Rural extensionists for the extremely poor in peru3


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  • Good morning, I am pleased to present the project that CARE Peru has developed to improve the availability and accessibility of the services offered by the Providers of Technical Assistance (also known as PAT). These services are to be in line with the needs and conditions of families living in rural areas. This also addresses the sustainability of our interventions beyond the life of the project.
  • The PATs are local young people without higher education or graduates of local universities and colleges with service-oriented enterprise who are trained to provide technical assistance to small rural producers based on demand. They solve the lack of technical assistance in rural areas. Exist 2 types or PAT: The PAT for cattle value chain, and The PAT for agricultural value chain.
  • Before the PAT, the producers couldn't have technical assistance services according to their demand. The economic activity was not viable. When exist a development project in the zone, the project give the technical assistance services. But, what happen when the project finishes? Producers have wasted opportunities beyond the life of the project. With the PAT, who are from the same communities , there are no cultural barriers to interaction. The PAT is sustainable. They charge to the producers for their services. Nowadays, the revenues generated from these services range between 500 and 1,300 soles per month (U.S. $ 195 - U.S. $ 500). Farmers pay PAT per visit after weighing the livestock. Then the farmers know how much weight was gained and therefore can estimate the value of their livestock. For example, before CARE, on average, the livestock gained weight between 0,1 to 0,2 Kg per day but now, the livestock increases its weight between 1 and 1.5 kg per day. Before, a small farmer was not able to participate in the market and make recurrent profit because it did not have sufficient volume of production.
  • How is the selecting of the PATs? Exist 2 types or PAT: The PAT for cattle value chain, and The PAT for agricultural value chain. In the case of the beef cattle value chain: The PAT is chosen by the community. The young lives in the same community and speaks the local language. They have the same business too, so they have cattles for fattening. In the case of the agricultural value chain: The PAT are selected through a competition open to young graduates from universities and technical institutes. They have to have the decision to make an enterprise of technical assistance providers.
  • The principal role of the PAT is give technical assistance services to the producers and to provide sustainability and viability to the value chain. They increase the productivity of the products, link to the market (they identify the buyer) and facilitates access to finance. They are the link with the market and, the most important, they give sustainability to the value chain. In the agricultural Value Chain, the PAT does not just provide technical assistance, he also help with the link with the market. Contracts are drafted among producers, buyers and the PATs, fixing the prices of the products and the commission that the PAT will receive. With the harvest and sell of the products, the PAT receives payment for his service. This is one of the differences with the livestock PAT. Another difference in the agricultural PAT, they are professional and technical young, and the PAT in cattle value chain has studied only basic education.
  • There are differents roles with public and private partners PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PARTNERS WORK INCIDENCE ON THE POLITICAL MAKERS.
  • The contribution of the PAT in the life of the family is very clear. But to prove this, they hired a leading company in Peru for the impact assessment , according to the national methodology. They increased their income: 2007 = S/.7346 (US$2938) 2010 = S/.13,309 (US$5323) 50% families that participated in the project are happy with their income but in the control group only 14% are happy. The % of people reporting that they are living well or very well is 100% more than the treatment group. And the most important: The poverty decreases from 81% to 29% during the past 5 years.
  • PRESENTAR 3 min DEL VIDEO DE CHIPANA. The impact on the gender focus was high but it was different between in the women and men …… They are more confident. They are no longer afraid to invest. They can now save. The support to make associativity. Access to credit Women have increased their self-esteem. Women are more participatory and fighters. Women are valued for the family and they are supported by their husbands. Women obtain positions of responsibility and political authority.
  • Referencias institucionales Como nace la escuela de kamayoq
  • Measured on expenditures, according to the national methodology
  • Rural extensionists for the extremely poor in peru3

    1. 1. Rural extensionists for the extremely poor in Peru The PATs and Kamayoq models SEEP Annual Conference 2012 CARE and Practical Action Gianluca Nardi, Alejandro Rojas, and Daniel Rodriguez
    2. 2. Why do CARE Peru and Practical Action work with rural communities in the highland?• While Peru is a middle income country and fastest growing economy in the region• A sample of 200 households in 2006 in Puno reported: – 87% living below the poverty line and – 60% below the extreme poverty line. – 30% of children under 5 in the region suffer chronic malnutrition
    3. 3. Different VCs (and similar problems)• Low Productivity• Limited access to finance,• Poor input supply• Inefficient Commercialization In a middle income country with a vibrant economy:• High potential of local markets• Relatively resourceful Government, with a focus on fighting poverty• Relatively higher cost of interventions
    4. 4. A bit of history of rural extension services in Peru ۩ 70s – offered by the government, supply focus ۩ 90s – structural adjustments, privatization. Rural extension only facilitated by the Government ۩ Now – NGOs, associations, issues around sustainability and technological update
    5. 5. Different possibilities for Rural Extension Services Government rural Companies Producers extension embedded associations / services cooperativesCons Very limited capacity, • Unreliable in the long Sustainability especially in remote term, depending on depends upon areas, and for very contingent market medium term small producers, conditions institutional capacity supply focus building processes, disjoint from tech innovation quality control issuesPros • Access to the newest • Scaling-up potential, Capacity to reach technologies • economic extremely poor and • national outreach, sustainability remote communities • institutional • demand focus sustainability
