Medical Ethics Curriculum Student guide 2012

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Medical Ethics curriculum for undergraduate medical students at the medical college in KFMC

Medical Ethics Curriculum Student guide 2012

  1. 1. 2012 ‫هقزر األخالقٍات الصذٍة تكلٍة الطة-هذٌٌة الولك فهذ الطثٍة‬ Student Guide forْ‫"إ َ هيْ خٍَِا ِكن‬ ُ‫ر‬ ِ ‫ِى‬"‫أَدْاسٌَكنْ أخْ َا ًا‬ ‫َُ َ ل ق‬ Medical Ethics Course ‫سٔاِ يسهى‬ (METH 421) Credit Hours: 2(1+3+0) ‫ً ُ ث‬ ُ ْ‫"إِ َوَا تعِث‬ 1433 H (2012 G) ‫أج ِن ِخ‬ َ ‫لُِ َو َ صَال‬ "ِ ‫الْأَخَْا‬ ‫لق‬ ‫أخشخّ أحًذ‬ Version 3.5 Last updated: 11/02/2012‫هذا الكحاب ٌذحىي على آٌات‬‫وأدادٌث شزٌفة، وٌجة‬ Course Planner: ‫هعاهلحه تادحزام‬ Dr. Abdulaziz AlKabba, Associate Dean, FOM-KFMCThis book containsverses from the Holy Course Coordinator:Quran and Hadith of Dr. Ghaiath HusseinProphet Mohammed(PBUH). Please treat Department of Medical Ethicsrespectfully. Faculty of Medicine – King Fahad Medical City King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS)
  2. 2. © 2012 Department of Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City This document is not issued to the general public, and all rights are reserved by the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City (FOM-KFMC). The document may not be reviewed, abstracted, quoted, reproduced or translated, in part or in whole, without the prior written permission of FOM-KFMC. No part of this document may be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means – electronic, mechanical or other – without the prior written permission of FOM- KFMC. Requests for permission should be directed to Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City, address: King Fahad Medical City, Faculty of Medicine, Suleimaniya, Riyadh 12231, Saudi Arabia, email: ethics@kfmc.med.sa. The views expressed in documents by named author are solely the responsibility of this author.Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 2 of 21
  3. 3. Contents4 .................................................................................................................................... :‫نظرة عامت على المقرر‬4 ........................................................................................................... ‫ما المقصود ثبألخاللٍبد الطبيت؟‬ 1.1 4 ................................................................................... ‫أهميت تدريس األخالقياث الطبيت للطبيب المسلم‬ OVERVIEW ON THE CURRICULUM:............................................................................................................................ 5MEMBERS OF THE CURRICULUM COMMITTEE: .............................................................................. 52 COURSE DESCRIPTION AND BASIC DEFINITIONS: ..................................................................... 5 2.1 COURSE DESCRIPTION: 5 2.2 ETHICS IN HEALTHCARE (BIOETHICS) 6 2.3 ETHICS IN ISLAM 73 IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING PROFESSIONALISM AND MEDICAL ETHICS: ..................................... 84 OBJECTIVES OF THE CURRICULUM: ....................................................................................... 8 4.1 MAIN OBJECTIVE: 8 4.2 SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES: 95 STRUCTURE OF THE CURRICULUM ........................................................................................ 9 5.1 SECTION I: INTRODUCTION AND BASICS OF ISLAMIC MEDICAL ETHICS 9 5.2 SECTION II: PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MEDICAL ETHICS 9 5.3 SECTION III: RESEARCH ETHICS 96 TEACHING METHODOLOGY: .............................................................................................. 107 STUDENT AND COURSE EVALUATION .................................................................................. 10 7.1 ATTENDANCE AND ACTIVE PARTICIPATION 10 7.2 ASSIGNMENTS 11 7.3 MID-TERM EXAM 11 7.4 RESEARCH REPORT & RESEARCH PRESENTATION 11 7.5 PRACTICUM (CLINICAL & RESEARCH ETHICS PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES LOGBOOK) 14 7.6 FINAL EXAM 15 7.7 COURSE EVALUATION 15 7.8 DEADLINES AND DUE DATES 158 IMPORTANT DATES .......................................................................................................... 159 COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPLAINTS ............................................................................... 15 9.1 WEBSITE: 15 9.2 EMAILS: ....................................................................................................................................... 16 9.3 OFFICE APPOINTMENTS: 16 9.4 COMPLAINTS AND APPEALS: 1610 LECTURES, GROUP-WORK AND RESEARCH PRESENTATIONS TIMETABLE ................................... 1711 NEED HELP? OR STILL HAVE QUESTIONS OR QUERIES? ........................................................... 1912 READINGS AND REFERENCES: ............................................................................................ 19 12.1 TEXTBOOKS: 19 11.1 WEBSITES 19 12.3 ARTICLES & REPORTS: 20 Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 3 of 21
  4. 4. ‫نظرة عامت على المقرر:‬‫ٌؼزجش يمشس االخاللٍبد انؽجٍخ يٍ اْى انًمشساد انزً ٌذسسٓب ؼبنت انؽت، َظشً الَٓب رٕخّ سهٕكّ َحٕ َفسّ، ٔيُٓزّ،‬ ‫ا‬‫ٔصيالءِ، ٔيشظبِ، ٔيدزًؼّ ككم. ٌزُبٔل ْزا انًمشس أسس انًًبسسخ األخاللٍخ نهخذيخ انصحٍخ انًمذيخ يٍ لجم انؽجٍت،‬‫ٔأسس األخاللٍبد ا نصحٍخ ٔآداة ٔأصٕل انًُٓخ انؽجٍخ ٔيب ٌدت أٌ ٌكٌٕ ػهٍّ انؽجٍت يٍ أخاللٍبد ٔلٍى حبكًخ ٔيُظًخ‬‫نًُٓخ انؽت، يسزششذٌٍ ثًُظٕيخ انمٍى األخاللٍخ فً انٓذي انمشآًَ ٔيب خبء فً انسُخ انُجٌٕخ انششٌفخ، إظبفخ إنى األسس‬‫انؼبنًٍخ انًزؼبسف ػهٍٓب فً األخالق انؽجٍخ. كًب ٌزُبٔل انًمشس األثؼبد انمبٍََٕخ ٔانفمٍٓخ نهًسزدذاد انؽجٍخ ٔنؼذد يٍ انمعبٌب‬ ‫انًزصهخ ثؼًم انؽجٍت، ٔػاللزّ ثضيالئّ ٔيشظبِ ٔانًؤسسخ انصحٍخ انزً ٌؼًم ثٓب.‬ ‫1.1 ما المقصود تاألخالقٍات الطبيت؟‬‫األخاللٍبد انؽجٍخ ًْ يدًٕػخ انعٕاثػ ان ِ ًٍَخ انزً ٌزٕخت رٕفشْب فً يٕفش انخذيخ أثُبء رٕفٍشِ انخذيخ انصحٍخ، ٔرشخغ‬ ‫مٍ‬‫يحبٔالد رُظٍى ٔظجػ ػًم انؽجٍت إنى حمت ربسٌخٍخ ظبسثخ فً انمذو، يثم لبٌَٕ حبيٕساثً (2221 ق.و.) يشٔسً ثمسى‬ ‫ا‬‫أثٕلشاغ (224 ق.و.) ، ٔانزي ٌؼذ يٍ انًٕاثٍك انًؼزجشح حزى ٌٕيُب ْزا فً انكثٍش يٍ انًدزًؼبد، إظبفخ إنى إسٓبيبد ػذد‬‫يٍ األؼجبء انًسهًٍٍ يثم انؽجشي انزي ٔظغ يٍثبلً يُظً ً نهؽت ػبو 270 و، ٔاسحك ثٍ انشْٕي انزي ٌؼذ أٔل يٍ ٔظغ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫كزبثً ػٍ آداة يًبسسخ انؽت، ٔيحًذ ثٍ صكشٌب انشاصي، ٔغٍشْى يٍ انفالسفخ ٔاألؼجبء يٍ يخزهف انذٌبَبد.‬ ‫ب‬ ‫أهميت تدريس األخالقياث الطبيت للطبيب المسلم‬ ‫ركًٍ أًٍْخ رذسٌس األخاللٍبد انؽجٍخ ػًٕيً، ٔاألخاللٍبد انؽجٍخ اإلساليٍخ خصٕص ً فً ػذح أيٕس أًْٓب:‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ب‬‫- إٌ انزذسٌت ػهى انزفكٍش فً اندٕاَت األخاللٍخ (ٔنٍس فمػ انحمبئك انؽجٍخ انؼهًٍخ) ردؼم يٍ انؽجٍت ٌزؼبيم يغ‬ ‫يشظبِ ككم يزكبيم ٔنٍس فمػ انزؼبيم يغ اندسذ ٔػالخّ دٌٔ االْزًبو ثبندٕاَت انشٔحٍخ ٔانُفسٍخ نهًشظى‬‫- رضٌذ يٍ لذسح انؽجٍت ػهى انزفكٍش انزحهٍهً انُمذي ٔرؼهى يُٓدٍبد ػًهٍخ يثم ؼشذ األسئهخ ٔرحهٍم انًشكالد، ٔ‬‫إداسح انًُبصػبد ٔغٍشْب يٍ يٓبساد انزفكٍش انزحهٍهً انزً رفٍذِ نٍس فمػ فً انزحهٍم األخاللً ثم أٌع ً فً انزحهٍم‬ ‫ب‬ ‫انًُؽمً فً انًًبسسخ انؽجٍخ ػًٕيً.