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  1. 1. The End of Jewish Independence and The Roman Rule and Promised Messiah
  2. 2. First, a “short” Time - Line <ul><li>13th century </li></ul><ul><li>Exodus from Egypt: Moses leads Israelites from Egypt, followed by 40 years of wandering in the desert. Torah, including the Ten Commandments, received at Mount Sinai. </li></ul><ul><li>13th-12th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Israelites settle in the Land of Israel </li></ul><ul><li>1020 </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish Monarchy established; Saul, first king. </li></ul><ul><li>c.1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem made capital of David's kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>c.960 </li></ul><ul><li>First Temple, the national and spiritual center of the Jewish people, built in Jerusalem by King Solomon </li></ul><ul><li>c. 930 </li></ul><ul><li>Divided kingdom: Judah and Israel </li></ul><ul><li>722-720 </li></ul><ul><li>Israel crushed by Assyrians; 10 tribes exiled (Ten Lost Tribes). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Time Line <ul><li>586 </li></ul><ul><li>Judah conquered by Babylonia; Jerusalem and First Temple destroyed; most Jews exiled to Babylonia </li></ul><ul><li>538-515 </li></ul><ul><li>Many Jews return from Babylonia; Temple rebuilt. </li></ul><ul><li>332 </li></ul><ul><li>Land conquered by Alexander the Great; Hellenistic rule. </li></ul><ul><li>166-160 </li></ul><ul><li>Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple </li></ul><ul><li>142-129 </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish independence under Hasmonean monarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>63 </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem captured by Roman general, Pompey. </li></ul><ul><li>63 BCE - 4 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Herod, Roman vassal king, rules the Land of Israel; Temple in Jerusalem refurbished </li></ul>
  4. 4. Time Line <ul><li>c. 20-33 </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Jesus of Nazareth </li></ul><ul><li>66 </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish revolt against the Romans </li></ul><ul><li>70 </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of Jerusalem and Second Temple. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 13th-12th centuries Israelites settle in the Land of Israel
  6. 6. Israel in the time of the Judges
  7. 7. <ul><li>Jerusalem during King David’s reign. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The land conquered by Alexander the great </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The End of Jewish Independence </li></ul>
  10. 10. The End of Jewish Independence <ul><li> When Salome died in 67 BCE, there arose a conflict between Hyrcanus II and his brother Aristobolus II over who would succeed their mother as both High Priest and king; these two brothers were leaders of de facto poltical parties within the Jewish state. Aristobolus II declared war on Hyrcanus II, and in a decisive battle many of the soldiers supporting Hyrcanus II deserted to Aristobolus II. Hyrcanus II agreed that his brother Aristobolus II would be High Priest and king. But the matter did not end there. Antipater, an Idumean who was appointed governor of Idumea by Alexander Jannaeus, </li></ul>
  11. 11. The End of Jewish Independence <ul><li>the father of the two brothers, took up the cause of Hyrcanus II and with the military support of the Nabatean king Aretas—who had lost much territory to the Jews—marched to Jerusalem, laid siege to the city and demanded that Hyrcanus II be reinstated as High Priest and be appointed king. </li></ul><ul><li>Meanwhile, the Roman general Pompey (Gaius Pompeius Magnus) by the authority of the Roman senate went to Asia Minor in order to put down a rebellion by Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The End of Jewish Independence <ul><li>Pompey defeated Mithridates in 66 BCE in what is called the Third Mithridatic War (74-63 BCE). While in Asia Minor, Pompey heard of the dispute going on in Jerusalem between Hyrcanus II and Aristobolus II from one of his generals, Scaurus, who had been sent to Syria. Scaurus began to travel to Judea to capitalize politically on this internal crisis of the Jews. Hearing that the Roman general was on his way to Judea, both Aristobolus II and Hyrcanus II sent emissaries to him in order to gain his support for their respective causes; this was the beginning of the end of the Hasmonean dynasty. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The End of Jewish Independence <ul><li>Scaurus temporarily decided in favor of Aristobolus II and ordered Aretas to withdraw, which he did. In the meantime, Pompey conquered Syria, and Syria was made into a Roman province with a proconsul; this was the end of the Seleucid kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>In 63 BCE, Pompey met with Aristobolus II and Hyrcanus II in Damascus to hear their respective cases for being appointed High Priest and king of the Jewish state. (A third delegation of Jews requested that the monarchy be abolished, but Pompey did not take it too seriously.) Pompey asked both to stay in </li></ul>
  14. 14. The End of Jewish Independence <ul><li>Damascus and to wait on his decision. Aristobolus II, however, left Damascus without Pompey's permission, so that Pompey justifiably suspected Aristobolus II to be disloyal to him and the Romans in general. So with some of his troops Pompey pursued Aristobolus II, who eventually surrendered near Jericho. In the meantime, the people of Jerusalem shut the gates of the city against Gabinius, the proconsul of Syria, who was sent to Jerusalem by Pompey to get money that Aristobolus II had promised (i.e. a bribe) and to take possession of the city. Having taken Aristobolus II as a prisoner, </li></ul>
  15. 15. The End of Jewish Independence <ul><li>Pompey then marched on the city, and the gates were opened to him by the followers of Hyrcanus II. The supporters of Aristobolus II were forced to take refuge in the Temple. Pompey besieged the Temple, and within three months broke through the walls and allegedly killed about 12,000 Jews. (This is according to Josephus, who tends to exaggerate when it comes to numbers.) The borders of the former Jewish state were greatly reduced; what remained was Judea, Idumea, Perea and Galilee. Pompey installed Hyrcanus II as High Priest, but did not give him the title of king; Pompey took Aristobolus II and many </li></ul>
