Davison, Maraist and Bing (2011): Many managers and HR practitioners are using social networking websites to make important HR decisions such as recruiting, selecting, and terminating individuals. Most organizations do not have a policy in place for using social media sites. HR Toolbox (2011) : 83% of HR pros are using social media. Average social media consumption is in excess of 7.5 hours a week. Birkman (2011) : 43% of organizations start using social media and other web 2.0 technologies for business purposes two years ago. Most of the spent time for viewing and reading or watching content online. LinkedIn (75 %) and Facebook (66 %) were the most usable platforms. 34 % are using social media for (both internal and external) purposes. Kluemper and Rosen (2009): Human resource (HR) professionals are currently evaluating social networking information prior to hiring applicants. Academic studies are needed to determine whether SNWs can be reliable and valid or not. SHRM (2001) : Sixty-eight percent of organizations reported currently engaging in social media activities to reach external audiences. The most frequently used social media platforms used by CEOs were LinkedIn (20%) and Facebook (17%). The currently engage in social media activities in HR is 44%.
Kubitz (2012): The benefits of using Social media are: A great recruiting tool. An effective communication strategy tool. An easy corporate communications/employee engagement tool. Improve your company’s reputation/standing. Play a key role in company’s brand. Resources for the HR professional. Listen, learn and modify. Gain more fans. Investigate prospective candidates/business partners. Social Intelligence Hiring (2012) : the advantages of social media usage are: Takes the guesswork out of deciphering unorganized Internet results Reveals what is important and relevant while respecting candidates’ privacy Maximizes the advantages of using social media while reducing the legal risks Creates and enforces fair and consistent hiring practices Identifies good candidates and eliminates bad candidates improving hiring results Mike Kohn(2010): The involvement in social media is allowing the companies to expand its HR network and industry network. Engaging with social media will positioned firms as a thought leader and raised awareness of companies and will get to know potential talent that might someday be a good fit for our organization. Jobvite (2009): 80 % of employers currently use or are planning to use social media to find and attract candidates. 66 % of employers recruiting via social media reported successfully hiring a candidate who was identified or introduced through an online social network. LinkedIn is the most popular social media being used is (95 %), followed by Facebook (59 %) and Twitter (42 %).
Privacy Rights Clearinghouse (2010): potential employers discriminations: Age Gender Race Disability Sexual orientation Political affiliations Other groups and contacts Gross, R. and Acquisti, A. (2005): The potential harm to an individual user really boils down to how much a user engages in a social networking site, as well as the amount of the private information they're willing to share. Issues relating to stalking, identity theft, sexual predators and employment are consistently on the rise. The ethics regarding data storage, the management and sharing of such data is still a big concern.
APCO Worldwide and Gagen MacDonald(2011) : 58% of employees would rather work at a company that uses ISM effectively, and 86% would refer others for employment. 60% of employees say use of internal social media demonstrates innovation. 61% of employees say their companies' social media tools help them collaborate. 39% of employees are more likely to recommend their company’s products and services. Towers Watson research (2009/2010): the barriers of adopting internal social media: Limited knowledge of social media. Lack of IT support or technical capability. Limited staff /resources to implement. Restrictions Imposed by the legal department. Lack of CEO or senior manager support. Lack of metrics to measure the Impact. Nielsen Norman group(2009): Companies are turning a blind eye to social software tools until they are proven to be valuable. It will take three to five years for most companies to successfully adopt and integrate social technologies into their intranets. Aberdeen Group study : Employees with the most extensive digital networks are 7% more productive than their colleagues. Douglas Karr (2008): provides a business cases of how companies can use internal social media as the following: Monitor and Drive Corporate Strategies Flatten Company Hierarchy Promote Internal Networking Ideation – Idea Generation News and Information Resources Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration Project-based Workforce
A recruiting tool A communication tool A corporate communications/employee engagement tool A company’s reputation building tool An online branding tool An information acquisition tool A community building tool A promotional tool An internal networking tool An idea generational tool A tool for identifying prospective business partners
Monitor and drive corporate strategies Internal idea generation Knowledge sharing and collaboration Promote internal networking Promote company's news internally Increase communications between the employees and management Internal information retrieval Increasing innovation potential
Social media usage in HR departments in Greece
Social media usage in HR departments in Greece By Ghazi Alnatsheh Supervisor Xenia ziouvelouA thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Management in Business Innovation and Technology Athens Information Technology 2012
Social media overviewSocial media is a term used to collectivelydescribe a set of tools that foster interaction,discussion and community, allowing peopleto build relationships and share information.•Social media is about conversations, community, connectingwith personalities and building relationships. It is not just abroadcast channel or a sales and marketing tool.•Authenticity, honesty and open dialogue are key.•Social media not only allows you to hear what people say aboutyou, but enables you to respond. Listen first, speak second.
