Reproductive Systems
Male & Female
Function
 To ensure survival of the species
 To produce egg and sperm cells
 To transport and sustain these cells
 To ...
Male & Female
 Include:
 Reproductive organs called gonads that produce
gametes (reproductive cells) and hormones
 Duct...
Male & Female
 Production of hormones that permit the
secondary sex characteristics, such as breast
development in women ...
Male
 Functions
 To produce, maintain and transport sperm (the
male reproductive cells) and protective fluid
(semen)
 T...
Male
 Consists of:
 A pair of testes
 Scrotum
 A network of excretory ducts
 epididymis
 vas deferens/ductus deferen...
http://www.uh.edu/~tgill2/image010.jpg
Male
 Testes / testicles
(Gonads)
 Produce sperm
(Spermatogenesis)
 Sperm production
begins at puberty and
continues th...
Male
 Testes / testicles
(Gonads)
 Produce testosterone
 Hair patterns and voice
changes
 Development of the male
acce...
Male
 Duct System
 Epididymis
 Sperm mature in
epididymis
 Vas
Deferens/Ductus
Deferens
 Transports mature
sperm to t...
Male
 Seminal vesicles
 Attached to vas
deferens
 Produce a sugar-
rich fluid
(fructose) that
provides energy
to sperm
Male
 Prostate Gland
 Makes fluid
Male
 Bulbourethral Gland
 Secretes an alkaline
mucous to remove
any traces of acidic
urine in the urethra
and helps the...
Male
 Urethra
 Tube that carries
urine from the
bladder to outside
of the body
 Also carries semen
out of the body
Male
 Penis
 Organ used to
deliver sperm into
the female
reproductive tract
Male
 Spermatogenesis
 Begins at puberty
 400 million sperm/day
 Three stages:
 Formation of spermatocytes
 Meiosis
...
Male
 Anatomy of the Spermatozoa
 Head contains
 Nucleus with chromatid (genetic material)
 Acrosome with enzymes for ...
Female
 Functions
 Produces the female egg cells
 Transports the eggs to the site of fertilization
 The fertilization ...
Female
 Functions
 After fertilization, provides a place for a baby to
develop
 If fertilization does not take place, t...
Female
 Consists of:
 Vagina
 Uterus
 Ovaries
 Fallopian tubes
http://biology.clc.uc.edu/graphics/bio
105/repro%20female.jpg
Female
 Vagina
 Canal that joins
the cervix (the
lower part of
uterus) to the
outside of the
body
 Also is known
as the...
Female
 Uterus
 Hollow, pear-shaped
organ that is the home
to a developing fetus
 Divided into two parts:
 the cervix,...
Female
 Ovaries
 Oval-shaped glands that
are located on either side
of the uterus
 Produce eggs and
hormones.
 Hormone...
Female
 Fallopian Tubes
 Narrow tubes that are
attached to the upper part
of the uterus and serve as
tunnels for the egg...
Female
 External Genitilia
 All structures are
collectively called as
vulva or pudendum
 The structures
included are:
...
Female
 Oogenesis
 Starts in fetal period
 No more oocytes made after about 7th month
 Developed only to early stage o...
Female
 The Menstrual Cycle
 The shedding of the lining of the uterus in
response to changes in hormonal levels.
 Cycle...
Female
 Mammary Glands
 Modified sweat glands
 Both sexes but function (normally) only in lactating female
 Produce mi...
Female
 Pregnancy and Embryonic Development
 After ejaculation into the vagina, sperm swim to meet an egg
 Sperm live 5...
 Ectoderm will develop into the skin and the nervous
system; Endoderm will form the linings of internal
organs and the Me...
 Childbirth- called parturition and begins
with contractions of the smooth muscles
of the uterus called labor
 Labor-div...
Reproductive system
Reproductive system
Reproductive system
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Reproductive system

