Kabar lake - a floodplain wetland of Bihar-2014


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  • Dear Dr. Ghosh
    Thanks. I would surely share some publication on Kabar Lake.
    B. C. Jha
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    Your message goes here
  • Dear Dr. Bankim Jha,
    I remember you very much and I know that you are close friend of Satish.Thanks for adding information on Kabar Lake.If you have any literature on Kabar lake,please send it on mail ID: ghosh51@hotmail.com
    With best regards,
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  • Dear Dr. Ghosh
    Kabar is not an oxbow lake. It is chaur (tectonically depressed land mass). The confusion created by ZSI in 1980s as they mentioned it an oxbow lake. It was not been created due to meandering of river Burhi Gandak. Please see the Bihar Gadget and revenue records. I am sure you must have forgotten me, but had the privilege of visiting your house also at Patna along with Satish, B, N, College
    Thanks and regards,

    Dr. B. C. Jha
    Former Principal Scientist & Head, Reservoir and Wetland Fisheries Division,
    CIFRI, Barrackpore, Kolkata-120
    Presently: Sr. Consultant, National Fisheries Development Board,
    Government of India
    Hyderabad. jhabc1951@gmail.com
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
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Kabar lake - a floodplain wetland of Bihar-2014

  1. 1. Experiences of Kabar Lake - a floodplain wetland of Bihar Dr.Ashok Ghosh Dept. of Environment and Water Management A N College,Patna India
  2. 2. Kabar Lake - A Bird Sanctuary Location: Bihar, India Nearest City: Begusarai Coordinates: 25 36′36″N 86 08′24″E • Kabar is a residual oxbow lake • It was formed by the changing 15594 Acre course of the River Gandak, Protected Area: th 20 June 1989 a tributary of the Ganga Area: 6311.63 Ha/
  3. 3. Map of Kabar Wetland
  4. 4. Kabar Lake • Kabar Lake, a 6311.63 hectare lake was considered one of South Asia’s largest freshwater lakes. • Ecologically, it was one of the most important wetlands in the state, which hosted about 106 species of resident birds and providing a nesting ground for 59 species of migratory birds in 2001. • Economically too, the lake was significant because it is used for fishery, source of irrigation in the area, rice cultivation and many other uses. • Kawar Lake was declared as a protected area by the government of Bihar in June 1989.
  5. 5. Sanctuary Area • The sanctuary area was demarcated following three successive notifications by the government in the 1980s. • However, even after more than three decades, as many as 1,600 objections are pending with the SDOs concerned in response to the government notification seeking objections in this regard. • The wetland, despite being a proposed Ramsar site since 1987, was not included among the 13 others declared as wetlands of international importance in 2002
  6. 6. Land Use Pattern Source:District Agriculture Office SN Land use/land cover class Total area (%) 1 Forest area 2 Barren and uncultivable land 2.73 3 Land put to non-agricultural uses 5.13 4 Cultivable waste land 2.51 5 Current fallow 1.79 6 Permanently water logged area 2.80 7 Temporarily water logged area 1.05 8 Net area sown 60.0 9 More than once cultivated land 18.38 10 Total geographic area 0 100
  7. 7. Kabar Lake - Bird Sanctuary • The forest around the lake and adjoining areas consists of thick vegetation of mainly Shisham , Teak , Silk cotton , Jamun , Arjun , Peepal and Banyan trees. • The lake had a variety of flora such as Phragmatis, Hydrilla, Nymphea, Nelumbo, Vallisnaria, Bladderworts and species of algae like Chara and Spirogyra. • Organisms like snails, mussels, crabs, shrimps, bugs ,water snakes, breathing fishes were also present in large numbers.
  8. 8. Kabar -Tourist Spot Jay Mangla Temple Migratory Bird Watch
  9. 9. Kabar Lake - A paradise lost • A thorough survey of Kabar Lake in 2013 by my research group indicated that the lake is now in a very precarious condition and gradually losing its popularity due to continued reduction in the number of migratory birds. • Despite the government’s declaration of Kabar Lake as a Bird Sanctuary in 1989 and subsequent prohibitory measures, Kabar Lake continues to be exploited for fodder, fuel, fish, and other resources.. • There is threat because of reclamation of land for agriculture and excessive removal of biomass by human population.