Social media in companiesCompanies are feeling the need to bepresent on not just one social mediaplatform, however, on ensuring thatthey are “available and listening” toall people at all times.• It is interesting to note that over 2.5 million organizations have aFacebook presence in addition to their corporate websites.• A lot of reasons are motivating organizations to embrace socialmedia and also the feel the need to adopt it because all itscompetitors are adopting social media too.• Social media usage in companies is useful in HR, Marketing,R&D ..etc departments.
Social media in HR Dept.• In 2010, only 6% of companies were using social media for recruiting. Today, that’s exploded to 89%.• As the number of global HR professionals climbs close to one million, so it becomes important for this relatively new profession to define what it means to be effective, and using social media is the way for it.• The choice is simple, you can either interact with your world or allow your world to leave you in the dust. Today’s HR professionals must participate in social media to remain current.
Empirical Findings about social media in HR Dept.• The current engagement in social media activities for HR purposes based on the following countries: USA 44 % Greece !! Australia 42 %
Objectives This thesis aims to provide an overview of how anorganization uses the social media in the human resourcesdepartments in Greece, and to explore the advantages and disadvantages of it, in addition to find out the social media usage in the companies internally through its intranets and what benefits it can brought for Greek companies.
Thesis Overview Literature review Study objectives Research design Empirical study Findings Conclusion Study limitations and future studies
Social media usage in HR departmentsThe exist literature in relation to social media usage in HRdepartments will be presented in the following three fundamental areas :1.Social media usage at workplace and HR departments.2.The pros and cons of using social media in humanresources.3.Internal usage of social media in work environments andHR department.
LR:Social media usage at work place and HR • Davison, Maraist and Bing (2011) • HR Toolbox (2011) • Birkman (2011) • Kluemper and Rosen (2009) • SHRM (2001)It seems that many organizations are using the social mediaespecially LinkedIn and Facebook which have the majority ofusing. Also many managers and HR practitioners are using socialnetworking websites to make important HR decisions such asrecruiting, selecting, and terminating individuals. And it seems thatusing social media is worthy time wise and it is trustful method ofdoing the job.
LR: The pros and cons of using social media in HRThe pros :by•Kubitz (2012)•Jobvite (2009)•Mike Kohn(2010)•Social Intelligence Hiring(2012)
LR: The pros and cons of using social media in HR The cons: •Privacy Rights Clearinghouse (2010) •Gross, R. and Acquisti, A. (2005)The advantages and disadvantages of social media usage in humanresources and in the work place it is clearly obvious that theadvantages are too many and can bring the organization with a lot ofbenefits, in the other hand there were few cons of using them butthey are actually concerns more than disadvantages especially whenit comes to the privacy issues.
LR: Internal usage of social media in work environments and HR• APCO Worldwide and Gagen MacDonald(2011).• Towers Watson research (2009/2010) .• Nielsen Norman Group (2009).• Aberdeen Group study.• Douglas Karr (2008). In relation of using social media internally we can conclude that there is a slowly adoption for it these day but the experts saying that in the near future most of the companies will adopt it considering the value and the advantages that they will gain from it.
Social media in HR departments in Greece Unfortunately!!! There were no studies done byanyone under the same subject inGreece which left us with a huge gap of studies that we found it interesting to start a research to cover and seek an answers for any related topic in this area.
