new
auditorium of a Chicago
elementary school was
gutted Sunday by a fire
that left two firemen
injured."
Avoid starting with
articles like The
and A or dates
(“When” is seldom the lead)
Finding the lead
• Yuck! The Benicia High School band
won first place in state competitions.
• Yuck! On Tuesday, October 9...
News structure
News article structure:
•The Inverted Pyramid
News article structure:
•The Inverted Pyramid
Most important
Followed by
Least
im-
port-
ant
First things first:
Push the facts to the
front and cut the crap
Be precise
Make every word
count
Brevity doesn't
excuse reporters
from being accurate
and thorough
To complete the pyramid
• End the story in the last two
paragraphs
• This way the last paragraph
can be cut without affect...
Writing news
WRITING NEWS
• Why is this story important?
• Is it an advance or a follow-up story?
• Do not editorialize
• Remain object...
WRITING NEWS
• Why is this story important?
• Is it an advance or a follow-up story?
• Do not editorialize
• Remain object...
WRITING NEWS
No Mr., No Mrs., No Ms.
• Introduce every person with a
title or description. Then use
only the last name
• N...
Layout
Layout: dummy up
• Dummy the entire newspaper
& each dept
• Place ads first
Headlines
Text
Pictures
Ads
Layout: ad placement
• Place ads across the bottom to
rise toward the inside
Layout: Master Pages
•Design Master Page
with repeating
elements: folios,
flags, logos, ads
Layout: headlines
•The headline is the purest
condensation of the story’s
key focus
•It must capture the eye,
lure, entice...
Layout: headlines
• Headlines must have a strong verb
• They must be sentences, not labels
• Verb “to be” is omitted: is, ...
Layout: headlines vs labels
•HL: Earthquake in Turkey kills 20,000
Label: Turkish earthquake
• HL: Terrorists bomb Childre...
Layout: headlines
•Point size should decrease
as you go down the page
• Headlines must fit over the entire
story
• Use dow...
Layout: standards
• Folio contains “Page” #, month
& year, dept name IN CAPS
• Save fancy fonts for ads
• Don’t jump more ...
Layout: photos
•Pictures must have
borders and captions
•Pictures must be light
and well defined
Layout: consider breaking up large
blocks of text with something…
Subtitles
Sidebars
Pull quotes
Bold facing
Interviews
INTERVIEWS
•Types:
•News
•Personality
•Symposium
Steps in conducting
INTERVIEWS:
• Schedule early!
• Learn all you can beforehand
• Write any and every question
you can th...
Steps in conducting
INTERVIEWS:
• If important, take note of person's dress,
surroundings, mannerisms
• Bring a recorder i...
Steps in conducting
INTERVIEWS:
• When notetaking, maintain a balance:
don't bury your nose in your notebook
and don't exp...
Steps in conducting
INTERVIEWS:
• End by asking if the person
has anything to say that you
haven't asked
• Advise that you...
Steps in conducting
INTERVIEWS:
• Get permission to follow-up
with a phone call or a drop by
if you need any more info
• O...
Writing the Interview:
•Avoid Q & A
•Stay out of the picture
Writing the Interview:
•Use "said" synonyms
sparingly
•Use a quote early
•Use plenty of quotes
Writing the Interview:
•Alternate between
quotes and paraphrases
•Use quotes from other
people
Features
FEATURES
• They may inform, instruct, advise, but
their primary purpose is to entertain
• They are factual, and can relate...
Types of Features:
• News feature
• Human interest
• Character sketch
• Writing the Feature:
• All the other rules of news...
Sports
Writing Sports Stories:
• Don't editorialize, but you have more
freedom than regular news reporters.
• Support opinions wi...
Sports Layout:
• Sports can have hard, soft news,
interviews, surveys, all the
elements of the entire paper
• Special Note...
Editorials &
Personal
Opinion
Editorials & Personal Opinion
•Editorial = staff
opinion
•Personal = author’s
opinion
Editorials & Personal Opinion
•Opinions based on
fact and reason
•Opinions with some
mass appeal
Editorials & Personal Opinion
•Avoid over
generalization
•Use examples and
specific, concrete details
•Quote sources
Reviews
REVIEWS
• Goal is to introduce people to good
entertainment and protect them from
crap
• Reviews are critical analysis
• T...
