Monkey king pp


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Note - I just updated the slide with some of the historical info listed below. I also added in Chinese characters. It is formatted for people who already have a background in Chinese.

== Description ==

Journey to the West (Xiyouji in Chinese) is about the monkey demon Sun Wukong repenting for his past transgressions against heaven by escorting the Buddhist monk Xuanzang on a perilous journey to retrieve scriptures from India. He, along with his fellow disciples Zhu Bajie (a pig demon), Sha Wujing (a water demon), and the white dragon-horse, protect the monk from all manner of monsters and evil spirits along the way.

== Academic stuff ==

The novel was published anonymously in 1592 CE. Early 20th century scholarship attributed the minor government official Wu Cheng'en as the author. More recent research, however, has cast doubt on this.

Xuanzang (602-664) was a historical Buddhist monk who traveled to India in pursuit of scriptures against an imperial decree baring anyone from traveling outside of China. He lived in India for 17 years and brought back some 600 scriptures with him. He became a national hero and was warmly welcomed back by the Tang Emperor Taizong in person.

Researchers have shown the character of the Monkey King was influenced by a great many number of internal Chinese and external foreign sources. For instance, the simian character Hanuman from the Indian Epic Ramayana (5th century BCE) is thought to be his main literary antecedent because both have celestial origins, cause a ruckus in heaven, have near identical magic abilities, fight with blunt instruments, and show extreme loyalty to their masters.

== Legal stuff ==

I do not own any of the drawings or film screen shots used in the presentation. It was created for the sole purpose of education, and is not being used for any commercial purposes. I do, however, claim the layout and text. If anyone would like to use this, the only thing I ask is that I am given credit for the work. Thank you.