Study objectives1. How do HR professionals use social media and Web 2.0 technologies in the different functions of HR departments in Greece2. How do Greek HR professionals use social media internally (within the company intranet)?3. What are the pros and cons of using social media in human resources department in Greece for internal and external purposes?4. Exploring the companies behaviour in social media usage
Research design and approach• Research Design: exploratory researchexplore “what is happening and to seek new insights.• Research Approach: inductive approachby collecting data and develop theory as a result of our data analysis.• Research Strategy: a survey strategywe used a questionnaire to collect our data, by sending the questionnaire to 100 companies (70 for online and 30 for physical questionnaire); the survey received 27 responses (13 online & 14 physical), which made the response rate is 27 % ; the study duration was from 24/09/2012 until 30/09/2012.
Participants & procedures• The target population (sample) of thestudy is companies in Greece despite theirbusiness sectors or the size of the companyor professions.• We collect our data by initiating a convenient questionnaire and we distributed it via email to 70 random Greek companies and it was targeting the HR department directly to fill in the questionnaire, and to 30 physical presented company during AIT career day on 26-27/9/2012.• We gave the recipient companies one week waiting period to answer the online questionnaire, then we started doing our analysis based on the data we have received from them, and after the analysis part we built a conclusion for the study.
Questionnaire design•We built the online questionnaire using Googledocument feature• It contains 30 questions divided between open,multiple choice and rating questions.• The questions were created into 5 sections :A.Demographics (company profile).B.Social media usage at your HR department.C.The pros and cons of social media usage in HRdepartmentD.(Intra-company) usage of social media in workenvironments and HR departmentsE.Nonsocial media usage companies
Questions design The question Source of the question Study descriptionWhat is your position in the HR department? Birkman International Questionnaire: YesHow long has your company been using social media for HR (2011), Human Resources Year: 2011purposes? 2.0: How HR Area: USADoes your company Provide a social media policy? Professionals and HR Response rate: 1,085% Consultants Use Social Media and Web 2.0 Technologies.www.birkm an.comDoes your company use social media? The Society for human Questionnaire: YesWhich social media components does your HR department resources management Year: 2011use to reach external audiences? (2011), Social Media in Area: USADoes your company provide any social media training to the Workplace. Response rate: 19%employees who are engaged in social media activities? www.shrm.org/researchDoes your company Block access to any social media oncompany-owned computers or handheld devices?Who is responsible for social media management in your Karen Purser (2012) Questionnaire: Yescompany? Using Social Media in Year: 2011Please rate the current usage of social media in your HR Local Government, 2011 Area: Australiadepartment regarding the effectiveness, easiness and trust Survey Report Response rate: 225worthiness? www.acelg.org.au responseIn your company, can employees use the internal socialmedia to communicate directly with the management?
Study FindingsOur findings will be categorize into three areas asthe followiong:A.Demographical findings and responses.B.Using social media companies findings.C.Non using social media companies findings.
A. Demographical findings and responses• The percentages of responses based on thecompany’s size are large companies (37 %);Medium sized companies (18.5 %), small companies (26 %) and micro companies (18.5 %).• All companies are belongs in the private sector.• The percentages of responses based on the company’s business sector are HR companies (22 %), IT (26 %), Telecommunications (11%), each of Energy, business services and Pharma (5.5 %) equally, and others (19%).• The percentages of the responder’s positions in the HR department are managers (41 %), general analysts (18.5 %), each of directors and specializing analysts (11 %) equally and others (18.5 %).• 85 % of Greek companies are using social media, and 15 % do not use social media in their company at all.• 70 % of the Greek companies that use social media are using it for HR purposes as well.• 50 % of the Greek companies that use social media are using it for internal purposes.
B.Using social media companies findingsThe top percentages of Greek companies who are using social media inHR department based on their size are micro (85 %) and small (80 %)companies.
B.Using social media companies findingsThe two major Greek company’s business sectors that use social mediain HR department are HR companies (100 %) and IT companies (71%).
B.Using social media companies findings The responsible departments of social media management in Greek companiesThere is no major department who is responsible for the social mediamanagement in Greek companies, each of HR Dept., IT Dept., marketingDept. and others are (25 %) equally.
B.Using social media companies findingsLinkedIn (100%) and Facebook (56%) are the most popular socialmedia tools that Greek companies use to reach external audiences.