Steps in reviewing:
•Take notebook
•Take notes
•Get all names: actors,
characters, performers,
hosts
Film review: Analysis
• plot,
• conflict,
• setting,
• tone,
• character,
• actor,
• editing,
• cinematography,
• sound tr...
Steps in reviewing:
•Write review immediately
after the performance
•Support all critical analysis
with example
Steps in reviewing:
•Don't write a PLOT
SUMMARY!
•Write a CRITICAL
ANALYSIS
Steps in reviewing:
• Summarizing a story is O.K., but
it shouldn't be more than 20% of
the story…
• …and don’t give away ...
Surveys
SURVEYS
•Two kinds:
•Opinion Polls
•Questionnaire Survey
Opinion Polls:
• Ask one open-ended, controversial
or entertaining question to a
balanced variety of individuals
• Get equ...
Opinion Polls:
• Gather twice as many responses
as you intend to publish
• Extract the best quotes and
organize them
• Che...
Questionnaire Surveys:
• Devise a topic
• Create a list of
opinion and value
questions on a
related topic
• Agree/disagree...
Questionnaire Surveys:
•Statistical Significance
begins at 10-percent
•Distribute enough
questionnaires to gather
15-perce...
Questionnaire Surveys:
•Survey of just freshmen
would require 20-percent
of freshmen only
•Survey of teachers would
requir...
Questionnaire Surveys:
• Finish early because you must
• Tabulate the results and
determine percentages
• Submit your surv...
Questionnaire Surveys:
•Edit in the questions that
elicited the best
responses
•Layout the page
yourself
Questionnaire Surveys:
• Write an intro paragraph that
explains the nature and purpose
of the survey and how many
votes yo...
Style
Every newspaper sets a style
for consistency of design
and word use
• In many ways it simply
follows traditional
grammatic...
Titles of apposition
• Short titles go before a name
in caps: Principal Bob Jones
• Long titles go after a name, in
low ca...
Capitalize
the
following:
All titles that precede names
•Principal Jones
•Coach Hayes
•President Smith
First and all words in titles except for
articles, prepositions of one to three
letters, and conjunctions
•The Holiday Col...
Holidays
•Christmas
•Labor Day
•Valentine's Day
Special Events
•Homecoming
•Homecoming Game
•Prom
Sections of the Country but
not directions
•She lived in the South
•She moved south for the
winter
College Degrees
when abbreviated
•M.A.
•Ph.D.
•B.S.
Clubs
•Backpacking Club
•Chess Club
•Computer Club
Grade levels ONLY WHEN
followed by the word Class
•The Freshman Class has
closed campus
•(but The freshmen
have closed cam...
Specific Buildings
•World Trade Center
•Pentagon
•The Chrysler Building
•The Bay Bridge
Departments
•English Department
•Math Department
•Science Department
Schools
(not simply middle school or high school)
• Benicia High School competed in
the games against Benicia Middle
Schoo...
Colleges
•Brigham Young
•William and Mary
•Brown University
Streets
•1st Street
•West Way
•Bingham Avenue
Geographical names
•Hudson River
•Mt. Shasta
•The Osarks
Names of specific courses
(usually followed by number or letter)
•American History I (but
American history)
•History 101 (...
Languages
•French
•Spanish
•English
Words or abrev. Like
• No. Fig. Chart Chapter when
followed by a number
• No. 7
• Chart 16
• Chapter 1
• Fig. 32
DO NOT
CAPITALIZE:
Titles that follow names
•Ron Wheat, vice
principal
•Ron Wheat, athletics
director
Parts of time
•a.m. p.m.
•o'clock
Seasons
•winter spring summer
fall
•(but Old Man Winter)
Rooms, offices, buildings, unless
they have a proper name
• The journalism lab
• The Gibbs Memorial Journalism Lab
• The g...
Committees
•entertainment
committee
• refreshment
committee
Descriptive or occupational
words used as titles
•comedian Jerry Sienfeld
•pitcher Nolan Ryan
•actress Reese
Witherspoon
Title modifiers
•Such as former
President Clinton, the
late Princess Diana
College degrees when
spelled out
•master of arts degree
•bachelor of science
ABBREVATIONS
•Avoid all but standard
abbreviations
Abbreviate
the
Following:
Names that are well known as
abbreviations
• YMCA, PTA, FBI, BHS, NASA
•(remove the periods and
write it as a word)
Certain titles when they
precede names
•Dr.
•Rev. (always preceded by
"the" if spelled out)
•The Reverend Jessie
Jackson
All military titles
•Sgt.
•Lt.
•Pvt.
•Gen.
Names of states when they
follow names of cities
•(except short states like
Ohio or Utah)
•Madison, Wis.; Buffalo,
N.Y.; b...
Names of months when
followed by a date
(except short months --
April, May, June, July)
•Jan. 27, 1954
College Degrees
•B.A.
•Ph.D.
•D.D.
Do Not Abbreviate the
Following:
• State names
• Titles following a name
• Days of the week
• States when used without a c...
Do Not Abbreviate the
Following:
• Department
• Christmas
• 1999 not '99 (But Heather Deal, '99)
• United States as a noun...
DEALING WITH
NUMBERS
•Spell out numbers up to
and including nine. Then
use digits
•Seven, eight, nine, 10, 11,
12, 13
Exception: always use digits
to write
• Dates
• Scores
• Addresses
• Ages
• Time
• Money
• April 7, 2000
• Benicia 26, Con...
Do not begin a sentence with
digits
• Don't say: 25 students missed
the deadline
• Say: Twenty-five students
missed the de...
Do not use d, rd, st,
or th in dates
• Dec. 11, 1941, not Dec. 11th, 1941
• June 3, 2000 not June 3rd, 2000
• Streets are ...
When two numbers are used
together, avoid confusion by
spelling out the first, whether
the number is above or below nine
•...
In a list using numbers below
and above nine, use digits for all:
• Attending were 2 from the
elementary school, 13 from
t...
For sums of money below
one dollar, use digits and
the word "cents"
•10 cents, not $.10
Do not use zeros when
giving the exact hour or an
even number of dollars
•4 o'clock, not 4:00
o'clock
•$6 not $6.00
For numbers of four
or more digits, use a
comma
•1,000 64,500
PUNCTUATION
Comma
•Do not use a comma before
the word and in a series
•Red, white and blue.
Members included Lewis,
Clark and Upton
Do not use a comma
before Jr. in a name
•William Strunk Jr.
Use the semicolon in lists where the
individual items contain commas.
• The committee included Mary Ladd,
chairperson; Oli...
Quotation Marks
• Periods and commas always go
inside the quotation mark.
• The quarterback said, “That last
tackle hurt.”...
Quotation Marks
• Colons and semicolons always go
outside the quotation mark.
• Here are the “Articles of
Confederation”: ...
Quotation Marks
• Question marks and exclamation marks
go inside or outside, depending…
• John asked, “What are you doing?...
Use quotation marks around short things: one-
act plays, song titles, short stories, speeches,
sit coms, 1/2-hour T.V. sho...
Use italics on large things: three- and five-act
plays, novels, motion pictures, newspapers,
ships,CDs
• Hamlet
• Gone wit...
Italics
• Use them on foreign words that have
not become an integral part of
English
• The de facto standard was followed....
Do not put quotation
marks around
popular slang
expressions like
"groovy."
Apostrophes
• Use ' after plural nouns to show
possession
oThe students' handbook
• Use 's after singular nouns to show
po...
To ALL sports writers:
It's the girls' basketball
team, not the girl’s
basketball team.
Use apostrophe when you
omit a letter
•I'm from the class of '71.
•I like rock 'n' roll.
•Don't forget the
contractions.
Use 's to form plurals
of single letters and
numbers
•She got all a's and b's.
Do not use the apostrophe for
plurals of numbers or multiple-
letter combinations
•1960s
•ABCs
Omit the apostrophe in names of
organizations when the possessive
case is implied and in certain
geographic designations
•...
HYPHEN
•Use hyphens in compound
numbers and fractions
•Forty-five, three-fourths
Use hyphens in such
words as
•Vice-principal
•vice-president
Use a hyphen on compound
adjectives used to modify a noun
• The two-sided issue; the double-edged
sword; the 8-year-old bo...
Use two hyphens with spaces at
each end -- to represent a dash.
• Use a dash to show long
apposition.
• The quarterback --...
POLICY
Big no no:
Slander, Liable,
Profanity, Incite to
Riot
extra school-news
precautions: no flippant,
positive or enticing
references can be made to
the use of drugs, alcohol,
toba...
Say all the positive you
want about a person.
Negative comments
require you to show the
story to the person and
give them ...
The End
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Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized

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This is training for writing journalistically. I extracted it from a textbook.

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Power point from hell - Journalism Textbook Digitized

  1. 1. On becoming a journalist
  2. 2. aka
  3. 3. Active Index • Understanding news • Gathering news • Leads • News story structure • Writing news • Layout • Interviews • Features • Sports • Editorials • Reviews • Surveys and opinion polls • STYLE
  4. 4. Understanding news
  5. 5. Understanding News • Hard News = significant events • Soft News = less significant but larger audience
  6. 6. Three factors to all news: •facts •interest •audience
  7. 7. Six qualities to all news. It must be: •Accurate •Balanced •Objective •Concise •Clear •Timely
  8. 8. News Values • Timeliness • Proximity • Consequence • Prominence • Drama • Oddity • Conflict • Progress • Emotions • Sex
  9. 9. Gathering news
  10. 10. GATHERING NEWS •Research = 70% •Writing = 20% •Proofreading = 10%
  11. 11. Sources of news: • Beats • Handbook • Press Releases • City newspaper • Magazines • Tips • Snack, lunch • Club activities • Extra-curricular activities • Twitter • RSS Feeds • Class Site Portal • Personal Site Portal • City hall • Chamber of Commerce • City Bulletin Boards
  12. 12. To succeed... •You must have a Nose for News
  13. 13. Characteristics of a good reporter • curiosity • sincere concern and sense of justice • Objectivity
  14. 14. Characteristics of a good reporter • Ability to interview strangers • Ability to inspire confidence and make people feel at ease • Wide educational background
  15. 15. Characteristics of a good reporter • Resourcefulness and persistence • Ability to write and speak standard English • Keen observation • Extensive vocabulary
  16. 16. 5 Ws and H are basic requirements but not enough to make someone remark, "Wow! Great story." • Dig deep • Make facts interesting
  17. 17. Leads
  18. 18. All About Leads • Feature the feature • Clothesline WWWWHW • Colored Clothesline -- quote, eye-catcher, comment; • Include as many wwwwwh as possible as soon as possible • Hold one back as a tease
  19. 19. Begin by determining which of the 5Ws&H is the feature to feature
  20. 20. Leads •"Fire raged through a Chicago elementary school on Sunday, injuring two firemen and destroying a brand new auditorium." Start by featuring the feature with strong words
  21. 21. "Two firemen were injured in a Chicago elementary school fire that destroyed a brand new auditorium last Sunday."
  22. 22. "The brand new auditorium of a Chicago elementary school was gutted Sunday by a fire that left two firemen injured."
  23. 23. Avoid starting with articles like The and A or dates (“When” is seldom the lead)
  24. 24. Finding the lead • Yuck! The Benicia High School band won first place in state competitions. • Yuck! On Tuesday, October 9, the Benicia High School blah blah blah” • Better! First place went to the Benicia High School band in state competitions. • Better! Benicia wins first place in the state band competition.