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Monkey king pp

  1. 1. Journey to the West An overview by马汉明
  2. 2. 西游记 Xī Yóu Jì 西 = West 游 = Journey 记 = Recorda.k.a. Journey to the West
  3. 3. HistoricalBackground
  4. 4. • The novel is considered one of the four great Chinese classics. • The earliest known written edition was published sometime in the 13th century. It is known as the Kōzanji version (高山寺) because a copy was found in a Japanese temple with that name. • The complete 100 chapter edition was published anonymously in 1592 . • Wú Chéngēn (吴承恩, 1500–1582), a poet and minor government official, has generally been considered the author since 1923. • More currentA Page from the Kōzanji version scholarship, however, has cast doubt on Wu’s connection.
  5. 5. • The novel is based on the historical journey of the famous Tang Dynasty monk Xuánzàng (玄奘, 602-664).• He traveled to India in defiance of an imperial decree in order to gain Buddhist sutras that were not available in China at the time.• He lived in India from 629-645.• When he returned to China, he brought back with him over 600 new texts.• He worked on translating them from Sanskrit into Chinese until his death in 664.• He is celebrated as one of the most famous monks in Chinese history.
  6. 6. The Narrative
  7. 7. A monkey was born from a magic stone sitting high atop the Mountain of Flowers and Fruit.
  8. 8. After proving himself in a test of bravery, he was made the ruler of all monkeys, thus becoming the “Monkey King.”
  9. 9. However, the Monkey king grew older andstarted looking for a way to stave off death. Hesearched the world over and eventually found a Daoist sage who taughthim not only the secrets of immortality, but vast magic powers.
  10. 10. He could transform into anything, call on gods and spirits to do his bidding, and even fly on clouds.The sage also gave him the religious name …Sūn Wùkōng孙悟空
  11. 11. Sun Wukong returned home to teach his children theskills he had learned, but soon discovered he was far toostrong to wield mere earthly weapons. And so one of his advisors told him to seek out a suitable one in the undersea palace of the Eastern Dragon King.
  12. 12. There, the Eastern Dragon King ordered his aquatic generals to bring the Monkey King a spear, a reclining-moon knife, and a halberd weighing thousands of pounds each.
  13. 13. But no matter …
  14. 14. … what weapon he tried …
  15. 15. …it was too light or broke in his hands.
  16. 16. The only weapon the Eastern Dragon King had left was a huge iron pillar once used by Yu the Great, a mythicalking, to measure the depths of the water during the world flood. It was now being used to fix the ocean in place.
  17. 17. It was known as the “As-you-wish gold-banded cudgel” and weighed 18,000 pounds. There was no other weapon like it in the entire universe. It could perform all manner of transformations如意金箍棒 (Rúyì Jīngū Bàng) too.
  18. 18. Sun Wukongcould make it as big …
  19. 19. …or as tiny as he wanted. It could evenmultiply itself or transform into anyobject, such as a razor-sharp knife.
  20. 20. Sometime after returning from the Eastern Sea, Monkey’s soul wasdragged to the underworld by King Yama, the god of death. This greatly angered Sun Wukong because he was immortal and no longersubject to the cycle of life and death. He immediately beat up the denizens of hell and, using a brush, crossed out his name and the names of all monkeys from the ledgers, thus making them immortal too.
  21. 21. The Eastern DragonKing and King Yama later went to heaven andreported Monkey’s acquisition of the ocean-fixing pillarand his defacement of the ledgers of life and death to the August Jade Emperor, ruler of the Cosmos.
  22. 22. The embodiment of the planet Venussuggested that they should invite him to be the “Protector of the Heavenly Horses” in order to keepan eye on him.
  23. 23. Sun Wukong later learned the position was a joke and that he was not considered a full-fledged god. This greatly angeredhim, and so he returned to earth and proclaimed himself the “Great Sage Equaling Heaven” (Qítiān Dàshèng) in rebellion.
  24. 24. The August Jade Emperor of Heaven sent the100,00 soldiers ofthe celestial army to capture SunWukong, but they were not his match.
  25. 25. Not even the demon-killer, third Prince Nezha could defeat him.
  26. 26. In the end, theMonkey King’s power was too great, soheaven had to grant him godhood, as well as a newposition as the “Guardian of the Immortal Peach Grove.”
  27. 27. Sun Wukong, onceagain, became angry whenhe learned that he had not been invited to theheavenly Queen Mother’s immortal peach banquet.He put everyone to sleepwith magic sleeping bugs and drank all of theEmperor’s royal wine. He then stole all of the immortal peaches and longevity elixir and returned home to theMountain of Flowers andFruits to share them with his children.
  28. 28. Learning from the last engagement, the August Jade Emperor sent the entire heavenly army along with some of the mostpowerful Daoist and Buddhist gods tocapture the Monkey King. He even sent his nephew, Erlang Shen, who was a master of magictransformations just like Sun Wukong.
  29. 29. The two battledwith their weapons and their transformations. If Sun Wukongtransformed into awater snake, Erlang became a crane.This continued with Erlang countering all of the Monkey King’s various transformations.
  30. 30. With the aid of amagic weapon, the Monkey King was eventually captured andreturned to heaven for execution. However, they could not kill him. Heavy blades, fire, andlightning all had no effect.