B.Using social media companies findings37 % of the companies have started using social media for HR purposesduring the last year in Greece.
B.Using social media companies findingsGreek companies often use social media for recruiting (44 %) andscreening (37.5 %) processes and never use it for termination decisions(69 %).
B.Using social media companies findingsWhen asked to rate their usage of social media in their HR departments,Greek companies evaluated their usage as (the effectiveness of usingsocial media is medium (61%), easiness average is medium (62.5%) andthe trustworthiness also medium (62.5 %).
B.Using social media companies findingsA. A recruiting toolB. A communication toolC. A corporate communications/employee engagement toolD. A company’s reputation building toolE. An online branding toolF. An information acquisition toolG. A community building toolH. A promotional toolI. An internal networking toolJ. An idea generational toolK. A tool for identifying prospective business partners The top rated advantages of social media usage in HR departments were found to be as a recruiting tool (88 %), a company’s reputation building tool (80%), an online branding tool (82%) and a community building tool (80%).
B.Using social media companies findingsWhen asked: In your opinion, which are the disadvantages of usingsocial media in HR department?•Requires too much effort.•Non trustable points.•The vivid interaction is not easy.•Cannot control what is being said once it has been published.•The employees do not accept social media as a tool.•Illegally used of online information.
B.Using social media companies findingsPrivacy concerns (70%) are the top rated concerns by social media usagein HR departments in Greece followed by productivity reduction (58%);Time wastage (56%) and cost increase (42%).
B.Using social media companies findings62% of the companies have started using social media for internalpurposes during the last two years in Greece.
B.Using social media companies findingsLinkedIn (33%) and the private social media networks (25%) are themostly used for internal purposes by Greek companies.
B.Using social media companies findingsA. Monitor and drive corporate strategiesB. Internal idea generationC. Knowledge sharing and collaborationD. Promote internal networkingE. Promote companys news internallyF. Increase communications between the employees and managementG. Internal information retrievalH. Increasing innovation The top rated advantages in internal social media usage in Greek potential companies were: Monitor and drive corporate strategies (76%), Knowledge sharing and collaboration (80%), Promote internal networks (80%).
B.Using social media companies findingsThe most common communication types that Greek companies use in theinternal social media are: peer to peer (77.4%) and employee to employeecommunications (72%).
B.Using social media companies findings75% of Greek companies let their employees use internal social mediato communicate directly with the management.25% of Greek companies have a specific internal social media usagepolicy
B.Using social media companies findingsInternal social media usage does not depend on company’s size in Greekcompanies.
C.Non Using social media companies findingsWhen asked: Could you briefly tell us what are the main reasonsthat prevent you from using social media in your HR departmentand /or internally?•Lack of resources•Working toward hiring the write people•It is difficult during the crises•Need a specialist personnel•It was not in companys philosophy•You may exclude people for low level job roles because theyare not able to use them•Privacy issues•No real need
C.Non Using social media companies findingsIt will take one year for 50% of the Greek companies to start adoptingsocial media in their HR department.
C.Non Using social media companies findings33% of the Greek companies have been proposed or requested to adoptsocial media in the HR department by their employees.
A glimpse of serious gamesWhen asked: Would your company adopt serious games for HR purposes(i.e. training, employee selecting...etc.)?When asked: Could you please briefly tell us what are the main reasons thatprevent your company from adopting serious games in its intranet?•The internal strategy.•No real need.•It has not been looked into thoroughly yet.•It will lead to somehow lose time for the daily activity of each employee.•Any kind of social media activity or game would necessarily go through acode of conduct control which implies a higher relevant allocation of resources.
Conclusion• Many Greek organizations and HR professionals understand the impact of social media usage in human resources departments and how it will be useful if they adopt this approach in doing their jobs, but it still not wide spread and they are afraid of the concerns that it can bring to the organizations.• The usage of social media in the HR functions still not a primary tool for the HR department in the Greek companies even that they know the pros of it.• The most popular social media tools to reach external audiences are LinkedIn and Facebook; also they are being used a lot by the Greek organizations as an internal social media tool.
Conclusion• The percentages of social media usage in HR based on the companies size shows that small and micro companies are engaging with social media more than the medium and large companies in Greece which mean that small sized companies are trying to expand their audiences and their branding through these tools.• The very high percentage of the HR companies of social media usage for HR purposes indicates that these companies are the most who know the benefits and advantages of the social media adoption followed by IT companies.• We can also conclude that there is a variety of differences in social media usage between Greece and other countries. For example the different social media usage between USA and Greece, and it shows that in some cases Greece have better results and worse in some other aspects.
Greece VS USAQuestion / Region USA ** GreeceThe current percentages of usage in social media 68 % (1) 85 %activities to reach external audiences in organizations.The current engagement in social media activities for 44 % (1) 70 %HR purposesThe percentage of organizations that block access to 43 % (1) 37 %social media on company-owned computers or handhelddevices.The most used social media tool for HR purposes LinkedIn(75%) LinkedIn(100%), Facebook(66%) Facebook (56%) (2)Percentages of organizations that have start using social 25% (2) 56 %media for HR purposes during the last year.Percentages of organizations that provide any social 27 % (1) 19 %media training to employees who engage in social mediaactivitiesPercentage of the organizations who had a policy for 31 % (2) 56 %social media usage
ConclusionIn relation to the internal usage of social media:•The adoption of internal social media within the intranet in the Greekorganizations is not common.•Within the next few years it will be trending because the organizationsare becoming aware of the advantages of adopting the internal socialmedia in their intranets.•Facebook and linked in are the top common tools for internal usage asthey are the top in the external usage.•Even though that the communication types that Greek companies usein the internal social media are almost similar, but it mostly commonuse as an employee to employee communications, which limited thedirect communications between the employees and the management.•Privacy and control considered as a reasons that prevent companies toadopt internal social media, in addition to that the crises matter and thelake of resources are being an issues nowadays in Greek companies.•The company size does not seem to play a role in the adoption ofinternal social media in Greek companies.
ConclusionIn relation to the companies who do not use social media in HRdepartments or for internal purposes, a lot of these companies areplanning to adopt social media in their companies in one year periodwhich is a promising point. It is not obvious if the industry type orthe companies size effect the decision of social media in Greekcompanies.
The best practices for social media usage for HR purposes in Greece•Keeping up with industry social networks by practicing recruiting,selection and screening processes via participating in LinkedIn andFacebook since they are the most common social media platforms.•Adopting social media in the HR departments can be very useful as arecruiting tool, a company’s reputation building tool, an online brandingtool, and a community building tool.•Subscribing to Blogs and RSS feeds.•Getting on Twitter which is the trend nowadays.•Initiate a policy for social media practices to clear out the goals of theusage and to control it more, and it can limit the concerns and cons of thesocial media usage.•Defined a particular department to be responsible of social mediamanagement in the company, you could make it a separate department oryou can add these authorities to one of the existed departments.•Providing training to the employees who are engaged in social mediaactivities is a smart move and highly recommended.
Study limitations1. The sample size is considered convenient but due to the limited companies contact list that we used we were unable to reach more participants in the questionnaire which will make the results more accurate and the generalization of the conclusion will be more effective.2. The available time was a little short for us which can affect the richness of the literature review otherwise we could collect more ideas and discussions in the topic.3. The study did not include any other methods to collect data rather than the questionnaire, using another method such as interviews and observations will increase the accuracy level of the study.
Future studies• It would be interesting to compare the social media usage in HR departments between different countries or to investigate more about the culture types and how would the results be affected with this variable.• It is recommended that further researches be undertaken in the field of social media usage for external purposes and how could the management take advantages from it and to investigate if it is possible to earn some money by adopting and using the social media by the organization.• Further investigation and experimentation into how HR uses the social media is strongly recommended, and how to perceive new employees and to measure the efficiency of the selected employees by social media platforms are recommended.• Also it would be interesting to assess the effects of the social media usage policy implementations inside the organization for internal and external purposes.• A new phenomenon is trending now a days which is “Gamification”, so a researches in Gamification and how to be used in HR departments should be worthy.• A future research is recommended to examine why and what are the reasons that prevent the companies from adopting social media in their companies.