  25. 25. News structure
  26. 26. News article structure: •The Inverted Pyramid
  27. 27. News article structure: •The Inverted Pyramid Most important Followed by Least im- port- ant
  28. 28. First things first: Push the facts to the front and cut the crap
  29. 29. Be precise
  30. 30. Make every word count
  31. 31. Brevity doesn't excuse reporters from being accurate and thorough
  32. 32. To complete the pyramid • End the story in the last two paragraphs • This way the last paragraph can be cut without affecting the conclusion
  33. 33. Writing news
  34. 34. WRITING NEWS • Why is this story important? • Is it an advance or a follow-up story? • Do not editorialize • Remain objective • Balance the interviews -- pro con, or authority and reaction quote
  35. 35. WRITING NEWS • Why is this story important? • Is it an advance or a follow-up story? • Do not editorialize • Remain objective • Balance the interviews -- pro con, or authority and reaction quote
  36. 36. WRITING NEWS No Mr., No Mrs., No Ms. • Introduce every person with a title or description. Then use only the last name • Never use Ms. Miss. Mrs. Or Mr.
  37. 37. Layout
  38. 38. Layout: dummy up • Dummy the entire newspaper & each dept • Place ads first Headlines Text Pictures Ads
  39. 39. Layout: ad placement • Place ads across the bottom to rise toward the inside
  40. 40. Layout: Master Pages •Design Master Page with repeating elements: folios, flags, logos, ads
  41. 41. Layout: headlines •The headline is the purest condensation of the story’s key focus •It must capture the eye, lure, entice, intrigue reader
  42. 42. Layout: headlines • Headlines must have a strong verb • They must be sentences, not labels • Verb “to be” is omitted: is, was, were, are • We do not say: • President is coming to Benicia
  43. 43. Layout: headlines vs labels •HL: Earthquake in Turkey kills 20,000 Label: Turkish earthquake • HL: Terrorists bomb Children’s Hospital •Label: Terrorist bombing
  44. 44. Layout: headlines •Point size should decrease as you go down the page • Headlines must fit over the entire story • Use down style
  45. 45. Layout: standards • Folio contains “Page” #, month & year, dept name IN CAPS • Save fancy fonts for ads • Don’t jump more than once • Jumps should NOT continue at the top of the page (if possible)
  46. 46. Layout: photos •Pictures must have borders and captions •Pictures must be light and well defined
  47. 47. Layout: consider breaking up large blocks of text with something… Subtitles Sidebars Pull quotes Bold facing
  48. 48. Interviews
  49. 49. INTERVIEWS •Types: •News •Personality •Symposium
  50. 50. Steps in conducting INTERVIEWS: • Schedule early! • Learn all you can beforehand • Write any and every question you can think of before you go
  51. 51. Steps in conducting INTERVIEWS: • If important, take note of person's dress, surroundings, mannerisms • Bring a recorder if you can • Always ask permission to use recording device and put it in plain view • Do not stick it in your person's face • Write down counter-numbers when good lines are spoken
  52. 52. Steps in conducting INTERVIEWS: • When notetaking, maintain a balance: don't bury your nose in your notebook and don't expect to memorize everything. • Jot down the essentials for paraphrasing, and capture precise sentences for quotes • Open-ended Vs close-ended questions
  53. 53. Steps in conducting INTERVIEWS: • End by asking if the person has anything to say that you haven't asked • Advise that you may condense quotes for clarity, but that you will not change meaning
  54. 54. Steps in conducting INTERVIEWS: • Get permission to follow-up with a phone call or a drop by if you need any more info • Offer to give them a proof of the story if it's warranted
  55. 55. Writing the Interview: •Avoid Q & A •Stay out of the picture
  56. 56. Writing the Interview: •Use "said" synonyms sparingly •Use a quote early •Use plenty of quotes
  57. 57. Writing the Interview: •Alternate between quotes and paraphrases •Use quotes from other people
  58. 58. Features
  59. 59. FEATURES • They may inform, instruct, advise, but their primary purpose is to entertain • They are factual, and can relate to current news/news story • They allow for creativity and individual curiosity • Written in a casual style
  60. 60. Types of Features: • News feature • Human interest • Character sketch • Writing the Feature: • All the other rules of news writing apply except the feature writer is permitted more creativity in expression and layout
  61. 61. Sports
  62. 62. Writing Sports Stories: • Don't editorialize, but you have more freedom than regular news reporters. • Support opinions with facts and quotes • Coach quote • Opposing coach quote -- before/after the game. Ask who to watch.