  31. 31. The supremeDaoist god Laozi then suggested that they placeSun Wukong intohis Eight Trigram furnace to melt him down.
  32. 32. Forty-nine days later, Laozi opened the furnaceexpecting to see ashes, but Sun Wukong emerged now even strongerwith golden eyes capable of seeing throughmagic disguises.
  33. 33. When heavenlyforces failed in stopping the rampaging monkey, the August JadeEmperor called upon the Buddha to intervene.
  34. 34. The Buddha bet SunWukong that if he could jumpout of his hand he would make the Monkey Kingthe emperor of heaven.
  35. 35. The Monkey King then used his great power to fly as far as hecould until he reached five pillars at the end of the cosmos. He wrote his name on them to prove he had been there.
  36. 36. Sun Wukong returned and demanded to be made emperor, butthe Buddha told him the fivepillars had been his fingers and that he had never left his hand.
  37. 37. But before the Monkey King could do anything, the Buddha pushed him out of heaven and crushed him under hishand, turning it into the Five Elements Mountain. Sun Wukong remained trapped under the mountain for a very long time.
  38. 38. Five-hundred years later, the Buddha sent the Bodhisattva Guanyin to find a suitable person to travel from China to India to receiveBuddhist scriptures needed to release countless soulsfrom the torments of hell.
  39. 39. Guanyin chose theyoung monk Xuanzang to retrieve the scriptures. In a previous life, he had been the Golden Cicada Bodhisattva who was exiled from heaven because hedozed off during one ofthe Buddha’s sermons.
  40. 40. After centuries of imprisonment, Sun Wukong agreed toprotect the monk in exchange for his freedom. Guanyin gave him three magic hairs that he could transform into anything, such as an army of monkeys to do his bidding.
  41. 41. ce Guanyin gave Xuanzang a golden headband that would keep the Monkey King under control. If Sun Wukong became unmanageable, all the monk had to do was saythe magic words and the band would tighten around the monkey’s head, causing him severe pain.
  42. 42. Along their journey to India, the two met other disciples recruited by Guanyin.The first was a lecherous pig demon with the religious name … Zhū Bājiè 猪八戒He was formerly the admiral of thecelestial navy who sailed the MilkyWay, but he was later banished from heaven for flirting with a heavenly fairy. His weapon is the War Rake.
  43. 43. The second was a dragon prince that Guanyin had saved from execution. He ate Xuanzang’smount, so he was forced to transform into a horse. He is known as … Bái Lóng Mǎ 白龙马(White Dragon Horse)
  44. 44. The third and final disciplewas a water demon with the religious name … Shā Wùjìng 沙悟净He was formerly a general in heaven, but was exiled to earth for accidentally breaking a vase. He became the monster of the Flowing Sands River. His weapon is a monk’s spade.
  45. 45. Because Xuanzang had cultivated himself for tenlifetimes, any person who ate his flesh would become immortal. Therefore, demons constantly sought out the “Longevity Monk.” Some of themonsters that SunWukong faced were …
  46. 46. King of Black Wind A black bear who turned into a demon. He later became Guanyin’s gate guard. His weapon is a spear.
  47. 47. Bull Demon King A bull who turned into a demon. He was the Monkey King’s friend in the past. His weapon is a trident.
  48. 48. v Lady Iron Fan Wife of the Bull Demon King Named for her magic fan which produces hurricane like winds.
  49. 49. Red BoySon of Lady IronFan and the Bull Demon KingHis weapons are a spear and magic fire which candestroy anything.
  50. 50. White Bone DemonAn evil spirit who can take on the appearance of any person and discard the disguise atwill, leaving behind a corpse. Her weapons are double swords.
  51. 51. Great King Rhinoceros The celestial pet ox of the Daoist god Laozi who became a demon on earth. His weapon is a magic bracelet that can capture anything. It was originally used by Laozi to capture Monkey during his rebellion against heaven.
  52. 52. Scorpion Spirit of Pipa Cave A celestial scorpion that used to listen tothe Buddha’s sermons in the Western Paradise. She was exiled to earth for stinging the Buddha. Her weapons are thetrident and the “horse- killing poison” of her stinger.
  53. 53. King Gold Horn and King Silver Horn The immortal apprentices of Laozi. Their weapon is a magic gourd that sucks up anyone who speaks before it. It can hold 1,000 souls.
  54. 54. The Azure LionThe celestial mount of the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra whobecame a demon king on earth. He has the power togrow to any size. At one point in the story, he captures the entire celestial army in his mouth.
  55. 55. After 14 years oftraveling and fighting malcontents, thegroup finally made it to India, where Xuanzang received the scriptures from the Buddha. Upon their return to China, Xuanzangperformed a Buddhist ceremony that released untold numbers of soulsfrom the torments of hell.
  56. 56. For their efforts, Xuanzang and Sun Wukong are rewarded with Buddhahood, while Sha Wujing is made an Arhat. Because heremained glutinous and lecherous throughout the journey, Zhu Bajie is only given the menial title of alter cleaner.
  57. 57. You may haveunknowingly come into contact with this story before.
  58. 58. Does this guy look familiar?
  59. 59. Son Gokū from the Dragonball franchise isactually based on Sun Wukong. In fact, Son Gokū is the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinesecharacters for Sun Wukong.
  60. 60. 谢谢大家