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Physics investigatory class 12

This is the edited version of the investigatory project on physics with different topic(To construct a switch using transistor and plot a graph bw input output voltage) originally created by rahul only intention to upload this project is to help other class 12 appearing students ................... so they do not have to kill there time in making these useless projects THANKS HOPE IT HELPED ................comment what you think...................................

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Physics investigatory class 12

  1. 1. ` 2015-16 Himanshu Soni K V ORDNANCE FACTORY KATNI PHYSICS INVESTIGATORY PROJECT
  2. 2. KENDRIYAVIDYALAYA NO.1 ORDNANCE FACTORYKATNI DEPARTMENTOF PHYSiCS CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Himanshu Soni, a student of class XII-A has successfully completed the research on the below mentioned project under the guidance of Mr. S.K Tiwari ( Subject Teacher ) during the year 2015-16 in partial fulfillment of physics practical examination conducted by AISSCE, New Delhi. Signature of external examiner Signature of physics teacher
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Intheaccomplishmentofthisprojectsuccessfully,many people havebest owneduponmetheirblessings andtheheart pledged support,thistimeIamutilizing tothankallthepeoplewho havebeenconcernedwithproject. Primarily Iwouldthankgodforbeingabletocompletethis projectwithsuccess. ThenIwouldliketothankmyprincipal Ms.ChandralekhaG.Rand ChemistryteacherMs.Seema tamrakar,whosevaluableguidancehasbeentheonesthat helpedmepatchthisprojectandmakeit fullproofsuccesshis suggestionsand hisinstructionshasservedas themajor contributortowardsthecompletionoftheproject.
  4. 4. ThenI wouldliketothankmyparentsand friendswhohave helpedmewiththeirvaluablesuggestionsand guidancehas beenhelpfulinvariousphasesofthecompletionoftheproject. Lastbutnot theleast Iwouldliketothankmyclassmates who havehelpedmealot. INDEX 1. CERTIFICATE OF EXCELLENCE 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 3. AIM OF PROJECT 4. INTRODUCTION 5. THEORY 6. APPARATUS REQUIRED 7. PROCEDURE FOLLOWED 8. OBSERVATION
  5. 5. 9. CONCLUSION 10. BIBLIOGRAPHY AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT
  6. 6. To construct a switch using a transistor and to draw the graph between the input and output voltage and mark the cut-off, saturation and active region. THEORY In the common emitter circuit of a transistor, emitter base make input section and is forward biased and emitter collector junction make output section and is reverse biased . Appling Kirchhoff’s law, for input circuit VBB = IBRB + VBE And for output circuit VCE = VCC - ICRC But VBB = Vi and VCC = Vo, Then Vi = IBRB + VBE Vo =VCC - ICRC The variation in the output voltage with respect to the variation in input voltage for a Si transistor are shown in figure.
  7. 7. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
  8. 8. AIM : To construct a switch using a transistor and to draw the graph between the input and output voltage and mark the cut-off, saturation and active region. APPARATUS REQUIRED: An npn transistor (BC 108 or 2Tx300),a 3 volt battery ,two high resistance (100kohm,10kohm),a six volt battery, a bulb(6V,0.06A),0-3
  9. 9. volt meter, one0-6 volt voltmeter, two one way keys, connection wires. PROCEDURE:  Make a circuit diagram  Make all connections neat, clean and tight
  10. 10.  Note least count and zero error of voltmeters  Make the voltmeters reading zero in Vi and Vo  Increase the voltage from input battery Vbb from 0 to 0.6V and read it in voltmeter Vi and record the reading in voltmeter Vo.  Further increase the input voltage (0.6<Vi <=1V) and record the reading in both voltmeters. The reading in voltmeter Vo, decreases continuously.  With further increase in Vi (Vi>1V) and again record the reading in both voltmeters. The reading in the output voltmeter is found to decrease in further toward zero through it may never be zero.  Plot the reading of Vi and Vo by taking Vi on x-axis and Vo the y-axis. The graph will be similar to figure as shown in figure. OBSERVATIONS 1. Least count of voltmeter Vi = 2.Least count of voltmeter Vo =
  11. 11. 3.Zero error of voltmeter Vi = 4.Zero error of voltmeter Vo = Inpur voltage Vi (v) Output voltage Vo(V) 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 ……….. 1.3 1.4 1.5 CONCLUSION
  12. 12. 1. When the input voltage Vi (0 to 0.6) then transistor is in cut off region . The transistor do not act. 2.When the input voltage Vi (0.6<Vi <=1.0) V then transistor is in active region. The transistor act. 3.The transistor incut off region act as switch in off positon and in saturation region. The transistor act. 4.The transistor in cut off region act as switch in off position and in saturation region it actas switch in on position . PRECAUTIONS 1. All connection should be neat, clean and tight . 2.The input voltage should be increase gradually. RESULT The variation in the output voltage with respect to the variation in input voltage for a Si transistor is observed. Biblography
  13. 13. 1. Website  www.wikipedia.org  www.google.com  www.yahoo.com 2. BOOKS:  Comprehensive Practical Manual  NCERT Class XII

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