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Lecture 07 classes of drugs

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Workshop on Pharmacology of hearing and speech sciences

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Lecture 07 classes of drugs

  1. 1. Session III  Classes/ Groups of Drugs  Ototoxicity  Tinnitus
  2. 2. DRUG GROUPS/CLASSES Dr. Ghulam Saqulain Head Of Department of ENT Capital Hospital
  3. 3. DRUG CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM  A drug classification system represents a common language for describing the drug assortment in a country or region and is a prerequisite for national and international comparisons of drug utilization data, which have to be collected and aggregated in a uniform way.  Access to standardized and validated information on drug use is essential to allow  audits of patterns of drug utilization,  to identify problems in drug use,  to initiate educational or other interventions  and to monitor the outcomes of these interventions.
  4. 4.  Drugs can be classified in different ways according to:  their mode of action;  their indications; or  their chemical structure.
  5. 5. The ATC classification system  The ATC classification system divides the drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act and according to their chemical, pharmacological and therapeutic properties.  Drugs are classified in groups at five different levels.  The drugs are divided into 14 main groups (first level),  with two therapeutic/pharmacological subgroups (second and third levels).  The fourth level is a therapeutic/pharmacological/chemical subgroup and  the fifth level is the chemical substance.
  6. 6.  The complete classification of glibenclamide illustrates the structure of the code.  A Alimentary tract and metabolism (first level, main anatomical group)  A10 Drugs used in diabetes (second level, main therapeutic group)  A10B Oral blood-glucose-lowering drugs (third level, therapeutic/pharmacological subgroup)  A10B B Sulfonamides, urea derivatives(fourth level, chemical/therapeutic/pharmacological subgroup)  A10B B01 Glibenclamide (fifth level, subgroup for chemical substance)  Thus, in the ATC system all plain glibenclamide preparations are given the code A10B B01.
  7. 7. GROUP FUNCTION DRUGS ANALGESIC RELIEVES MILD TO SEVERE PAIN Opioids Analgesics: •Morphine •Pethidine •Pentazocine Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflamatory Drugs (NSAID): Acetylsalicylic acid Diclofenac Ibuprofen Paracetamol ANTI- INFLAMMA- TORY / ANTI- PYRETIC REDUCES INFLAMMATION FEVER LOWERING DRUGS SEDATIVE INDUCES SLEEP OR RELAXATION Diazepam Opioid analgesics ANESTHET IC PRODUCE LACK OF FEELING (GENERALLY, LOCALLY, OR TOPICALLY) Local: Lignocaine, General: •Ehter •Halothane, Enflurane •Nitrous Oxide •Thiopental •Propofol
  8. 8. DRUGS REDUCING SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION CENTRALLY ACTING MUSCLE RELAXANT Depress voluntary muscle activity but also sedate Benzodizapines e.g., Diazepam NEURO- MUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENT Paralyze Voluntary muscles Atracurium Suxamethonium MUSCLE RELAXANT Relieve spasticity of voluntary muscles Baclofen
  9. 9. GASTROINTESTINAL DRUGS: ANTIACID/ ANTI ULCER NEUTRALIZES STOMACH ACID Ammunium hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide Cimetidine Sucralfate ANTI- EMETIC PREVENTS OR RELIEVES NAUSEA AND VOMITING / VERTIGO Cyclizine Metachlopromide Prochlorperazine Promethazine PURGATIV ES/ LAXATIVE S RELIEVE CONSTIPATION/INDUCES DEFECATION Ispaghula Husk Bisacodyl Lactulose Senna ANTIDIARR OEALS/ ANTI- CHOLIN- ERGICS REDUCE G.I MOTILITY prevents or relieves diarrhea; inhibits peristalsis and reduces fecal volume Atropine Sulphate Hyosine N Butylbromide Keopectate, Lomotil, Pepto-Bismol