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Reproductive system

  1. 1. Reproductive Systems Male & Female
  2. 2. Function  To ensure survival of the species  To produce egg and sperm cells  To transport and sustain these cells  To nurture the developing offspring  To produce hormones  Other systems strive to maintain a state of homeostasis
  3. 3. Male & Female  Include:  Reproductive organs called gonads that produce gametes (reproductive cells) and hormones  Ducts that transport gametes  Accessory glands and organs that secrete fluids
  4. 4. Male & Female  Production of hormones that permit the secondary sex characteristics, such as breast development in women and beard growth in men
  5. 5. Male  Functions  To produce, maintain and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen)  To produce and secrete male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductive system
  6. 6. Male  Consists of:  A pair of testes  Scrotum  A network of excretory ducts  epididymis  vas deferens/ductus deferens  ejaculatory ducts  Glands  Seminal vesicles  Prostate Gland  Bulbourethral gland/ Cowper’s Glands  Urethra  Penis
  7. 7. http://www.uh.edu/~tgill2/image010.jpg
  8. 8. Male  Testes / testicles (Gonads)  Produce sperm (Spermatogenesis)  Sperm production begins at puberty and continues throughout the life of a male
  9. 9. Male  Testes / testicles (Gonads)  Produce testosterone  Hair patterns and voice changes  Development of the male accessory organs (prostate, seminal vesicles etc.)  Stimulates the effect of protein building in the body that is responsible for the greater muscle development and strength of the male
  10. 10. Male  Duct System  Epididymis  Sperm mature in epididymis  Vas Deferens/Ductus Deferens  Transports mature sperm to the urethra  Ejaculatory ducts  empty into the urethra
  11. 11. Male  Seminal vesicles  Attached to vas deferens  Produce a sugar- rich fluid (fructose) that provides energy to sperm
  12. 12. Male  Prostate Gland  Makes fluid
  13. 13. Male  Bulbourethral Gland  Secretes an alkaline mucous to remove any traces of acidic urine in the urethra and helps the semen move quickly through the urethra and out of the penis
  14. 14. Male  Urethra  Tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body  Also carries semen out of the body
  15. 15. Male  Penis  Organ used to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract
  16. 16. Male  Spermatogenesis  Begins at puberty  400 million sperm/day  Three stages:  Formation of spermatocytes  Meiosis  Spermiogenesis  1st stage: formation of spermatocytes  Spermatogonia divide continuously by mitosis and become primary spermatocytes  2nd stage: meiosis I  Each primary spermatocytes (2n) undergoes meiosis I to become 2 secondary spermatocytes Each secondary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis II to become 2 spermatids  3rd stage: spermiogenesis  Spermatids differentiate into sperm
  17. 17. Male  Anatomy of the Spermatozoa  Head contains  Nucleus with chromatid (genetic material)  Acrosome with enzymes for penetrating egg  Midpiece: mitochondria spiraled around the core of the tail  Tail is an elaborate flagellum (allows sperm to swim)
  18. 18. Female  Functions  Produces the female egg cells  Transports the eggs to the site of fertilization  The fertilization of an egg by a sperm, occurs in the fallopian tubes
  19. 19. Female  Functions  After fertilization, provides a place for a baby to develop  If fertilization does not take place, the system is designed to menstruate  Produces female sex hormones that maintain the reproductive cycle.
  20. 20. Female  Consists of:  Vagina  Uterus  Ovaries  Fallopian tubes
  21. 21. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/graphics/bio 105/repro%20female.jpg
  22. 22. Female  Vagina  Canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body  Also is known as the birth canal
  23. 23. Female  Uterus  Hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home to a developing fetus  Divided into two parts:  the cervix, the lower part that opens into the vagina  Main body of the uterus, called the corpus.  The corpus can easily expand to hold a developing baby.  A channel through the cervix allows sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit
  24. 24. Female  Ovaries  Oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus  Produce eggs and hormones.  Hormones are:  Estrogen-develop the secondary sex characteristics of a female  Progesterone http://www.ricancercouncil.org/img/cervical.gif
  25. 25. Female  Fallopian Tubes  Narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part of the uterus and serve as tunnels for the egg cell to travel from the ovaries to the uterus  Fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the fallopian tubes  The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where it implants into the lining of the uterine wall http://www.ricancercouncil.org/img/cervical.gif
  26. 26. Female  External Genitilia  All structures are collectively called as vulva or pudendum  The structures included are:  Mons pubis-mound of adipose tissue covered by the pubic hair  Labia majora-two folds of skin containing many adipose tissue and sweat glands  Labia Minora-no hair, few sweat glands but many sebaceous glands  Clitoris-small, cylindrical mass of erectile tissue anterior to the labia minora  Vestibule-opening between the 2 labia minora  Hymen-within the vestibule; a thin fold of tissue  Skene’s glands-secrete mucous  Bartholin’s glands- secrete mucous
  27. 27. Female  Oogenesis  Starts in fetal period  No more oocytes made after about 7th month  Developed only to early stage of meiosis I by birth and stops (called primary oocyte)  6-12 primordial oocytes each cycle selected to develop for ovulation (most die)  Only then is meiosis I completed  Secondary oocyte is then arrested in meiosis II  Meiosis II not completed (now an ovum) unless sperm penetrates its plasma membrane  Of the 4 daughter cells, only one becomes ovum (needs a lot of cytoplasm)  The other 3 become “polar bodies”
  28. 28. Female  The Menstrual Cycle  The shedding of the lining of the uterus in response to changes in hormonal levels.  Cycle varies but within a range of 24-35 days
  29. 29. Female  Mammary Glands  Modified sweat glands  Both sexes but function (normally) only in lactating female  Produce milk to nourish baby  Respond to hormonal stimulation  Nipple surrounded by pigmented ring of skin, the areola  Mammary glands consist of 15-25 lobes  Each a distinct compound alveolar gland opening at the nipple  Separated by adipose  Smaller lobules composed of tiny alveoli  Like bunches of grapes  Don’t develop until half-way through pregnancy (ducts grow during puberty)  Milk passes from alveoli through progressively larger ducts  Largest: lactiferous ducts, collect milk into sinuses
  30. 30. Female  Pregnancy and Embryonic Development  After ejaculation into the vagina, sperm swim to meet an egg  Sperm live 5-7 days (need cervical mucus)  Eggs live about 12-24 hours, so conception only occurs during this short window  Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube  It takes 24 hours to move down one-third of the uterine tube. Fertilization occurs in the upper two-thirds of the tube  A fertilized egg is called a zygote  Fertilization occurs at the moment the chromosomes from the male and female gametes unite  The zygote moves down the uterine tube, it divides by mitosis to form a hollow sphere of cells called blastocyst.  It embeds itself on the uterus by the seventh day and the 3 primary germ layers are now being developed
  31. 31.  Ectoderm will develop into the skin and the nervous system; Endoderm will form the linings of internal organs and the Mesoderm will form muscles, bones and other tissues.  These tissues come from the blastocyst’s inner cell mass  The placenta is then formed. Once it is formed, the three-layered embryo becomes surrounded by the amnion  The embryo becomes attached to the umbilical cord  The pregnancy continues and the embryo grows. At the ninth week, it is called a fetus.  The placenta exchanges nutrients, oxygen and wastes between the embryo/fetus and the mother
  32. 32.  Childbirth- called parturition and begins with contractions of the smooth muscles of the uterus called labor  Labor-divided into 3 stages  Dilation stage-cervix is fully dilated by the head of the fetus and the amnion ruptures releasing the amniotic fluid  Expulsion stage-child moves through the cervix and vagina, usually head first  Placental stage- placenta detaches from the uterus within 15 minutes after birth.

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