    6. 6. Different possibilities for Rural Extension Services Government Companies Producers rural extension embedded associations / services cooperativesConsPros • Access to the • Scaling-up Capacity to newest potential, reach extremely technologies • economic poor and remote • national sustainability communities PATs outreach, • institutional • demand focus Kamayoq sustainability
    7. 7. Two complementary approaches successfully collaborate CARE’s PATs (Value Chain / Educational / enterprise development Constructivist approach Approach)
    8. 8. The PATs Model
    9. 9. Who are the PATs? • People from the local communities and chosen by the communities • Speaking local languages, • With or without higher education, • With vocation to provide assistance and with potential to be entrepreneurs, • Trained to provide Technical Assistance services to the small producers either individually or through a micro-enterprise. • With a demand driven, market based approach (fee for services). 9
    10. 10. • Families have access to PAT • Families have access to PAT only for the duration of the in a sustainable manner. project. • PAT are from the same• Culture barriers to the community. provision of PAT. • PAT receive income for• Unsustainable results services rendered. • PAT consolidate supply of• Weak market linkage for small small producers. farmers • PAT diversify services and• Producers wasted provide information to opportunities beyond the life of producers. the project. • Local youth are engaged in• Lack of coordination between profitable activities. technical courses and field needs Before After
    11. 11. Example of PATs selection• Leading producers• 1 to 2 producers from community• Participate actively in meetings and trainings• Competency-based assessment (procedural, attitudinal, knowledge), in the development of training workshops.• Graduation: – Of a total of 120 participants, 82 PAT were able to graduate. 11
    12. 12. The role of the PAT Buyer – Final Market 12
    13. 13. The different roles NGOs role Private Government Sector role • Initial training • The PATs • Enabling • Initial follow-up or themselves are environment incubation entrepreneurs •Additional training • Larger companies opportunities and can contribute to the technical upgrade PATs sustainability • Funding strategy opportunities for • Access to finance entities providing initial training / incubation • Certification of PATs skills
    14. 14. A better life• The analysis shows a statistically significant increase of net incomes of almost 100% compared with the baseline, two years after the project finished.• 64% decrease in poverty incidence from 81% to 29% during the past 5 years (51% difference).• The percentage of people able to make savings is significantly larger in the treatment group (27.8%) than in the control group (7.5%)• The % of people reporting that they are living well or very well is significantly higher in the treatment group (32.4% vs. 16.7%)
    15. 15. Men and Women most important changes Women Important changes Men important changes Place 1. New skills, education 1. Better economic for the children conditions 2. Better family 2. New knowledgeHuayrapata relationships 3. Giving value to the 3. More participation in cattle raising public spaces 1. New learning, education for the 1. New incomes generation children 2. New knowledgeHuancané 2. More equality within 3. Overcoming poverty the family 3. More leadership in the communitySource: Focal groups CARE / IEP
    16. 16. The Kamayoq ModelSince 1997 - extension farmers are being trainned: as a strategy for capacity building for disseminating appropiate technologies and respond to the tehnical assitance demands of small holders farmers .
    17. 17. Farmer extension modelApproach: Inter-cultural and inter- learningapproach. Meeting local knowledge and modernscience. Methodology: Training and certification of extension farmers with demand approach and skills for innovation and technology transfer. Key Actor: The Kamayoq Technology leader in agricultural production and service provider of technical assistance Institutional Support Network: Communities, local authorities. Public institutions, universities. Research centers. Regional Governments. INIA. SENASA. Business. Action Lines: More than 30 validated production technologies for productive chains, food security and natural resource management. -1000 Kamayoq in 100 Andean communities in Cusco, Cajamarca, Apurimac, Puno, Ayacucho and Ancash. -200 Kamayoq with skills certification by official agency -Revenue improved from 30% to 100%, of 10,000 peasant families due to support services complemented by other actions.
    19. 19. KAMAYOQSCERTIFICATION SKILLS CERTIFICATIONas a basis of market access strategy for rural services
    20. 20. SKILLS CERTIFICATION Methodological innovation in the market system Development Conduct of Characterization Performing Coordination and validation competency Skills of occupational the functional for analysis in the of the assessment certification field (productive Occupational production competition chain) field chain rules identification Review and approval of skill standards and assessment tools Monitoring and evaluation of certification entities and assessors To authorize certification entities and certification evaluatorsIPEBA: Peruvian Institute of assessment, accreditationand certification of the quality of basic education andtechnical production.
    21. 21. Main clients attended by Kamayoqs ( in Cusco provinces)Community Families municipalities institutions enterprises
    22. 22. Relevance given to the certification process by Kamayoqs (survey to Kamayoqs in Cusco provinces)Acknowledges our Allows access to jobs I can help others Community recognitionlearning
    23. 23. KAMAYOQS CERTIFIEDAlternative to value people skills
    24. 24. A new institutional role in the system
    25. 25. Some Learned lessons• Government’s role in scaling up, quality control, technical update• Rigorous impact evaluation as a main advocacy tool• Do not necessarily sell TA. Sell a variety of products and services. TA can be a post-sale benefit.• Possibility of adding pedagogical elements to the service (WE, citizenship, fight discrimination etc.)• Importance of bottom up selection process for sustainability / resilience