  10. 10. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ANTI- EPILEPTIC Relieves tonic clonic, seizures and neuralgia Absence seizures Carbamazepine Phenobarbitone Phenytoin Sodium valproate Etosuximide ANTI- DEPRESSA NT Relieve depression Amitriptiline Chlorpromazine ANTI SCHIZOPHR ENIC Chlormipramine Fluphenazine Halopheridol SEDATIVES Diazepam Chloral hydrate PARKINSO- NISM Benserazide + Levodopa Biperiden Benzhexol Bromocriptine
  11. 11. DRUGS AFFECTING COAGULA- TION ANTICOGU-LANT PREVENTS BLOOD FROM CLOTTING OR DELAYS CLOTTING COAGULANT/HEMOS-TATIC AGENTS Heparin Warfarin Transamic acid HORMONE REPLACE- MENT REPLACES OR RESOLVES HORMONE DEFICIENCY Thyroid/ Parathyroid Drugs Pituitary-Hypothalamic Drugs Adrenocorticoids Drugs used in infertility Sex Hormones/Hormonal contraception Pancreatic Hormones and Oral Antidiabetic Agents Thyroxine Adrenocorticotropic hormone Vasopressiin/ADH Clomiphene Conjugated Estrogen Ethylestradiol-levonorgestril Nonoxinol (spermicidal) Insulin ANTINEO- PLASTIC POISONS CANCEROUS CELLS Bleomycin (Carcinomas & lymphomas) Vincristine Vinblastine
  12. 12. DRUGS ACTING ON RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ANTITUSSIVE INHIBITS COUGH REFLEX Dextromethorphan compound EXPECTO- RANTS/ MUCOLYTICS HELP EXPECTORATE MUCOUS N acetylcystine BRONCHO- DILATOR DILATES BRONCHI (AIRWAYS IN THE LUNGS) Aminophyllne Theophylline Sodium chromoglycate Salbutamol Inhalers ANTIHIS- TAMINE /ANTIPRURI- TICS CONTERACTACTS EFFECTS OF HISTAMINE AND RELIEVES ALLERGIC SYMPTOMS Chlorpheniramine Cetirizine Loratadine Levocetirizine
  13. 13. ENT PREPARTIONS NASAL SPRAYS/ DROPS RELIEVES NASAL SWELLING AND CONGESTION ANTIALLERGIC Xylometazoline Ephedrine nasal drops Azelastine hydrochloride Triamcinolone Flunisolide Sodium cromoglycate THROAT SPRAYS/M OUTH WASH Antiseptics Dequalinium, Benzalkonium Hydrogen peroxide Chlorhexidine EAR DROPS SOFTEN HARD WAX ANTIFUNGAL ANTIBACTERIALS STEROID/ANTIBIOTIC STEROID/ANTIBIOTIC/ANTIFUNGAL Soda glycerine, Olive Oil Clotrimazole, Nystatin Gentamycin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin etc. Betamethasone, neomycin Nystatin, neomycin, triamcinolone
  14. 14. CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS ANTIARR- HYTHMICS Reduce arrhythmias Amiodarone Bretylium INOTROPIC/ VASOCONS- TRICTOR CONSTRICTS BLOOD VESSELS, INCREASES BLOOD PRESSURE Digoxin (Inotropic) Dobutamine “ VASODILATO R/ANTIHYPER TENSIVES DILATES BLOOD VESSELS, DECREASES BLOOD PRESSURE Atenolol Metoprolol (Beta adrenergic blocker) Captopril Enalapril ANTIANGINAL REDUCE ANGINA Isosorbide nitate (cardiac vasodilator) Glycerl trinitrate DIURETIC INCREASES URINE OUTPUT, REDUCES BLOOD PRESSURE AND CARDIAC OUTPUT Amiloride Frusemide Manitol Spironolactone
  15. 15. ANTIMICROBIAL DRUGS ANTIBACTERIAL S Penicillins Cephlosporins Quinolones Sulphonamides Macrolides Aminoglycosides Benzyl penicillin, ampicillin Cephradine, cefazoline, cefixime, cefuroxime etc Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifoxacin, getifloxacin Erythromycin, chlarithromycin, azithromycin Gentamycin, streptomycin ANTITUBERCUL AR Used in treatment of tuberculosis; inhibits growth of mycobacteria (INH, Myambutal, Mycobutin, Priftin, PZA, Rifadin, Streptomycin) Ethambutol Isoniazid Pyrazinamide Rifampicin Streptomycin ANTILEPROTIC Dapsone Clofazimine Rifampicin ANTI FUNGALS Amphotericin B Flucytosine Griseofulvin Ketoconazole Nystatin ANTIVIRALS combats a specific viral disease (e.g. herpes) Acyclovir Zovirax
  16. 16. ANTIMALARIA L Chloroquine Quinine Primaquine Pyrimethamine ANTIAMOEBI C Metronidazole Diloxanide ANTIHELMITH S Albendazole Mebendazole Piperazine Pyrantel Palmoate

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