  63. 63. Sports Layout: • Sports can have hard, soft news, interviews, surveys, all the elements of the entire paper • Special Note: Triple check name spellings and grade level
  64. 64. Editorials & Personal Opinion
  65. 65. Editorials & Personal Opinion •Editorial = staff opinion •Personal = author’s opinion
  66. 66. Editorials & Personal Opinion •Opinions based on fact and reason •Opinions with some mass appeal
  67. 67. Editorials & Personal Opinion •Avoid over generalization •Use examples and specific, concrete details •Quote sources
  68. 68. Reviews
  69. 69. REVIEWS • Goal is to introduce people to good entertainment and protect them from crap • Reviews are critical analysis • They are sort of like book essays in English class, except the primary question is Did you Like the Book or Not? Why?
  70. 70. Steps in reviewing: •Take notebook •Take notes •Get all names: actors, characters, performers, hosts
  71. 71. Film review: Analysis • plot, • conflict, • setting, • tone, • character, • actor, • editing, • cinematography, • sound track, • popularity, • director, • background information, • similarities to other films, • cost, • genre
  72. 72. Steps in reviewing: •Write review immediately after the performance •Support all critical analysis with example
  73. 73. Steps in reviewing: •Don't write a PLOT SUMMARY! •Write a CRITICAL ANALYSIS
  74. 74. Steps in reviewing: • Summarizing a story is O.K., but it shouldn't be more than 20% of the story… • …and don’t give away the ending or any other surprises
  75. 75. Surveys
  76. 76. SURVEYS •Two kinds: •Opinion Polls •Questionnaire Survey
  77. 77. Opinion Polls: • Ask one open-ended, controversial or entertaining question to a balanced variety of individuals • Get equal males, females, 9, 10, 11, 12, from different walks of life • toss in an occasional teacher, administrator, janitor or parent
  78. 78. Opinion Polls: • Gather twice as many responses as you intend to publish • Extract the best quotes and organize them • Check name spelling and grade level
  79. 79. Questionnaire Surveys: • Devise a topic • Create a list of opinion and value questions on a related topic • Agree/disagree, for/against, most/least important • Format the questionnaire so two fit on one 8x11 paper • Distribute across campus in an organized fashion
  80. 80. Questionnaire Surveys: •Statistical Significance begins at 10-percent •Distribute enough questionnaires to gather 15-percent
  81. 81. Questionnaire Surveys: •Survey of just freshmen would require 20-percent of freshmen only •Survey of teachers would require 30-percent
  82. 82. Questionnaire Surveys: • Finish early because you must • Tabulate the results and determine percentages • Submit your survey results to me
  83. 83. Questionnaire Surveys: •Edit in the questions that elicited the best responses •Layout the page yourself
  84. 84. Questionnaire Surveys: • Write an intro paragraph that explains the nature and purpose of the survey and how many votes you tabulated. Interpret the results. What was the overall outcome of your findings, and were there any surprises
  85. 85. Style
  86. 86. Every newspaper sets a style for consistency of design and word use • In many ways it simply follows traditional grammatical, mechanical rules
  87. 87. Titles of apposition • Short titles go before a name in caps: Principal Bob Jones • Long titles go after a name, in low case: Mike Bowers, director of personnel relations
  88. 88. Capitalize the following:
  89. 89. All titles that precede names •Principal Jones •Coach Hayes •President Smith
  90. 90. First and all words in titles except for articles, prepositions of one to three letters, and conjunctions •The Holiday Collection of Songs and Poems -- book •“The Man With Time to Spare” -- short story
  91. 91. Holidays •Christmas •Labor Day •Valentine's Day
  92. 92. Special Events •Homecoming •Homecoming Game •Prom
  93. 93. Sections of the Country but not directions •She lived in the South •She moved south for the winter
  94. 94. College Degrees when abbreviated •M.A. •Ph.D. •B.S.