‬ ‫ب‬‫- اسرجبغ انؽجٍت انًسهى ثًُظٕيزّ انمًٍٍخ انزً َظًٓب ٔٔظحٓب انششع انحٍُف فً كزبة اهلل ٔسُخ َجٍّ صهى اهلل ػهٍّ‬‫ٔسهى، ٔفً َٓح انسهف، ثحٍث ركٌٕ ٍَخ انؽجٍت لبصذح هلل رؼبنى ٔخبنصخ نّ، فٍكٌٕ ؼهجّ نهؼهى ٔػًهّ يٍ اخم‬ ‫يشظبِ ػجبدح ٌجزغً ثٓب يشظبح اهلل ٔنٍسذ فمػ يدشد يُٓخ ًٌبسسٓب نٍزمبظى ػهٍٓب أخشً دًٌٍَٕ.‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬‫- ظشٔسح إنًبو انؽجٍت انًسهى ثأسبسٍبد انعٕاثػ انفمٍٓخ انزً ٌحزبخٓب ثم ال ٌسؼّ اندٓم ثٓب نهمٍبو ثؼًهّ، ثًب فً‬‫رنك ظٕاثػ لٍبيّ ثبنكشف ػهى يشظبِ، ٔاألحكبو انفمٍٓخ انًشرجؽخ ثبنًشض انزً لذ ٌسأنّ ػُٓب انًشٌط يٍ لجٍم‬ ‫صٕو انًشٌط أٔ صالرّ أٔ غٍشْب يٍ األحكبو.‬‫)5.3.‪Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V‬‬ ‫)‪© 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM‬‬ ‫12 ‪Page 4 of‬‬
  5. 5. Overview on the curriculum:Ethics of Medical Practice (METH 421) Phase Year Semester Course code Duration Three Four Second METH421 16 weeks Contact Hours CreditCourse Code Course Title Prerequisite Hours Theoretical Tutorial PracticalMETH 421 Ethics of Medical Practice 1 3 4 2 NONECurriculum Committee:Supervisor of the 3rd phase: Associate Dean for Clinical PhaseModule Supervisor: Dr. Abdulaziz AlKabbaModule Coordinator: Dr. Ghaiath M.A. HusseinMembers of the curriculum committee: 1. Prof. Omar H. Kasule Sr. 2. Prof. Jamal Aljarallah 3. Prof. Abdulrahman Al-Mazrou 4. Dr. Khalid Alshaye 5. Dr. Mohamed Alrukban2 Course Description and Basic Definitions:2.1 Course Description:This course presents you to the basics of the ethical practice of healthcare provision by thephysician, and the professional standards that you should meet in any of your roles as adoctor. These roles include your duties as team-member, practitioner/clinician, researcher,manager/planner, educator, and patient advocate. This is done provided the guidance given by our Islamic moral heritage, as well the nationaland international guidelines and codes of ethics. It also approaches the Fiqhi-Legal aspectsrelated to the practice of medicine and the conduct of research.Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 5 of 21
  6. 6. It also introduces you also to the professional and ethical standards to your relationships withyour colleagues, patients (and their families), the health institutions in which you work, and tothe whole community.2.2 Ethics in healthcare (bioethics)Ethics has been defined as a system of moral principles or standards governing conduct; asystem of principles by which human actions and proposals may be judged good or bad, rightor wrong; a set of rules or a standard governing the conduct of a particular class of humanaction or profession; any set of moral principles or values recognized by a particular religion,belief or philosophy; and the principles of right conduct of an individual. (UNESCO/IUBS/EubiosLiving Bioethics Dictionary version 1.4)Bioethics is a branch of ethics. It is derived from Greek bio- (means life) and ethicos (meansmoral). More precisely, it is the science/art that aims at identification, analysis, and resolutionof the ethical issues in the fields related to human life and health.Medical/clinical ethics aims, by definition, to help the healthcare providers to identify, analyzeand resolve ethical issues they encounter during their practice.Ethical issues arise when there are conflicting values, beliefs, commitments and prioritieseither between the healthcare team and the patients (or their families), or among thehealthcare members themselves. These issues increase in their scope and complexity inproportion to the complexity of the provided service. For instance, it is easy to observe thatthe primary care ethical issues are quite few and trivial if compared to the ethical issues insecondary or tertiary care institutions.This is partially explained by the fact that patients (and maybe doctors as well) have higherexpectations to have a higher level of service. For example, no family would expect to haveaggressive heroic measures to be taken to save their patients life in a rural primary care centerof clinic. Contrarily, they would not take it as easy in a tertiary specialized big hospital in themiddle of a big city.The gap between the patients and family expectations, on one side, and the doctors ability toutilize the available facilities that are overcrowded or not sufficient on the other side is themain source of ethical issues. This is quite natural that the family sees their patient as thepatient that should be given the ultimate and priority care, while doctors have moralcommitments towards other patients who are in dare need for that time and facilities.Indeed, there are many other sources for ethical issues related to the doctors poor attitude,miscommunication, poor leadership, lack of competence, and ignorance to name some.Historically, medical ethics may be traced to guidelines on the duty of physicians in antiquity,such as the The Code of Hammurabi dating to ca. 1780 BC, and the Hippocratic Oath ca. 400BC.Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 6 of 21
  7. 7. In the medieval and early modern period, the field is indebted to Muslim medicine suchas Ishaq bin Ali Rahawi (who wrote the Conduct of a Physician, the first book dedicated tomedical ethics), Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi (known as Rhazes in the West) and Ali ibnSahl Rabban al-Tabari who produced one of the first encyclopedia of medicine and medicalcode of ethics in 970 G.Contemporarily, the American Medical Association adopted its first code of ethics, in 1847.However, this field has grown as an academic specialty in the western hemisphere, especiallyNorth America only in the last few decades. Nevertheless, ethics has been discussed andtaught for centuries in the old world. Ethical principles are also deeply rooted in the Islamicand other religious teachings.Currently, there are growing factors that are shifting the field of bioethics to be internationallyspreading beyond the dominant trend of North American and European dominance, especiallyour region including the Saudi Arabia. These could be summarized as follows: 1 - The complexity and expansion of the healthcare service are accompanied by more complex and diverse ethical issues that need to be resolved. 2 - The increased awareness of the people about their rights, accompanied by aggressive media coverage of healthcare, especially medical errors. 3 - The increasing interest in teaching medical ethics to medical students in more Saudi medical colleges. 