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مهارات الكتابة


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مهارات الكتابة

  1. 1. Finding Your Focus: The Writing Process A presentation brought to you by the Purdue University Writing Lab
  2. 2. Everyone has a writing process. What is yours?
  3. 3. Why do you need a writing process? <ul><li>It can help writers to organize their thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>It can help writers to avoid frustration and procrastination. </li></ul><ul><li>It can help writers to use their time productively and efficiently. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Writing process <ul><li>Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Drafting </li></ul><ul><li>Revising </li></ul><ul><li>Proofreading </li></ul>
  5. 5. Invention: coming up with your topic <ul><li>Brainstorming: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting your ideas on paper so you can give yourself the widest range of topics possible </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Brainstorming: coming up with ideas that interest you Listing: Political apathy Animal abuse NFL instant replay Air pollution Telemarketing scams Internet censorship NBA salary caps Paper Topics Brainstorming
  7. 7. Clustering: mapping out ideas ME Internet censorship telemar- keting scams NFL instant replay NBA political apathy three-party system salary caps sportsmanship animal abuse First Amendment Flag Burning Amend-ment
  8. 8. Collection <ul><li>Gathering ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Locating and evaluating research </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting interviews </li></ul>
  9. 9. Organizing: putting information in an outline OUTLINE I. Introduction A. Grab attention B. State thesis II. Body A. Build points B. Develop ideas C. Support main claim III. Conclusion A. Reemphasize main idea I. II. III. Outline
  10. 10. Drafting <ul><li>Give yourself ample time to work on your project. </li></ul><ul><li>Find a comfortable place to do your writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid distractions. </li></ul><ul><li>Take breaks. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Revising: reviewing ideas <ul><li>Review higher-order concerns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear communication of ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization of paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paragraph structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong introduction and conclusion </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Proofreading <ul><li>Review later-order concerns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation style </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Proofreading tips <ul><li>Slowly read your paper aloud. </li></ul><ul><li>Read your paper backwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange papers with a friend. </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: Spell check will not catch everything, and grammar checks are often wrong! </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Writing Process: Find Your Focus <ul><li>Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Drafting </li></ul><ul><li>Revising </li></ul><ul><li>Proofreading </li></ul>
  15. 15. Where can you go for additional help with assignments for any class? <ul><li>Purdue University Writing Lab </li></ul><ul><li>Heavilon 226 </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar Hotline: (765) 494-3723 </li></ul><ul><li>Check our web site: </li></ul><ul><li>Email brief questions: [email_address] </li></ul>Purdue University Writing Lab