  16. 16. The End of Jewish Independence <ul><li>other Jewish prisoners of war to Rome where they were resettled. A few years later Hyrcanus II was stripped of all political power, and Gabinius, the proconsul of Syria, divided what territory remained of the Hasmonean state into five regions, under his immediate control. This was the end of an independent Jewish state. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Roman Rule and The Promised Messiah
  18. 18. The Roman Rule and The Promised Messiah <ul><li>Having been freed from the empire of the Greek kings, the Jews did not have long to make use of their freedom. The Romans, having conquered the whole known world, also subjugated the Jews (64 B.C.). They placed over Palestine the procurator Antipater from the tribe of Esau, an Idumean (or Edomite). He very cleverly secured the confidence of the Romans, but was soon poisoned. </li></ul><ul><li>After him, his son Herod, called Herod the Great, was appointed governor of Galilee. He was a suspicious, brutal and cunning man. He also, like his father, skillfully gained the confidence of the Roman authorities and was declared King of the Jews. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Roman Rule and The Promised Messiah <ul><li>In order to find favor among the Jews, King Herod restored the Jerusalem Temple. Having received the title of King, he was still subordinate to Caesar , the Roman Emperor. From the time that the Jews came under Roman power, they were always subject to a Roman ruler , a deputy of the Roman Emperor. The Jews were allowed to keep their Sanhedrin , their council of high priests and elders of the people; but the power of the Sanhedrin was strictly limited. The Sanhedrin, for example, could not impose the death penalty without the permission of the Roman ruler, to whom belonged the highest authority in Israel. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Roman Rule and The Promised Messiah <ul><li>The worldwide control of the Roman empire shook paganism to its foundations. Rome was the capital of the world and there gathered the scholars, writers, merchants and other representatives of all the nations. Each one brought with him his own pagan faith. These people, seeing the endless variety of pagan idol-deities, became convinced that all these pagan gods were devised by the people themselves. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Roman Rule and The Promised Messiah <ul><li>Many of the pagans began to lose faith and hope in the future. In order to seek blissful oblivion, they began to indulge in every sort of amusement. Some, falling into despondency, ended their lives by suicide. </li></ul><ul><li>But the best of them, observing that the world was headed toward destruction, nevertheless maintained the hope that from somewhere would come a Saviour , if not from among the people, then from above. The Jews, dispersed throughout all the world after their captivity in Babylon and other later captivities, spread the news about the imminent coming of the Saviour of the world. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Roman Rule and The Promised Messiah <ul><li>Therefore, the gaze of the best people in the pagan world began to turn to the east, to Palestine. </li></ul><ul><li>Among the Romans and other pagan people there arose the general belief that in the East there would soon appear a powerful king who would subjugate the entire world. </li></ul><ul><li>In Palestine itself, among the Jews, the expectation of the Messiah was especially intense. Everyone felt that the time was coming for the fulfillment of the prophecies and the salvation of Israel. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Roman Rule and The Promised Messiah <ul><li>The prophecies of the Prophet Daniel about the date of the appearance of Christ were especially precise. He foretold that after a period of seventy weeks of years came to an end, a fourth great kingdom would arise during which the Saviour would arrive. This was the exact specification of the time of the advent of Christ. </li></ul><ul><li>Upon the appearance of every prominent preacher, everyone involuntarily asked if he were the Christ. Even the semi-pagan Samaritans hoped that soon would come Christ the Saviour, Who would resolve all the quarrelsome questions between them and the Jews concerning the faith. Unfortunately, not only the pagans, but also the Jews themselves </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Roman Rule and The Promised Messiah <ul><li>mistakenly imagined what Christ would be like. They did not picture Him as the Prophet Isaiah and other prophets represented Him, as one that would bear our sins, suffer for us and, though innocent, be condemned to death. The Jews had no idea that Christ the Saviour would come to earth for the purpose of teaching people, through His example, word, deeds, and suffering, to love God and each other. They desired to see Christ not like this, but rather with worldly power and glory. Therefore, they thought that Christ would come in worldly glory and would be the earthly king over the Jewish people. He would free the Jews from the power of Rome and would subjugate the whole </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Roman Rule and The Promised Messiah <ul><li>world, and the Jews would reign over all the peoples of the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Only a few devout and righteous people awaited Christ with humility, faith and love. They expected the true Saviour of the world, Who would come to deliver people from enslavement to sin and the power of the Devil. He would &quot;trample on the head of the serpent,&quot; as God said to the first people in Paradise, to save people from eternal death and to open the gates to the Kingdom of Heaven for eternal blessed life with God. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Roman Rule and The Promised Messiah <ul><li>When the time came, God gave the promised Saviour of the world, His Only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ. The Son of God dwelt in the Holy Virgin Mary, and by the action of the Holy Spirit, received from her a human body and soul; that is, He was born from the Most-holy Virgin Mary and became God Incarnate. </li></ul><ul><li>The birth of Jesus Christ occurred in the days when Herod the Great, the Edomite, reigned over the Jews, in the time of the Roman Emperor Augustus. </li></ul>