4 - The ongoing trend among governmental and private hospitals to obtain international accreditation, which necessitates that they provide "ethics service" to their patients.2.3 Ethics in IslamMorality is an integral part of Islam. Moreover, it is considered the purpose for which theProphet Mohammed (PBUH) was sent. He (PBUH) said, "I was sent to perfect good character."(Maliks Muwatta: 047/8)He (PBUH) has also stated that, "The best amongst you are those who are best in morals"(Sahih Muslim; 30/4750); "Righteousness is good morality, and wrongdoing is that whichwavers in your soul and which you dislike people finding out about." (An-Nawawi, 26); "Thefaithful reaches, by his good character, the rank of the fasting (from food and water) and thestanding up (praying to God at night)" among many other advices by the prophet (PBUH) thatemphasize the role of morals in the Muslims life.Islam itself is unique in terms of how it unifies what is moral with what is legal. In other words,what is moral is legal/permissible (Halal) and what is immoral is consequently illegal (Haram).This spares the Muslim from the moral-legal discrepancies in other parts of the world, wherewhat is ethical is not necessarily legal, and vice versa. This also what makes us discuss theethical issues in medical practice within the Islamic context as "Ethical-Fiqhi-Legal" triad.Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 7 of 21
  8. 8. The discussion and resolution of ethical issues from Islamic prospective will largely adopt theFiqhi methodology, as we will elaborate in the relevant sections of this manual.3 Importance of Teaching Professionalism and Medical Ethics:Though we are not expecting this course to make a virtuous person, or rebuild your character;we aim at providing you the guidance on what constitutes an ethical attitude and explain toyou how to adopt it, and what is not ethical and how to avoid it. The bottom-line is that weaim at making our graduates better doctors who adhere, to their best, to the professionalstandards to provide the optimum healthcare to their patients.The following summarizes the importance of teaching ethics and professionalism, includingIslamic ethics, to undergraduate medical students. 1- Training on moral reasoning about ethical issues (and not only the medical facts) makes the physician more competences to deal with his patients as a whole, and not merely dealing with their sick bodies. 2- It improves the analytical thinking abilities, and the learning of important skills like asking questions, prominent solving and conflict resolution skills, which are beneficial not only in the ethical analysis but also in the logical analysis needed for medical practice in general. 3- Empower the attachment of the Muslim doctor to the set of moral framework that was clarified by the Koran, Sunna and the guidance of our ancestors, so that the intentions become purified for Allah in what we do, and not merely a materialistic approach to medicine as a source of income. 4- Acquaint the Muslim doctor to the set of Fiqhi standards that s/he should know, like the conditions of examining a patient of different sex, or the Fiqhi issues related to diseases, like fasting, and prayers. 5- Moreover, the Muslim doctor may be consulted from a Scholar about a certain medical issue that he wants to issue a Fatwa about. Therefore, you should know the basics of Fiqhi approaches to medical practice to be able to help. 6- In addition, it was found that teaching ethics and professionalism to clinicians during their undergraduate medical education will help in improving the outcome of the healthcare.4 Objectives of the Curriculum:4.1 Main objective:This curriculum aims at developing a standardized teaching program for ethics and professionalism formedical students in clinical specialties that meets both the international standards and the Islamic andcultural guidance of the community.Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 8 of 21
  9. 9. 4.2 Specific learning objectives: 1 - Demonstrate awareness of the main professional obligations of doctors 2 - Critically analyze ethical issues commonly encountered in medical practice and utilize given frameworks and tools to resolve them 3 - Demonstrate the ability to resolve ethical issues faced during common clinical scenarios 4 - Practice according to Islamic bioethical guidance and Saudi codes of conduct for medical practice 5 - Identify the ethical issues in research and apply ethical principles in conducting research5 Structure of the curriculum5.1 Section I: Introduction and Basics of Islamic Medical EthicsThis section will introduce the student to the basic philosophical and religious basis of bioethics, andclarify the main ethical concepts and values that will be studied in more details in the followingsections.The topics covered in this section include: 1- Orientation to the course 2- Introduction to the concepts of ethics, bioethics, and medical ethics 3- Comparison between the western and Islamic approaches to medical ethics 4- Professional duties of the doctor towards self, colleagues, patients, and community. 5- Professionalism in being a medical student and a doctor 6- Basic ethical principles and guidelines (national and international) 7- Overview on patients rights5.2 Section II: Practical Aspects of Medical EthicsThis section will include the practical aspects related to your practice as a future clinician. These topicsinclude: 1- Informed consent to treatment 2- Privacy and confidentiality 3- Medical Malpractice, Misconduct & Medical Errors 4- Patients Autonomy and Consent to treatment 5- Privacy & Confidentiality 6- Terminally Incurable Diseases and the End of Life (EOL) Decisions 7- Financial Aspects in Practice and Conflict of Interests (COI) 8- How to manage ethical issues in clinical practice? 9- Resource allocation in the health-care system 10- Ethics of public health and health promotion 11- Islamic Fiqhi Rulings in Major Medical Specialties5.3 Section III: Research EthicsThis section includes the ethical issues that are encountered before, during and after theconduct of research.Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 9 of 21
