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I longobardi

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The Longobards had an important historic role in changing Italy during the period among Vi and VIII centuries. This is a brief history of Teodolinda, Rotari and Adelchi until the explosion of Carlo Magno in Europe

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I longobardi

  1. 1. I Longobardi erano una gens, cioè non una etnia vera e propria , ma l’unione di diversi nuclei di persone di origine diversa che si riconoscevano in un’origine e in una tradizione comune.
  2. 2. Re capo guerriero, eletto dall’assemblea, simbolo della regalità: la lancia GairethinxArimanni: (assemblea degliuomini liberi arimanni)(mann=uomo /heer= esercito)
  3. 3. Ariman ni Uomini liberi e soldati Aldi semiliberi Serviprivi di libertà, coltivano i campi, svolgono le mansioni più umili
  4. 4.  Nella società longobarda, come in molte società germaniche, forma di organizzazione sociale e territoriale fondamentale era la FA R A . La fara era u n a m p i o ra g g r u p p a m e n to d i d i ve r s e f a m i g l i e , che poteva essere costituita da un insieme di uomini armati appartenenti a diversi nuclei famigliari e che si costituiva soprattutto nelle spedizioni militari. L o s t a n z i a m e n t o d e i L o n go b a r d i i n It a l i a av ve n n e , a p p u n t o, p e r “ f a r e ”, e così questo nome fu “ereditato” da diverse località nel Nord Italia e in Francia, sede di questi gruppi famigliari: Fara Gera d’Adda, Fara Olivana in provincia di Bergamo.
  5. 5.  La comune tradizione tramandata all’interno del popolo longobardo sosteneva che esso fosse originario della Scandinavia, ma vi sono tracce della loro presenza sulle rive dell’ Elba alla fine del I secolo d. C. Nel V secolo essi emigrarono nella Pannonia, odierna Ungheria, Da qui essi si inserirono nelle lotte in atto tra Ostrogoti e Bizantini durante la guerra greco – gotica, in cui alcuni reparti di Longobardi combatterono insieme ai Bizantini.
  6. 6.  I Longobardi nel 5 6 8 – 5 6 9 , insieme a altri popoli (Gepidi, Svevi, Bulgari, Sassoni) i r r u p p e r o n e l l ’ It a l i a n o r d o r i e n t a l e , dal Friuli, quindi nel corso di tre anni conquistarono i territori settentrionali fino a P av i a ( 5 7 2 ) .  I bizantini, impegnati inL’Italia durante le conquiste dei longobardi guerre sul loro fronte orientale, non reagirono, considerando il tutto una semplice scorreria.
  7. 7.  I Longobardi, d i c re d o a r i a n o , ebbero scontri aspri con i vescovi, che furono spesso i loro principali avversari durante la conquista delle diverse città . Non cercarono inizialmente alcuna mescolanza con le popolazioni locali, soprattutto emarginando def initivamente dal potere gli ultimi eredi della classe senatoriale ro m a n a non eliminati durante la guerra greco – gotica. Giunsero anche alla loro eliminazione fisica per impadronirsi delle loro proprietà
  8. 8. Nel 572 il re Alboino, che aveva guidato i longobardi nelle loro conquiste italiane, venne ucciso con la complicità della moglie Rosmunda, che, secondo una leggenda, voleva vendicarsi di lui che l’aveva costretta a bere nel teschio del padre morto. Gli successe per breve tempo Clefi, ma, alla sua morte, per più di dieci anni iL’omicidio di Alboino longobardi non ebbero più un re.
  9. 9.  I duchi operarono autonomamente e espansero i territori longobardi fino a Torino e Asti (NO) e poi a Spoleto (Umbria) e Benevento (Campania), grazie alla debolezza dei bizantini, che le dovettero cedere.
  10. 10.  I duchi, resisi conto che i loro domini erano precari senza una guida unitaria, decisero di darsi di nuovo un re dopo dieci anni. A u t a r i fu eletto re dagli stessi duchi nel 5 8 4 . Figlio di Clefi, Autari ascese al trono in un contesto di forte frammentazione del dominio longobardo, sottoposto alla duplice pressione dei Franchi e dei Bizantini e per questo ottenne un deciso sostegno dai duchi, che gli assegnarono un tesoro pari alla metà dei propri beni (→ fisco regio) .
  11. 11.  Autari sposò Te o d o l i n d a , cattolica, ma soprattutto discendente del capo longobardo che guidò il suo popolo dalla Germania alla Pannonia.La regina Teodolinda  Era un segnale politico La “Corona ferrea” forte della sua volontà di venne forgiata dalla dare unità ai longobardi. regina Teodolinda, che vi fece inserire  Autari morì però all’interno un chiodo precocemente e della croce di Cristo, donato a lei da papa Teodolinda decise di Gregorio Magno. sposare Agigulfo, duca Con questa erano turingio. incoronati gli imperatori del Sacro Romano Impero. È conservata nel Duomo di Monza.
