The world of educaton and training, currently focussing on learning in protected environments and care for the individual will be linked by means of mediating agencies with suitable structures and programmes with the world of work, which has primarily efficiency, productivity and profitability in mind.
Types of learning and corresponding learning environment
Georg Spoettl Dual System
Vocational Education and Training in Germany – The Dual System Prof. Dr. Georg Spoettl M.A.
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Dual System – a Simple ConceptIt is• An alternating training, comprising periods of training on and off-the-job• The Core: Existence of a training contract between the employer and the apprentice• Practical training is received in companies (under guidance of a supervisor or the employer) and theoretical training in a Vocational School (12h per week)
Dual System – Training Contract• Gives the apprentice the status of an employee in the company• The contract is a written, legally binding document between apprentice & employer• Specifies the duration of apprenticeship, remuneration, the amount of time in for work on-the-job and for theoretical training in the Vocational School• The contracts are guided by the Chambers
Workplace and Classroom as the Fundamental Domains in the “Dual System” Tapping the best Training Potential of both Domains: This is the Strength of the „Dual System“ in TrainingClassroom In The Training Institution Workplace In The Enterprise Classroom etc. Coordination by Learning the Partners Production Efficiency Protected Zone Profitability Individual Care Workplace etc.
Expert Specialised advanced knowledge Detailed and functional knowledge Coherent knowledge Orientation and overview knowledgeBeginner Self-Reliant – Problem Solving – Experience
Dual System – Occupations & Laws• Approx. 350 Occupational Profiles are available within all industrial sectors• The Occupational Profiles are created by the Social Partners, supported by researchers and coordinated by a Federal Institute (the BIBB)• The Dual System is regulated by the “Federal Training Act 1969 (some revisions), the Voc. Training Promotion Act and School Laws of the Länder
Structure of the occupations for vehicletechnology in Germany from 2003 on 0 1st year 1 2nd year 2 3. year 3 4. year 3,5 Specialization car technology Specialization commercial vehicle technology Car Mechatronic Specialization motorcycle technology Specialization vehicle communication technology Mechanic for bodywork maintenance technology §25 HWO and §25BBIG Subject area bodywork maintenance technology Bodywork and vehicle construction Subject area bodywork technology mechanic Subject area vehicle construction technology Subject area bicycle technology Two-wheel vehicle mechanic Subject area motorcycle technology Mechanic for agricultural machine technology Basic subjects Main subjects
Dual System – Age of Entry, Duration, Employment…• Age of entry: approx. 18 years• Condition of entry: passed Class 9, 10 or 13 of General School or High School (“Abitur”)• Duration of training: 3 to 3.5 years (some 2 years)• Participation: Number of apprentices in industry and trade are about 4.2% of all employees (1.7 Mio)• Approx. 500.000 companies are participating in the Dual System (30%)• Approx. 60% of the graduates obtain employment immediately (other go to military service, to further training, to universities..)
Fundament for the Dual System Fundament for the Dual System National Occupational Profiles 1. Work Processes 2. Occupational Profiles 3. Guidelines for Further Detailing Technical Training Institutions Enterprises FurtherClose Cooperation between Close Cooperation between Break Down Close Cooperation of General Studies and General Studies and Technical Training Institutions Technical Training Technical Training with Enterprises General Subjects Practical Workshop English Physics Technical Theoretical and Math. etc Training Workplace Training related to related to Work Processes 1 to x Work Processes 1 to x
The Workplace as the Supreme Learning Environment Correlation between different Types of Vocational Learning and Selected Learning Environments Type of Learning Learning Environment Abstract Learning Classroom Learning Structured Contents Laboratory through Demonstration and Doing Learning Basic Functional Skills School Workshop Learning Complex / Rare Functional Skills Central Training Facility (with Expensive Equipment) Training Facility at Workplace Learning Basic and Complex Functional Skills (with Expensive Equipment) Training Corner at Workplace Learning Functional and Extra-Functional Workplace Skills in Real Work EnvironmentSource: Gert Loose, Forschungsbericht, 1988, updated 2002
HumanTechnical and SocialCompetence Competence The Occupational Work Task Objects of Tools, methods and Skilled Work Requirements for organisation of skilled work skilled work and technology Learning and Methodological Competence … Source: biat / DSP
Occupational Competencies of a skilled Worker which have to be AssessedOccupational Competencies of a skilled Worker which have to be Assessed Technical Social Social Human Human Learning Learning Methodical Methodical Technical Competencie Competencies Competencies Competencie Competencie Competencies Competencies Competencies Competencies Competencie ss ss Ability to carry - Willingness to Ability to apply - Ability to set Ability to carry - Willingness to Ability to apply - Ability to set All Competencies Must be Defined out criticism in aa act in aa learning goals and in Relation to the Work Process Comprises out criticism in act in learning goals and fair manner reliable strategies structure knowledge and fair manner reliable strategies structure assignments skills regarding assignments --Ability to work -- Ability to work -- Readiness to … Ability to work Ability to work Readiness to in aa team and in team and under concentrate - - Ability for under concentrate Ability for - Objects of consider others pressure when learning finding relevant consider others pressure when learning finding relevant information skilled Work information --Ability to -- Readiness for - - Ability to Ability to Ability to Readiness for communicate self-reflection learn --Ability for - Tools and communicate self-reflection learn Ability for and to exchange independently problem solving methods used and to exchange independently problem solving information -- Willingness to and in aa team and in team in work and information Willingness to in work accept processes in aa organization of accept processes in -- Readiness for uncertainties - - Awareness of self-reliant way skilled work Readiness for uncertainties Awareness of self-reliant way cooperation lifelong learning cooperation lifelong learning - Readiness for - Ability to plan, - Requirements - Readiness for - Ability to plan, -- Readiness for self-reliant - - Ability for self- prepare and placed on Readiness for self-reliant Ability for self- prepare and conflict-solving development reliant learning execute orders skilled work conflict-solving development reliant learning execute orders and consensus in aa structured and technology and consensus in structured way - - Ability to being used etc. way Ability to monitor and monitor and assess product assess product quality in aa self- quality in self- reliant way reliant way
TEVT – system penetration (scope and levels) VOCATIONAL TRAINING TECHNICAL/VOCATIONAL GENERAL EDUCATION SUB-SYSTEM EDUCATION SUB-SYSTEM SUB-SYSTEM degree 6PROFICIENCY or COMPLEXITY LEVELS NATIONAL QUALIFICATION LEVELS 5 diploma 5 variety of modes and certificates 4 certificate 4 (formal and non-formal) 3 3 certificate 2 2 secondary 1 1 "small vessel" "big vessel" primary SYSTEM PENETRATION / INTEGRATION
Work Process Structure Work Process Structure 1 Foreman / / Foreman Customer - Rough planning Customer - Evaluation places an of work places an - Delivery an order - Calculating an order - Presentation 2 - Considering costs for companies 5 These particular requirements have to be met, when carrying out work assignments 3 - Manufacturing, 4 Planning of Work Maintenance, - Tools Service - Methods - Quality Assurance - Organisations Slide 3Hoepfner, BOBB/Koch, DSP/2003