  10. 10. The main topics include: 1- Basic concepts in research ethics 2- The ethical standards of research 3- The concepts of benefit and harm in research 4- Informed consent in research 5- Research on vulnerable groups 6- Privacy and confidentiality in research 7- Conflict of interests in research6 Teaching Methodology:The teaching method will be based on the following: 1- Interactive sessions 2- Problem solving and case discussion 3- Assignments done by students 4- Student seminars 5- Case studies and case presentation7 Student and Course EvaluationStudent evaluation methods were meant to be variable and continuous. They aim at evaluating thestudents ability to reflect what s/he learnt in hypothetical or simulated situations. Some tools areindividual, like assignments, while others depend on group work, like course research.The following table summarizes the evaluation methods and their respective percentage of the totalmark. Method Mark/100Attendance (5) and Active class participation (5) 10Assignments 5Mid-term exam 20Practicum (Clinical & Research Ethics practical activities) 5Research report and presentation (the report (15) & presentation (5)) 20Final exam 40Total 1007.1 Attendance and active participationPhysical attendance for at least 75% in the lectures is a perquisite by the facultys regulations to attendthe exam. Any absence of more than 25% will decline you from sitting for the exam. It is the soleresponsibility of the student to make sure that s/he signed the attendance sheet in the allowed time.However, attendance is not just about signing the attendance sheet!You should participate and contribute to the session by asking questions, positive contributions ingroup discussions, and answering questions.Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 10 of 21
  11. 11. 7.2 AssignmentsAlong the course, you will be asked to submit few assignments. These assignments are usually aboutcases with ethical problems. You will be guided in each assignment by a set of questions that you mayneed to follow in order to attain the best mark.They are intended to be a self-reflection on what the student has learnt so far along the course. Youshould feel free to express your understanding, than to focus on reaching a correct answer. Manythemes in ethics do not have agreed on clear cut right answers.It is also expected that you should abide to the professional academic conduct, especially the propercitation without the abuse of internet. We use software to detect plagiarism; thus it is very unadvisableto just copy and paste from the internet. Plagiarism similarity score of 20% or more means that yourwork will be rejected and you will have to resubmit your work.We take academic misconduct seriously. So should you.7.2.1 Assessment of assignments:Your assignments will be assessed based on the following criteria: 1- Originality of content. This means you need to reflect yourself in what you sib it 2- Novelty of content. This may be difficult to achieve in the topics of ethics, where there are many articles already in the literature. However, you still need to add a new flavor to the already discussed topic, or even better to choose a less discussed topic. 3- Strength of arguments. You need to defend what you present. This means that you need to present a supported argument to what submit. A well-supported argument also means that you need to present the possible counter-arguments to yours and how you would respond to them. 4- Uniform editing. The great content should be presented in a professional neat outlook and layout. It is advisable to keep yourself to 1-2 fonts, to make sure that the sizes of the subheadings are uniform, and to avoid using pictures and colors extensively unless justifiable. 5- Proper citation. You have to show that you have read well about the topic you’re writing on. This is best reflected by the professional use of the suggested readings AND proper citation in a uniform citation style. To make your life easy, there will a session on how to do that. Check the timetable and bring your laptop on the given day.7.3 Mid-Term ExamThe mid-term exam will be composed of (about 20) MCQs, with one best answer, and 2-4 short essayquestions. These may include short cases with questions to answer, or you are asked to "discuss" or"list". The weight of each MCQ and short essay will be mentioned in the questions sheet.Answering in either Arabic or English is allowed; however, each question should be answered in onlyone language.7.4 Research report & Research presentationAs a part of the course evaluation, every student has to submit a written work that reflects his/herunderstanding of what s/he got in the course. This work should reflect his/her abilities to search theliterature, organize ideas, develop objectives, develop a research plan, and implement it to discuss therelevant ethical aspects.Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 11 of 21
  12. 12. We expect you (with your team) to find an ethical problem related to the objectives of the course,study it guided by your research objectives, and present and discuss your results and conclusions fromwhat you found. Finally, you should have practical recommendations that you come up with at the endof the research.Your research is expected to contribute new knowledge to the scientific community and not arepetition of what is already known about the subject.7.4.1 Structure of the research Typically, the research should contain the following sections: I. Title page: (Header of the FOM; Title of the project; Names and IDs of the research team; Name of the supervisor; and Date of submission II. Table of contents: you are strongly recommended to use the [Add Table of contents from your Word software] III. Acknowledgment: This section is to acknowledge the efforts of those who helped you in your research. IV. Introduction: This is a key section. You need to tell the reader of your research what you are studying, and why do you need to study it ( i.e. the rationale) V. Review of literature: in this section you should show your reader that you really know what you are studying and that what youre studying is not a repetition of work that is already there. Remember: we expect new knowledge from your research. VI. Objectives (general and specific): use action verbs, and make them SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable/Acceptable/Achievable. Relevant/Reliable, and Time-bound) VII. Methodology: in this section, you tell the reader how did you do your research. Make sure this sections tells in details about the following: study area, study population, data collections techniques and tools, and data analysis VIII. Results: this section contains the findings of your data collection, preferably as tables and figures. IX. Discussion: In this section you discuss the results in comparison to what other found on the same issue. You are expected to provide justifications for what you found in the results. X. Conclusion & Recommendations: You are expected to provide some practical steps to be taken by relevant stakeholders to improve the situation regarding the topic of your research. XI. References: This section contains the references that you used in your work, especially in the introduction and the review of literature. You are strongly recommended to use reference management software (like Reference Manager, End Note, or RefWorks). Discuss this option with your supervisor. Dont Plagiarize! This simply means that your work will get ZERO.7.4.2 The case study Along this course, we aim that you know how to define, analyze and be able to use the relevant tools to resolve ethical issues. This is best demonstrated by a case study. In a case study you are asked to find a case with one or more ethical issues around it. You are strongly recommended to find a true case, though you have to make sure you completely de-identify it. Discuss how to do that with your supervisor. A case study will be typically composed of these sections:Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 12 of 21