  12. 12.  Teodolinda inaugurò una politica di dialogo con le gerarchie cattoliche, specie con papa Gregorio Magno.  Favorì la fondazione dell’ abbazia di Bobbio, sui colli piacentini, a opera del monaco irlandese Colombano.Abbazia di Bobbio  Fu il primo di numerosi altri, fino alla r i n u n c i a a l l ’a r i a n e s i m o del popolo longobardo nel 6 5 3 .
  13. 13.  Il duca controllava i Re distretti pubblici posti in città , poste lungo le principali vie di Duca comunicazione. Gestisce le  Il gastaldo amministrava città i territori appartenenti al fisco regio (curtes), vere e proprie aziende Gastaldo agricole.Sculdascio/ Gestisce le curtes  Gli sculdasci o centenariiCentenarioCapo - villaggio erano i capi – villaggio e avevano un’autorità quasi simile ai gastaldi.
  14. 14.  Quando divenne re il duca Rotari, nel 636, i longobardi conobbero il periodo più importante del loro dominio italiano. Egli sposò la figlia di Teodolinda, ripetendo un gesto unificatore già di Autari. Rotari condusse numerose campagne militari, che portarono quasi tutta lItalia settentrionale sotto il dominio del regno longobardo. Conquistò (642) la Liguria. Governò con energia e colpì con durezza sui duchi che gli si opponevano, facendone eliminare molti
  15. 15.  Rotari ebbe soprattutto il merito di codificare per iscritto il diritto del suo popolo, fino allora amministrato per consuetudine.  Nel famoso «Editto» che porta il suo nome, 643, scritto in un latino germanizzato, diede veste definita a molte norme e rese il diritto longobardo più vicino a quello romano, anche se gli italici continuarono aCopertina del manoscritto del- essere governati secondo l’”Editto “ di Rotari. proprie leggi.
  16. 16.  L’«Editto» riguardava la vita civile, i rapporti patrimoniali, la disciplina militare.  La vera svolta giuridica era la proibizione della faida, la giustizia privata che la famiglia dell’ucciso poteva esercitare verso l’assassino.  Al suo posto era previsto il guidrigildo, un risarcimento in denaro per le persone uccise o le parti delRotari promulga il suo corpo danneggiate o mozzate.“Editto”
  17. 17.  I longobardi si mescolarono, tuttavia, con gli italici, soprattutto con i piccoli proprietari terrieri.  Forti di questa mescolanza, essi cominciarono nuove espansioni nei territori bizantini e re Liutprando conquistò il castello di Sutri, nel ducato di Roma (728)  In seguito lo rese “ai santissimiIl borgo di Sutri con il suo castello apostoli Pietro e Paolo”, non al funzionario bizantino.  Ciò significa che la chiesa di Roma contendeva il controllo del territorio ai bizantini.
  18. 18.  Nell’VIII secolo si successero sul trono longobardo re provenienti da una aristocrazia molto aggressiva.  I papi si avvicinarono ai Franchi dei re Pipinidi  I Bizantini entrarono defnitivamente in crisi.  Nel 75 1 il re Astolfo conquistò la capitale b i z a n t i n a R a v e n n a . Fu l’inizio della fine per i longobardi.  Il papa Stefano II chiese di intervenire al re franco Pipino il Breve, che scacciò i longobardi dai territori già bizantini.L’Italia nell’VIII secolo
  19. 19.  Il successore di Astolfo, Desiderio, cercò di realizzare una politica di convivenza e alleanza con i franchi.  Carlo, figlio di Pipino il Breve, e la figlia di Desiderio (forse di nomePipino il Breve Ermengarda) si sposarono per garantire lo status quo in Italia.  Quando però Carlo successe al padre, papa Adriano I lo chiamò a difendere i territori italici . Egli ripudiò Ermengarda e scese in Italia. Carlo Magno
  20. 20.  Il figlio di Desiderio, Adelchi, fu posto alla guida dell’esercito dei longobardi.  Mentre il grosso dellesercito longobardo, guidato da Desiderio, reggeva in Val di Susa (Piemonte) allurto di quello franco capeggiato da Carlo Magno, Adelchi fu sopraffatto dalle colonne guidate dallo zio del re franco, Bernardo, forse anche a causa del tradimenti di alcuni longobardi.  I vinti ripiegarono disordinatamente in Val Padana; Desiderio si arroccò nella capitale, Pavia, mentre Adelchi riparò a Verona, portando con sé i figli di Carlomanno, fratello defunto di Carlo Magno, che i Longobardi avrebbero voluto imporre sul trono franco.  In seguito alla caduta di Verona, nel 773-774, eLa resa di Desiderio soprattutto di Pavia (774), il regno longobardo passò sotto la corona di Carlo Magno e Adelchi cercò riparo a Costantinopoli (774), dove ricevette il titolo di patrizio
  21. 21. L’inglobamento del Regnum Langobardorum I territori dei longobardi, con il nome di Regnum Langobardorum entrarono a far parte dei domini franchi in Italia. Con il tempo avvenne una mescolanza tra le aristocrazie dei due regni che creò una nuova classe dirigente.

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