  10. 10. Remote Sensing Image of Wetlands of Bihar Shrinking Wetlands of Bihar Source: Ghosh et al,2004
  11. 11. Kabar Lake 2013 Pre-monsoon 2004 Pre-monsoon 2014 Post-monsoon
  12. 12. Kabar Lake- Shrinking 2013 Pre-monsoon 2004 Pre-monsoon 2014 Post-monsoon
  13. 13. Burhi Gandak – Kabar Canal • The catchment area of Kabar Lake is delineated by the higher northern part that acts as a water divide. The river Burhi Gandhak in the south and west forms the other catchment boundaries. • There is a southern 15 km long irrigation channel constructed in 1951 to drain the excess water for agricultural purposes which connects the lake to the river Burhi Gandak.
  14. 14. Kabar - Budhi Gandak Canal 2004 Pre-monsoon 2014 Post-Monsoon
  15. 15. Google Map – Kabar lake
  16. 16. Kabar :Pre-monsoon -2013
  17. 17. Dying Tourism - Defunct Boats
  18. 18. Threats • Excessive chemicals , like Furadan used to captures birds. • Killings of Birds • Villager's encroachment of Lake Area • Idle lying of fund for development of area by Bihar Government
  19. 19. Birds of Kabar – Critically Endangered • Oriental Whitebacked Vulture (Gyps bengalensis) • Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus)
  20. 20. Birds of Kabar – Critically Vulnerable • Greater Adjutant (Leptoptilos dubiu) • Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) • Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni) • Sarus Crane (Grus antigone)
  21. 21. Birds of Kabar – Threatened • Darter (Anhinga melanogaster) • Painted Stork (Mycteria leucocephala) • Black-bellied Tern (Sterna acuticauda)
  22. 22. Eutrophication • The water of Kabar Lake is declining at an alarming rate due to sever eutrophication. The depth of the lake is declining rapidly due to infestation of aquatic weeds such as Phragmatis and Hydrilla. • The lake is threatened by pollution and effluents released by the local inhabitants. The water of the lake is turbid and acidic in nature. The lake is now categorized as a highly eutrophic lake. • As part of its flood control strategy, GoB constructed a canal in the decade of the fifties to drain out the excess floodwaters into the Ganga River during the monsoons. However, in the succeeding decades, lack of maintenance has caused the sediment deposits to choke this outlet
  23. 23. Factors for Degradation of Kabar lake • At present, there is no inflow-outflow mechanism in the lake. • Extensive deforestation, overgrazing, unsustainable agricultural practices, and over exploitation of biomass for fuel, fodder and timber purposes have stripped the land of its natural vegetation cover resulting in erosion. • The lake bed is encroached by the rich farmers who overexploit them. • This resulted in social conflict between the Sahnis and the rich farmers. • Casteism further widened the gap between the rich and the poor leading to usurping of the lake ecosystems and depleting the resources.
  24. 24. Factors for Degradation……….conflicts • Conflict between the primary stakeholders: the fishing rights of Sahnis and the agricultural practice by the rich farmers. • Conflict between people and Government regarding the ownership and the rights.
  25. 25. Attitudes toward Kabar conservation • Most of the locals were aware of problems related to Kabar • The local farmers want the sanctuary area to be reduced to 1,400 acres/566 Hectare and development of the area as Krishi-cum-Pakshi Vihar. • Local Sahnis favored making the old drainage system operational again so that their livelihood is restored. • A high response was obtained in favor of protecting the birds. • Some people held negative views about the wetland and it was viewed as a breeding ground for mosquitoes and diseases such as Kala-ajar (Leishmaniasis). Mr.Shatrughan Sahni Fisherman
  26. 26. Remedial Measures • Integrated wetland management and land use regulation based on core and buffer zone concepts involving active participation of the stakeholders • Stringent protection measures; • Generation of conservation awareness by public education and use of advisory services • Revival of old drainage system • Water level and flow regulation • Environmental activism by scientists and media to sensitize government agencies.
  27. 27. Empty slogans-Who cares ?
  28. 28. LET US JOIN hands to revive Kabar Thanks