  13. 13. I. The presentation of the case, very similar to the way you do in clinical rounds with the exception thatyou describe the aspects related to the ethical issue you will discuss, and not only the medical and clinicalfacts.II. What are the ethical issues in the case? In this section, you are supposed to list the ethical issues thatyou found in the caseIII. What are the ethical and Fiqhi principles at stake? In this section, you are supposed to list the ethicalprinciples followed by the Fiqhi and Islamic issues related to the case.IV. Ethical case analysis: This section reflects the way you analyze the case, using any of the analysisframeworks and tools (e.g. 4-boxes model) that you have gone through in this course.V. Fiqhi Case analysis: In this section, you should present the Fiqhi approach to your case, for examplewhat are the Goals of Shariya )‫ (يمبصذ انششٌؼخ‬involved, which Fiqhi Maxims )‫ (انمٕاػذ انفمٍٓخ‬are applicable andif there are previous Fatwas on the issue.VI. Case resolution: although you may not be always able to resolve the issue, or suggest definitive stepsto be taken; you should present your approach to resolve the case. 7.4.3 A Fiqhi study A Fiqhi study is a different format that can reflect your ability to search and analyze. As you know, many of the practices and medical interventions have been studied by the Scholars (Ulama). Many issues have been discussed in many conferences and had resolutions from Fatwa and Fiqhi complexes. However, it is quite impossible for us as teachers to present to you along this course each and every fatwa or religious approach to medical practice in different specialties. Therefore, we encourage that few groups of you present a Fiqhi study to present the Islamic approach to a given issue related to illness, diseases, or medical practice. You are strongly recommended to approach NEW topics. For example a study on cleanliness or fasting for patients (taharat al-maridh) is not acceptable, as there are already tens of books on the issues. May be you can consider Islamic approach to ethical issues in specialties, like Emergency Medicine, Oncology, Anesthesia, etc. 7.4.4 Ethical approval for your research Usually the research at your level are classified as "Low-Risk, Low Vulnerability" studies, so they rarely need a full ethical review. However, NO data collection should take place without a written permission from the faculty, preferable from the deans office. Please consult with your supervisor and the course coordinator on whether your research needs one and how to obtain it. 7.4.5 Format and styling in writing and citation Your work should follow the following instructions: i. Make a separate page for title ii. All sections of the proposed format for each kind of research work you want to submit should be there. iii. Preferably, make each section in a separate page iv. Any omission of any section should be justified v. All your work should be in Arial Font, double spaced, size of font should be as follows: Main headers/titles (size 18); Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 13 of 21
  14. 14. Subtitles (size 16); Sub-subtitles (size 14); and The rest of the text (size 12). vi. Using Photos should be justified, with proper acknowledgment of the source and copyright vii. Don’t use colors other than black unless justifiable and needed. In total, not more than two colors allowed. viii. Citation should be either in AMA, Vancouver, or Harvard Styles. Arabic references and Fiqhi studies need to be agreed on with an expert relevant scholar.7.4.6 The presentation associated with the researchThe presentation is the way you tell others in summary about your research or case study. Itshould summarize the whole work in 15 minutes presentation. Although there is no objection toPowerPoint presentations; innovation in presenting your works will be highly appreciated andwill receive extra marks for that. Innovative ideas and ways of presentation may include making ashort movie, a role play, use of posters, or models, etc.Each student will be individually evaluated, so make sure you know the research thoroughly. Thismeans that the work among the group members should be organized fairly with all groupinvolved.You need to make sure with your supervisor that your presentation is relevant to the objectives.You should make sure that a copy of your presentation is ready on the PC of the hall at least oneday before the presentation.7.5 Practicum (Clinical & Research Ethics practical activities logbook)As a part of your training in bioethics, you need to actively participate in activities related toethics. You need to attend a total of at least 4 hours in bioethics-related activities, within oroutside the KFMC.These activities include (for example and not exhaustive): - Attending at least ONE clinical ethics consultation; - Attending at least ONE research ethical review committee; - Attending at least one M&M (Morbidity and Mortality) report; - Help in training of clinical staff (or medical students) on selected topics in bioethics; - Prepare educational or advocacy material; and - Participate in an ethics-awareness campaign for patients and staffIt is the students responsibility to: 1- Register for the intended activity individually (don’t expect that your leader or friend will do it for you) 2- Make sure that all the activities you attended are recorded and signed by your supervisorMedical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 14 of 21
