A unique activity undertaken to achieve planned objectives according to its acceptance criteria within an
agreed timescale and budget
Project Management is the application of processes, methods, skills and experience to achieve the
project objectives from start to finish.
Key Elements of project management include:
i. Strategic planning:
a. understand the need for the project
b. set SMART objectives
c. create link with internal stakeholders
d. Establish their specific requirements and agreed objectives.
ii. Product development:
a. Divide project into manageable tasks and activities.
iii. Controlling the project at every stage.
iv. People: giving a role to every stakeholder
Sponsor: who defines the business objectives that drive the project, from senior
Project manager: creates the project plan and ensures that it meets the budget, schedule
and scope set by the sponsor.
Project team members: subject area experts, members of department, external
professionals and new recruits.
v. Resources: it is vital to ensure that adequate resources in terms of people, time, finances
and equipment are in place.
Impact of Project Failure:
i. Penalty payments to customers
ii. Bad publicity
iii. Loss of future contracts
Reasons of project Failure:
Poor planning/inadequate process
Inefficient way to document and track progress
Poor leadership at any level
Failure to set expectations and manger them
Inadequately-trained project managers.
Inaccurate cost estimation
Overstating the benefits of the project.
Lack of communication at any level
Culture or ethical misalignment
Disregard of project warning signs
Project Management for new IT program
Josh is head of a team that has been given the responsibility from managing the introduction of a new IT
project within his company. The new system will allow all employees to be linked to t main ERP software.
Customer service should be improved and internal communication speed up. The project team has been a
budget of $10 mission and a time limit of six months. The CEO told Josh: “Project management will be very
important in this case. Our competitors are already ahead of us in the adoption of IT program.”
What is meant by project management? 
Analyse the likely consequences for the company if this project failed. 
What the key elements in the project management? 
Operations management involves the use of resources, building, machines, and factory or office space and
management time. Efficient firms will always aimto use their resources as intensively as possible and avoid
wasted time and idle assets.
How to involve right goods and right labourat right time?
This can be made possible using Network analysis (CPA).”A widely-used project management tool that uses
network analysis to help project managers to handle complex and time-sensitive operations”.
Essentials of CPA
CPA is to construct a model of the project that includes the following:
A list of all activities required to complete the project
The time (duration) that each activity will take to completion
The dependencies between the activities
Using this information, CPA calculates:
The longest path of planned activities to the end of the project
The earliest and latest that each activity can start and finish without making the project longer
This process determines which activities are "critical" (i.e., on the longest path) and which have "total float"
(i.e. can be delayed without making the project longer).In project management, a critical path is:”The
sequence of project activities that must be completed on time for the whole project to be completed by
the agreed date.”
The critical path determines the shortest time possible to complete the project.
Any delay of an activity on the critical path directly impacts the planned project completion date
(i.e. there is no float on the critical path).
The main advantages and disadvantages of a business using CPA can be summarized as follows:
Advantages of CPA
Most importantly – helps reduce the risk and costs of complex projects
Encourages careful assessment of the requirements of each activity in a project
Help spot which activities have some slack ("float") and could therefore transfer some resources =
better allocation of resources
A decision-making tool and a planning tool – all in one!
Provides managers with a useful overview of a complex project
Links well with other aspects of business planning, including cash flow forecasting and budgeting
Disadvantages of CPA
Reliability of CPA largely based on accurate estimates and assumptions made
CPA does not guarantee the success of a project – that still needs to be managed properly
Resources may not actually be as flexible as management hope when they come to address the
Too many activities may the network diagram too complicated. Activities might themselves have to
be broken down into mini-projects.
Conventions in drawing the network
The main components of a network analysis are summarized below:
Example network diagram
Consider the following series of activities in a business planning to launch a new product:
Laid out in the correct sequence of activities, the network diagram would look like this before we
calculate the EST and LFT for each activity:
The next step is to calculate the EST for each activity.
The EST for task B is 2 months – the time taken to conduct market research (task A)
To calculate the EST for task C, we add the 2 months for task A to the 4 months for designing the
product concept (task B) = 6 months
The remaining ESTs can then be added to the network diagram:
The LFTs show the latest time an activity must be completed by to avoid a delay to the project.
LFTs are calculated by looking right to left on the network diagram. So: