Learning Theory

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Behaviorism, Cognitive, & Constructiveness

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Learning Theory

  1. 1. LEARNINGLEARNING THEORYTHEORY
  2. 2. behaviorismebehaviorisme
  3. 3. National and world cycling champiaonNational and world cycling champiaon Two time Olympic championTwo time Olympic champion Five time winner of Tour de FranceFive time winner of Tour de France Train for 12 hoursTrain for 12 hours EVERYDAYEVERYDAY Lance ArmstrongLance Armstrong Cancer survivorCancer survivor
  4. 4. 16 hours of practice16 hours of practice 4 hours of theory4 hours of theory 4 hours sleep4 hours sleep EVERYDAYEVERYDAY Nadia ComaneciNadia Comaneci Originator of the prefect 10Originator of the prefect 10
  5. 5. Set 35 world recordsSet 35 world records He competed against himselfHe competed against himself EVERYDAYEVERYDAY Sergei BubkaSergei Bubka Still standing tallStill standing tall
  6. 6. CognitivismCognitivism
  7. 7. HUKUM KEABADIAN TENAGA
  8. 8. Tunjukan tenaga adalah abadi bagi suatu objek yang jatuh bebas (10 minit dari sekarang!)
  9. 9. m hh3 4 A B C X X X EA= EB = EC = EN Tenaga Abadi?
  10. 10. m hh3 4 A B C X X X E = KE+PE EA=KEA+PEA KE = mv21 2 PE = mgh
  11. 11. m hh3 4 A B C X X X EA=KEA+PEA KEA = mvA 21 2 PEA = mgh v2 =u2 +2as vA 2 =u2 +2gs vA 2 =02 +2g(0) vA 2 =0 KEA = 0 EA=0 +mgh EA= mgh
  12. 12. m hh3 4 A B C X X X EB=KEB+PEB KEA = mvA 21 2 PEB = mghB v2 =u2 +2as vB 2 =uB 2 +2g vB 2 =02 + vB 2 = EA=0 +mgh EA= mgh = mg 3 4 h 1 4 h gh 2 gh 2 KEB = mvB 21 2 KEB = m1 2 gh 2 = mgh 4 EB=KEB+PEB = mg 3 4 hmgh 4 + = mgh
  13. 13. m hh3 4 A B C X X X EC=KEC+PEC KEA = mvA 21 2 PEC = mghC v2 =u2 +2as vC 2 =uC 2 +2gh vC 2 =02 + vC 2 = EA=0 +mgh EA= mgh= mg(0) 2gh 2gh KEC = mvC 21 2 KEC = m1 2 (2gh) = mgh EC=KEC+PEC = 0mgh + = mgh = 0
  14. 14. A B C m m m m EA= mgh EB= mgh EN= mgh EC= mgh
  15. 15. A B C m m m m EA= mgh EB= mgh EN= mgh EC= mgh
  16. 16. ConstructivismConstructivism
  17. 17. •Betulkan yang biasa •Biasakan yang betul
  18. 18. I went to my colleague’s office and read the examination question, “Show how it is possible to determine the height of a tall building with the aid of a barometer”
  19. 19. 4:00 pm – 4:45 pm4:00 pm – 4:45 pm
  20. 20. Some time ago I received a call from a colleague who asked if I would be the referee on the grading of an examination question.
  21. 21. He was about to given a student a zero for his answer, to a physics question,
  22. 22. while the student claimed he should receive a perfect score and would if the system were not set up against the student.
  23. 23. The instructor and the student agreed to submit this to an impartial arbiter, and I was selected.
  24. 24. I went to my colleague’s office and read the examination question, I went to my colleague’s office and read the examination question, “Show how it is possible to determine the height of a tall building with the aid of a barometer.”
  25. 25. “Show how it is possible to determine the height of a tall building with the aid of a barometer.” The student had answered, ” Take a barometer to the top of the building, attach long rope to it, lower the barometer to the street and then bring it up, measuring the length of the rope. The length of the rope is the height of the building.”
  26. 26. The student had answered I pointed out that the student really had a strong case for full credit since he had answered the question completely and correctly. On the other hand, if full credit was given, it could well contribute to a high grade for the student in his physics course. A high grade is supposed to certify competence in physics, but the answer did not confirm this. I suggested that the student have another try at answering the question. I was not surprised that my colleague agreed, but I was surprised that the student did.
  27. 27. I gave the student six minutes to answer the question with the warning that the answer should show some knowledge of physics. At the end of five minutes, he had not written anything. I asked if he wished to gave up, but he said no, he had many answer to this problem; he was just thinking of the best one.
  28. 28. I excused myself for interrupting him and asked him to please go on.
  29. 29. In the next minute he dashed off his answer which read. Take the barometer to the top of the building and lean over the edge of the roof. Drop that barometer, timing its fall with a stopwatch. Then using the formula s =(att)/2, calculate the height of the building.
  30. 30. At this I asked my colleague if he would give up. He conceded, and gave the student almost full credit.
  31. 31. While leaving my colleague's office, I recalled that the student had said that he had other answers to the problem, so I asked him what they were. "Well," said the student, "there are many ways of getting the height of a tall building with the aid of a barometer. For example, you could take the barometer out on a sunny day and measure the height of the barometer, the length of its shadow, and the length of the shadow of the building, and by the use of simple proportion, determine the height of the building."
  32. 32. “Fine," I said, "and others?"
  33. 33. "Yes," said the student, "there is a very basic measurement method you will like. In this method, you take the barometer and begin to walk up the stairs. As you climb the stairs, you mark off the length of the barometer along the wall. You then count the number of marks, and this will give you the height of the building in barometer units. A very direct method."
  34. 34. "Of course. If you want a more sophisticated method, you can tie the barometer to the end of a string, swing it as a pendulum, and determine the value of g [gravity] at the street level and at the top of the building. From the difference between the two values of g, the height of the building, in principle, can be calculated."
  35. 35. "On this same tack, you could take the barometer to the top of the building, attach a long rope to it, lower it to just above the street, and then swing it as a pendulum. You could then calculate the height of the building by the period of the precession".
  36. 36. "Finally," he concluded, "there are many other ways of solving the problem. Probably the best,“ he said, "is to take the barometer to the basement and knock on the superintendent's door. When the superintendent answers, you speak to him as follows: 'Mr. Superintendent, here is a fine barometer. If you will tell me the height of the building, I will give you this barometer."
  37. 37. At this point, I asked the student if he really did not know the conventional answer to this question. He admitted that he did, but said that he was fed up with high school and college instructors trying to teach him how to think.
  38. 38. The name of the student was Niels Bohr (1885-1962) Danish Physicist; Nobel Prize 1922; best known for proposing the first 'model' of the atom with protons & neutrons, and various energy state of the surrounding electrons .. the familiar icon of the small nucleus circled by three elliptical orbits but more significantly, an innovator in Quantum Theory. It is said that this is a true story. Nonetheless it is still great. The story goes as: Sir Ernest Rutherford, President of the Royal Academy, and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics, related the above story

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