  15. 15. 3- Attach any published works and printed material with the logbook.7.6 Final ExamAs for the mid-term exam, the final exam will be composed of (about 40) MCQs, with one bestanswer, and 2-4 short essay questions. These may include short cases with questions toanswer, or you are asked to "discuss" or "list". The weight of each MCQ and short essay will bementioned in the questions sheet.Answering in either Arabic or English is allowed; however, each question should be answeredin only one language.7.7 Course evaluationThe course will be evaluated through your feedback after each lecture and each test, or exam.Your feedback is crucial to help improving the course for you and for the batches to come.7.8 Deadlines and due datesIt is the student’s responsibility to meet the deadlines for submission of the assignments,reports, and other academic tasks. Any delay will have sequences including reduced marks,penalty reduction per/each day of delay, and refusal to receive the report or the assignment bythe supervisor or the course coordinator. Respecting your due dates reflects your ability tomanage your time and proper prioritization of your academic tasks, which this course helps onlearning.8 Important datesStart of the course Monday, 13/02/2012Mid-term exam Monday, 19/03/2012Mid-term vacation Saturday 22/3- Thursday 30/3/2012Due date for research submission Monday 21/05/2012 (males) Monday 28/05/2012 (females)Due date for logbook submission Wednesday 30/05/2012Research presentations Mon. 21/05/2012 (Males) Mon. 28/05/2012 (Females)Final exam Monday 04/06/20129 Communications and complaints9.1 Website:The website (https://sites.google.com/site/medicalethicscourse) is the main means ofcommunication and announcements for this course. Make sure you access it at least twice aweek. However, paper announcements will still be posted in relevant ad boards in the faculty.Though your leaders are assigned to help making sure all students are aware of any possiblechanges or important announcements, the main and foremost responsibility lies on each of theMedical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 15 of 21
  16. 16. individual students to know and keep themselves updated. Other means to facilitate thatinclude the students’ forum and BlackBerry groups that are not under the department.9.2 Emails:You should have an active email, whether a KFMC mail or otherwise. You need to make sureyou check your email at least twice a week. To reduce the usage of paper, we encourage emailsubmission of an e-copy even you should submit a hardcopy. Emails are searchable andretrievable so you can have better proof that you have submitted what you should submit.In the beginning of the course you need to make sure that the email you submitted to thecourse coordinator is correct. You should receive a confirmation of receipt email. In case youdidnt please contact the course secretary, or coordinator.9.3 Office appointments:You may request to meet the course coordinator by requesting an office appointment. Therewill be given days and times for male students and female students. Regular meetings with thegroups’ leaders will be held to reflect you concerns. Please contact the course coordinator forfurther details.9.4 Complaints and Appeals: In case you have a complaint against one of the staff in the department, paramagnet orvisiting, or you want to appeal a decision that concerns you (your mark in an assignment or areport), you have the right to contact the course coordinator. Should you are still unsatisfiedyou can contact the course planner, who is also the dean of the faculty and the head ofdepartment. The process to do so will be explained to you by the dean’s secretary office.If your appeal is against results of the mid-term or the final exam, you’ll still contact the coursecoordinator; however you need to contact the Examination Center to explain to you theprocess you should follow to have your paper re-marked.We assure you that the department and the faculty as a whole have zero-tolerance againstdiscrimination and sexism against students for any reason, whether verbal of physical. We willtake your complaints seriously, and we expect you to be serious in your commitment andcompliance with the academic guidelines that guide your attitude as medical students.Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 16 of 21
  17. 17. 10 Lectures, group-work and research presentations timetableUnless otherwise stated, ALL lectures will be jointly given for male and female in the FOM main auditorium on Monday from 8.30-10.00 am ANDthe group-work will be in the designated classrooms from 1-3.30 p.m. Dr. Ghaiath and Prof. Kasule will be the standby/backup speakers for allsessions. This timetable may be changed in its order, content, or speakers. You will be notified if any changes are made.All lectures are planned to be broadcasted live in the internet through the website: http://www.livestream.com/medicalethicscourse Title Speaker Format Time Location Date Section I: Introduction to medical ethics 1. Distribution of previous batch students’ awards Dr. AlKabba 8.00 – 8.30 Main Mon. 2. Introduction to the course Dr. AlKabba Presentation 8.30-8.45 auditorium (FOM-Male 13.02.2012 3. ‫يمذيخ انى اخاللٍبد انؽجٍت انًسهى‬ Dr. AlKabba Presentation 8.45-9.15 section) 4. Introduction to medical ethics Dr. Ghaiath Interactive session 9.15-10.00 Review, attendance and debate Students Interactive session 8.00-8.15 ،ّ‫5.انًُظٕس انششػً نهصحخ، ٔانًشض، ٔانًٕد يٍ خالل يمبصذ انششٌؼخ ٔأصٕل انفم‬ Dr. Khalid Alshaye Lecture 8.15-9.30 Mon. ً‫ٔانمٕاػذ انششػٍخ ٔرؽجٍمبرٓب فً انًدبل انؽج‬ Main 20.02.2012 6. Islamic Approach to Medical Ethics Prof. Kasule Lecture 9.30-10.00 Auditorium 7. Academic Misconduct & Plagiarism Dr. AlKabba Interactive session 1.00 – 1.30 8. Proper citation (Reference Manager Software) BRING YOUR LAPTOP Dr. Ghaiath practical training 1.30-3.00 Review, debate and question Students Interactive session 8.00-8.15 9. Overview of the Doctors professional relationships & duties Dr. Ghaiath Interactive session 8.15-9.00 Mon. Main 10.Doctors duties towards self and colleagues Prof. Kasule Interactive session 9.00-10.00 27.02.2012 Auditorium 11.ّ‫انًُظٕس االساليً نؼاللبد انؽجٍت يغ يشظبِ ٔيدزًؼ‬ Dr. Khaled Alshaye Lecture 1.00-2.00 Cases for discussion Dr. Khaled Alshaye Group work 2.00-2.30 12.Professionalism 8.30 – 9.20 Main Mon. Dr. Mohamed Alrukban Interactive session 13.)‫َجزح ػٍ انؽت انُجٕي (يفٕٓيّ ٔػاللزّ ثبنؽت انحذٌث‬ 9.20-10.00 Auditorium 05.03.2012 Practical session Dr. Ghaiath/ Prof. Kasule Group work 1.00 – 2.30 Classrooms Review, attendance and debate Students Interactive session 8.00-8.15 Main Mon. 14.Overview of Patients Rights Dr. AlKabba Lecture 8.15-9.15 Auditorium 12.03.2012 15.Islamic approach to ethics and patients’ rights Prof. Kasule Interactive session 9.15-10.00 16.Practical session (cases on patients rights) Dr. Ghaiath/ Prof. Kasule Group work 1.00 – 2.30 Classrooms Mon. Midterm Exam Exam 1.00-3.00 Classrooms 19.03.2012 22/3-30/3/2012 Mid semester vacation Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 17 of 21