  95. 95. Clubs •Backpacking Club •Chess Club •Computer Club
  96. 96. Grade levels ONLY WHEN followed by the word Class •The Freshman Class has closed campus •(but The freshmen have closed campus)
  97. 97. Specific Buildings •World Trade Center •Pentagon •The Chrysler Building •The Bay Bridge
  98. 98. Departments •English Department •Math Department •Science Department
  99. 99. Schools (not simply middle school or high school) • Benicia High School competed in the games against Benicia Middle School • The high school competed in the games against the middle school. • Mary Farmar Robert Semple
  100. 100. Colleges •Brigham Young •William and Mary •Brown University
  101. 101. Streets •1st Street •West Way •Bingham Avenue
  102. 102. Geographical names •Hudson River •Mt. Shasta •The Osarks
  103. 103. Names of specific courses (usually followed by number or letter) •American History I (but American history) •History 101 (but history) •Math B ( but math)
  104. 104. Languages •French •Spanish •English
  105. 105. Words or abrev. Like • No. Fig. Chart Chapter when followed by a number • No. 7 • Chart 16 • Chapter 1 • Fig. 32
  106. 106. DO NOT CAPITALIZE:
  107. 107. Titles that follow names •Ron Wheat, vice principal •Ron Wheat, athletics director
  108. 108. Parts of time •a.m. p.m. •o'clock
  109. 109. Seasons •winter spring summer fall •(but Old Man Winter)
  110. 110. Rooms, offices, buildings, unless they have a proper name • The journalism lab • The Gibbs Memorial Journalism Lab • The gymnasium • The Annette O'Connor Memorial Gymnasium
  111. 111. Committees •entertainment committee • refreshment committee
  112. 112. Descriptive or occupational words used as titles •comedian Jerry Sienfeld •pitcher Nolan Ryan •actress Reese Witherspoon
  113. 113. Title modifiers •Such as former President Clinton, the late Princess Diana
  114. 114. College degrees when spelled out •master of arts degree •bachelor of science
  115. 115. ABBREVATIONS •Avoid all but standard abbreviations
  116. 116. Abbreviate the Following:
  117. 117. Names that are well known as abbreviations • YMCA, PTA, FBI, BHS, NASA •(remove the periods and write it as a word)
  118. 118. Certain titles when they precede names •Dr. •Rev. (always preceded by "the" if spelled out) •The Reverend Jessie Jackson
  119. 119. All military titles •Sgt. •Lt. •Pvt. •Gen.
  120. 120. Names of states when they follow names of cities •(except short states like Ohio or Utah) •Madison, Wis.; Buffalo, N.Y.; but Des Moines, Iowa
  121. 121. Names of months when followed by a date (except short months -- April, May, June, July) •Jan. 27, 1954
  122. 122. College Degrees •B.A. •Ph.D. •D.D.
  123. 123. Do Not Abbreviate the Following: • State names • Titles following a name • Days of the week • States when used without a city • Use the word percent (use % only in tabular material or in headlines following a number)
  124. 124. Do Not Abbreviate the Following: • Department • Christmas • 1999 not '99 (But Heather Deal, '99) • United States as a noun, abbreviate it as an adjective • U.S. history
  125. 125. DEALING WITH NUMBERS •Spell out numbers up to and including nine. Then use digits •Seven, eight, nine, 10, 11, 12, 13
  126. 126. Exception: always use digits to write • Dates • Scores • Addresses • Ages • Time • Money • April 7, 2000 • Benicia 26, Concord 2 • 9 Pine Street • 7 years old • 4 o'clock • 5 cents
  127. 127. Do not begin a sentence with digits • Don't say: 25 students missed the deadline • Say: Twenty-five students missed the deadline • Or: A total of 25 students missed the deadline
  128. 128. Do not use d, rd, st, or th in dates • Dec. 11, 1941, not Dec. 11th, 1941 • June 3, 2000 not June 3rd, 2000 • Streets are OK. 3rd Street, 11th Avenue
  129. 129. When two numbers are used together, avoid confusion by spelling out the first, whether the number is above or below nine • Don't say: 14 4-year-old kids • Say: fourteen 4-year-old kids
  130. 130. In a list using numbers below and above nine, use digits for all: • Attending were 2 from the elementary school, 13 from the middle school, and 9 from the high school
  131. 131. For sums of money below one dollar, use digits and the word "cents" •10 cents, not $.10
  132. 132. Do not use zeros when giving the exact hour or an even number of dollars •4 o'clock, not 4:00 o'clock •$6 not $6.00
  133. 133. For numbers of four or more digits, use a comma •1,000 64,500
  134. 134. PUNCTUATION
  135. 135. Comma •Do not use a comma before the word and in a series •Red, white and blue. Members included Lewis, Clark and Upton
  136. 136. Do not use a comma before Jr. in a name •William Strunk Jr.