  18. 18. Date Title Speaker Format Time Location Section II: Practical Aspects of ethics in medical care and end-of-life decisions Review, attendance and debate Students Interactive session 8.00-8.15 Main Mon. 02.04.2012 17.Overview of Informed consent to treatment Dr. Ghaiath Interactive session 8.15-9.00 Auditorium 18.Practical and Islamic approach to Informed consent to treatment Prof. Kasule Interactive session 9.00-10.00 Practical session Dr. Ghaiath/ Prof. Kasule Group work 1.00 – 3.00 Classrooms Review, attendance and debate Students Interactive session 8.00-8.15 Main Mon. 19.Privacy & Confidentiality in healthcare Dr. Ghaiath Interactive session 8.15-9.00 Auditorium 09.04.2012 20.Truth telling and breaking bad news Prof. Jamal Jarallah Interactive session 9.00-10.00 Practical session Dr. Ghaiath/ Prof. Kasule Group work 1.00 – 3.00 Classrooms Review, attendance and debate Students Interactive session 8.00-8.15 Main Mon. 21.Medical Malpractice, Medical Errors Dr. AlKabba Lecture 8.15 – 9.15 Auditorium 16.04.2012 22.Legal & Fiqhi aspects of medical error Prof. Kasule Interactive session 9.15-10.00 Practical session Dr. Ghaiath/ Prof. Kasule Group work 1.00 – 3.00 Classrooms Review, attendance and debate Students Interactive session 8.00-8.15 Mon. Main 23.Terminally Incurable Diseases and the End of Life (EOL) & Do-Not Resuscitate (DNR) Prof. Kasule Lecture 8.15 – 9.15 23.04.2012 24.Resource allocation in the health-care system Dr. AlKabba Lecture 9.15-10.00 Auditorium 25.‫االحكبو انفمٍٓخ انًزؼهمخ ثبالحزعبس ٔانزذخالد انًُمزح نهحٍبح‬ Dr. Khaled Alshaye Lecture& discussion 1.00-3.00 Section III: Practical Aspects of ethics in medical research and public health practice and research Review, attendance and debate Students Interactive session 8.00-8.15 MainMon. 30.04.12 26.Financial Aspects in clinical Practice and Conflict of Interests (COI) Dr. AlKabba Lecture 8.15 – 9.30 Auditorium 27.Ethical Issues in Research – Part 1 (History, harm, vulnerability) Dr. Ghaiath Interactive session 9.30-10.00 Practical session on COI Dr. Ghaiath/ Prof. Kasule Group work 1.00 – 3.00 Classrooms Review, attendance and debate Students Interactive session 8.00-8.15 Main 28.Ethical Issues in Research – Part 2 (COI, Privacy & Confidentiality) Dr. Ghaiath Interactive session 8.15 – 9.30 AuditoriumMon. 07.05. 12 29.Ethical Issues in Research – Part 3 (consent to research) Prof. Kasule Interactive session 9.30-10.00 Practical session on research ethics Dr. Ghaiath/ Prof. Kasule Group work 1.00 – 3.00 Classrooms Review, attendance and debate Students Interactive session 8.00-8.15 Main 30.Ethics of public health and health promotion Prof. Kasule Interactive session 8.15-9.15 AuditoriumMon. 14.05.12 31.How to resolve ethical issues in clinical practice? Dr. Ghaiath Interactive session 9.15-10.00 practical session and Course revision Dr. Ghaiath/ Prof. Kasule Group work 1.00-3.00 Male Student Research presentationsMon. 21.05.12 8.00-10.00 (Gr.s 1-8) 1.00-3.00 (groups 9-16) Main AuditoriumMon. 28.05. 12 Female Student Research presentations 8.00-10.00 (Gr.s 1-8) Mon. 04.06.202 Final Exam 9.00-11.00 Classrooms Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 18 of 21
  19. 19. 11 Need help? Or still have questions or queries? If you have questions or queries, fell free to contact us. - For technical assistance and issues related to location, schedule, or attendance sheet, contact o Mr. Abdulbasir Pula o Phone: 01-2889999 extension 6301 o Email: apula@kfmc.med.sa o Office in 1st floor, Medical Ethics Department Office - For academic issues related to the course, contact o Dr. Ghaiath Hussein, the course coordinator o Email: ghussein@kfmc.med.sa; ghaiathme@gmail.com, o Phone: 01-2889999 extension 7588 o Office by appointment, 7th floor 12 Readings and references: 12.1 Textbooks:  Singer PA, Viens AM: The Cambridge textbook of bioethics. Cambridge University Press; 2008  Saudi Council for Health Specialties 2003, Ethics of the Medical Profession, A manual guide for medical practitioners Saudi Council for Health Specialties, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (URL: http://english.scfhs.org.sa/Book/EN-scfhs_2007_p1.pdf) 9111  http://www.archive.org/download/waq43949/43949.pdf  http://www.archive.org/download/waq99210/99210.pdf  http://www.archive.org/download/waq91111/91111.pdf ‫االحكبو انفمٍّٓ نهًشٌط-ػجذانشحًٍ ثٍ ػجذانخبنك‬  ‫األحكبو انششػٍخ ٔانؽجٍخ نهًزٕفى فً انفمّ اإلساليً ،د. ثهحبج انؼشثً ثٍ أحًذ‬  ً‫أدكام الجزادة الطثٍة : د. هذوذ تي هخحار الشٌقٍط‬  ً‫جقزٌة فقه الطثٍة : فهذ تي عثذ اهلل الذاسه‬ ‫فقه الطثٍة وأدته فً الوٌظىر اإلسالهً : د .عثذ اهلل الجثىري‬ ‫قضاٌا طثٍة هي هٌظىر إسالهً تذث فقهً هقارى : د .عثذ الفحاح هذوذ إدرٌس‬ ‫ًفخ الطٍة فً أداب وأدكام الطثٍة :جوع وأعذاد أتىدذٌفة‬ ‫األدكام الشزعٍة لألعوال الطثٍة :د. أدوذ شزف الذٌي‬ 12.2 Websites  http://www.saaid.net/Doat/hani/12.htm  Medical Ethics Course: https://sites.google.com/site/medicalethicscourse/Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 19 of 21
  20. 20.  Prof. Omar Kasule’s ISLAMIC MEDICAL EDUCATION RESOURCES: http://omarkasule-03.tripod.com/ 12.3 Articles & Reports: 1. A Guide to Understanding Informed Consent. National Cancer Institute US National Institute of Health(NIH) . 3-4-2006. National Cancer Institute US National Institute of Health (NIH). URL: http://www.cancer.gov. 2. Al Aqeel, A. I. 2007, "Islamic ethical framework for research into and prevention of genetic diseases",Nat Genet, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 1293-1298. 3. Albar, M. A. 1996, "Islamic ethics of organ transplantation and brain death", Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl,vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 109-114. 4. Al-Gaai, E. A. & Hammami, M. M. 2009, "Medical chaperoning at a tertiary care hospital in SaudiArabia: survey of physicians", J Med Ethics, vol. 3 ,5no. 12, pp. 729-732. 5. Alkaabba, A. & Hussein, G. M. 2011, "Democratization of medical education is needed to effectiveteaching of bioethics", J Med Liban, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 33-36. 6. Al-Umran, K. U., Al-Shaikh, B. A., Al-Awary, B. H., Al-Rubaish, A. M., & Al-Muhanna, F. A. 2006,"Medical ethics and tomorrows physicians: an aspect of coverage in the formal curriculum", Medical Teacher,vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 182-1.48 7. Bernard M.Dickens. Legal Aspects of the Beginning of Human Life. In: F.K.Beller, R.Weir ,editors. TheBeginning of Human Life. Kluwer; 1994. p. 35-48. 8. Bernard M.Dickens. Legal Evolution of the Concept of Brain Death. Transplantation Today 2, 60-64. 1985. 9. Chong, S. A., Capps, B. J., Subramaniam, M., Voo, T. C., & Campbell, A. V. 2010, "Clinical Research inTimes of Pandemics", Public Health Ethics. 10. Cooper A, Joglekar A, Gibson J, Swota A, Martin D. Communication of bed allocation decisions in acritical care unit and accountability for reasonableness. BMC Health Services Research 2005;5(1):67. 