  137. 137. Use the semicolon in lists where the individual items contain commas. • The committee included Mary Ladd, chairperson; Oliver Greenwood, treasurer; and Nellie Kim, secretary. • They brought with them from New Orleans a box of gumbo; a large, green suitcase; and a change of clothes.
  138. 138. Quotation Marks • Periods and commas always go inside the quotation mark. • The quarterback said, “That last tackle hurt.” • “That last tackle hurt,” said the quarterback.
  139. 139. Quotation Marks • Colons and semicolons always go outside the quotation mark. • Here are the “Articles of Confederation”: blah blah blah • He played “Yesterday”; it was off-key.
  140. 140. Quotation Marks • Question marks and exclamation marks go inside or outside, depending… • John asked, “What are you doing?” • Who said, “What are you doing”? • Run when you hear the word “Fire”! • We ran when someone yelled, “Fire!”
  141. 141. Use quotation marks around short things: one- act plays, song titles, short stories, speeches, sit coms, 1/2-hour T.V. shows. poems. • “The Misfit” one-act play • “Yesterday” song • “To Build a Fire” short story • “I Have a Dream” speech • “Just Shoot Me” sit-com • “America” poem
  142. 142. Use italics on large things: three- and five-act plays, novels, motion pictures, newspapers, ships,CDs • Hamlet • Gone with the Wind • Saving Private Ryan • The White Album • USS Port Royal • The Paw
  143. 143. Italics • Use them on foreign words that have not become an integral part of English • The de facto standard was followed. • Use them on photo captions
  144. 144. Do not put quotation marks around popular slang expressions like "groovy."
  145. 145. Apostrophes • Use ' after plural nouns to show possession oThe students' handbook • Use 's after singular nouns to show possession. oThe student's handbook
  146. 146. To ALL sports writers: It's the girls' basketball team, not the girl’s basketball team.
  147. 147. Use apostrophe when you omit a letter •I'm from the class of '71. •I like rock 'n' roll. •Don't forget the contractions.
  148. 148. Use 's to form plurals of single letters and numbers •She got all a's and b's.
  149. 149. Do not use the apostrophe for plurals of numbers or multiple- letter combinations •1960s •ABCs
  150. 150. Omit the apostrophe in names of organizations when the possessive case is implied and in certain geographic designations •Citizens League •Actors Guild •Pikes Peak
  151. 151. HYPHEN •Use hyphens in compound numbers and fractions •Forty-five, three-fourths
  152. 152. Use hyphens in such words as •Vice-principal •vice-president
  153. 153. Use a hyphen on compound adjectives used to modify a noun • The two-sided issue; the double-edged sword; the 8-year-old boy • (not for multiple adjectives. The old, tired argument. The late, exhausted student) • (not for adverb ending in ly • The smartly dressed man
  154. 154. Use two hyphens with spaces at each end -- to represent a dash. • Use a dash to show long apposition. • The quarterback -- a man short on energy but long on determination -- finished the game with a touchdown pass.
  155. 155. POLICY
  156. 156. Big no no: Slander, Liable, Profanity, Incite to Riot
  157. 157. extra school-news precautions: no flippant, positive or enticing references can be made to the use of drugs, alcohol, tobacco, or illicit sex
  158. 158. Say all the positive you want about a person. Negative comments require you to show the story to the person and give them an opportunity to respond
  159. 159. The End

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