11. Culver, C. M., Clouser, K. D., Gert, B., Brody, H., Fletcher, J., Jonsen, A., Kopelman, L., Lynn, J., Siegler,M., & Wikler, D. 1985, "Basic curricular goals in medical ethics", New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 312, no.4, pp. 253-256. 12. Cummings, C. L. & Mercurio, M. R. 2010, "Ethics for the Pediatrician: Autonomy, Beneficence, andRights", Pediatrics in Review, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 252-255. 13. Derick T Wade 2001, "Ethical issues in diagnosis and management of patients in the permanentvegetative state", BMJ no. 322, pp. 352-354. 14. Dickens BM, Cook RJ. Challenges of ethical research in resource-poor settings. International Journal ofGynaecology and Obstetrics 2003;80:79-86. 15. Dickens, B. M. & Cook, R. J. 2003, "Challenges of ethical research in resource-poor settings",International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, vol. 80, pp. 79-86. 16. Ebrahim AF. Organ transplantation: contemporary Sunni Muslim legal and ethical perspectives.Bioethics 1995 Jul;9(3-4):291-302. 17. Faiz Khan. AN ISLAMIC APPRAISAL OF MINDING THE GAP. Psycho-Spiritual Dynamics in theDoctor-Patient Relationship. Journal of Religious Ethics 36[1], 77-96. 2008. 18. Farzaneh Zahedi, Bagher Larijani, & Javad Tavakoly Bazzaz. End of Life Ethical Issues and Islamic Views.Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 6[Suppl. 5], 5-15. 2007. 19. Gallagher A, Tschudin V. Educating for ethical leadership. Nurse Educ Today 2010 Apr;30(3):224-7. 20. Giordano, J. & Boswell, M. V. 2005, "Pain, placebo, and nocebo: epistemic, ethical, and practical issues",Pain Physician no. 4 ,p. -3. 21. Greco, D. & Petrini, C. 2004, "Ethical issues in public health", Ann Ist Super Sanita no. 3, p. -71. 22. HARDEN, R. M., SOWDEN, S., & DUNN, W. R. 1984, "Educational strategies in curriculumdevelopment: the SPICES model", Medical Education, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 284-297. 23. Hebert, P. C., Meslin, E. M., & Dunn, E. V. 1992, "Measuring the ethical sensitivity of medical students: astudy at the University of Toronto", Journal of Medical Ethics, vol. v18, no. n3, p. 142. Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 20 of 21
  21. 21. 24. Hyder, A. A., Wali, S. A., Khan, A. N ,.Teoh, N. B., Kass, N. E., & Dawson, L. 2004, "Ethical review ofhealth research: a perspective from developing country researchers", Journal of Medical Ethics, vol. 30, no. 1,pp. 68-72. 25. Ibia, E., Binkowitz, B., Saillot, J. L., Talerico, S., Koerner, C ,.Ferreira, I., Agarwal, A., Metz, C., & Maman,M. 2010, "Ethical considerations in industry-sponsored multiregional clinical trials", Pharm Stat, vol. 9, no. 3,pp. 230-241. 26. Illes, J. & Bird, S. J. 2006, "Neuroethics: a modern context for ethics in neuroscience", Trends Neuroscino. 9, p. -7. 27. John R.Williams 2009, Medical Ethics Manual, 2nd edition 2009 edn, The World Medical Association, Inc.. 28. Kelly, E. & Nisker, J. 2009, "Increasing Bioethics Education in Preclinical Medical Curricula: WhatEthical Dilemmas Do Clinical Clerks Experience?", Academic Medicine, vol. 84, no. 4. 29. Knoppers BM & Laberge C 1989, "DNA sampling and informed consent.", CMAJ, vol. 140, no. 1023. 30. La Puma, J. & Schiedermayer, D. L. 1991, "Ethics Consultation: Skills, Roles, and Training", Annals ofInternal Medicine, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 155-160. 31. Martin F.McKneally & Peter A.Singer. Bioethics for clinicians: 25. Teaching bioethics in the clinicalsetting. CMAJ . 2001. 32. Martin H N Tattersall & Ian H Kerridge .Doctors behaving badly? MJA 185[6], 299-300. 2006. 33. Memish, Z. A., McNabb, S. J., Mahoney, F., Alrabiah, F., Marano, N., Ahmed, Q. A., Mahjour, J., Hajjeh, R.A., Formenty, P., Harmanci, F. H., El Bushra, H., Uyeki, T. M., Nunn, M ,.Isla, N., Barbeschi, M., & Jeddah HajjConsultancy Group 2009, "Establishment of public health security in Saudi Arabia for the 2009 Hajj inresponse to pandemic influenza A H1N1", Lancet, vol. 374, no. 9703, pp. 1786-1791. 34. Miles SH, Lane LW, Bickel J ,Walker RM, & Cassel CK. Medical ethics education: coming of age. AcadMed. 64[12], 705-714. 1989. 35. Nancy Kass. An Ethics Framework for Public Health. Am J Public Health 91[11], 1776-1782. 2001. 36. Norman Daniels. Accountability for reasonableness: Establishing a fair process for priority setting iseasier than agreeing on principles. BMJ 321[7272], 1300-1301. 2000. 2-10-2008. 37. Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. "Medical Ethico-Legal-Fiqhi Basis of Medical Practice: An Islamic Perspective",in Scientific and Islamic Medicine Seminar, The Students Executive Board Faculty of Medicine DeponegoroUniversity, Timur Indonesia. 38. Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. 2008b, "Medical Ethico-Legal-Fiqhi Issues: An Islamic Perspective", in Trainingworkshop on the Islamic Input in the Medical Curriculum held at the Faculty of Medicine UNISSULA. 39. Paul S.Appelbaum, Thomas Grisso, Ellen Frank, Sandra ODonnell, & J.Kupfer. Competence of DepressedPatients for Consent to Research. Am J Psychiatry [156], 1380-1384. 1999. 40. Robert I.Field & Arthur L.Caplan. A Proposed Ethical Framework for Vaccine Mandates: CompetingValues and the Case of HPV. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 18[2], 111-124. 6-1-2008.Siegler, M., Pellegrino, E. D., & Singer, P. A. 1990, "Clinical medical ethics", J Clinical Ethics, vol. 1, pp. 5-9. 41. Siegler M, Pellegrino ED, Singer PA. Clinical medical ethics. J Clinical Ethics 1990;1:5-9. 42. Silver-Isenstadt, A. & Ubel, P. 1999, "Erosion in medical students attitudes about telling patients they arestudents", Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 481-487. 43. Slowther, A., Johnston, C ,.Goodall, J., & Hope, T. 2004, "Development of clinical ethics committees",BMJ, vol. 328, no. 7445, pp. 950-952. 44. Soleymani Lehmann, L., Kasoff, W. S., Koch, P., & Federman, D. D. 2004, "A Survey of Medical EthicsEducation at U.S. and Canadian Medical Schools", Academic Medicine, vol. 79, no. 7. 45. Stuart F.Quan. Doctor, Do You Have A Minute? The Dilemma Posed by Physician Interaction with thePharmaceutical Industry. Clin Sleep Med. 3[4], 345-346. 15-6-2007. 46. Tangwa GB. Ethical principles in health research and review process .Acta Trop 2009;112(Suppl 1):2-7. 47. Torda, A. 2006, "Ethical issues in pandemic planning", Med J Aust no. 10, p. -6 World Health Organization ( 2000, "Operational Guidelines for Ethics Committees That ."Review Biomedical Research Medical Ethics Student Guide , (METH421 V.3.5) © 2012 Dept. of Medical Ethics (KFMC-FOM) Page 21 of 21

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