Lecture note # 9 time management , delegation


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  • Good Way of Viewing To-Do lists and daily activities. All activities have importance. Quadrant II activities are the most important because they prepare good foundations for later work and for life.
  • Begin With - You all know how to manage time. If you didn’t, you probably wouldn’t be in Graduate School. Your heuristics probably look like this.
  • Priority Order - In general, how we tend to view the world. In terms of must-do’s and should-do’s. It’s still a fairly good heuristics - getting the crucial tasks out of the way is important but shouldn’t be the only heuristic. Task Duration - How much time do you have? What can you do between that meeting at 3 and the meeting at 4:30? Breaking up tasks into large tasks and small tasks is fairly important. Traveling Salesman - Physical location - optimize around travel time and physical location. How can you minimize transit times? Even little times like going from your desk to another room can add up. How can you make your work areas more efficient? Category Order - Research, Personal, Social, Financial, etc. Think of your tasks in context of a goal or in terms of a part of your life that has some importance.
  • Wastes more time worrying about the outcome or avoiding what seems to be unpleasant.
  • So obviously, you all know how to manage your time and stress but clearly there must be some better ways to live. Plus, you’re all in it for the long haul. Over time, this heuristic will get you burned out.
  • Lecture note # 9 time management , delegation

    1. 1. Lecture Note on Time Management Prepared By: Dr. S. W. Siddiqi Health System Development and Management Specialist World Health Organization- SUDAN July , 2006
    2. 2. Aims of this Lecture <ul><li>Examine Different Ways of Viewing Time </li></ul><ul><li>Review Some step by step process For Using Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine elements of an empowering work environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify steps for successful delegation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize the importance of work climate and trust when delegating tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize manager characteristics that increase the success of delegation. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Let ‘s look at some definitions for time <ul><li>Time is the most valuable thing a man can spend.   --Theophrastus </li></ul>
    4. 4. Time <ul><li>The time is always right to do what is right.  Martin Luther King, Jr. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Time <ul><li>Time is the coin of your life. It is the only coin you have,  and only you can determine how it will be spent. Be careful in case you let other people spend it for you.  --Carl Sandburg </li></ul>
    6. 6. Time <ul><li>Every thing can wait except time , it is moving a head ,once it is gone, it is gone, it will never return back, so take care , don’t lose it. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Time Management <ul><li>The whole purpose of time management is to enable you to have more time to spend with the people you love, doing the things you enjoy. -- Brian Tracy </li></ul>
    8. 8. Time Management <ul><li>Don't say you don't have enough time . You have exactly the same number of hours per day that were given to every other person in this world. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Time Management <ul><li>If we take care of the minutes, the years will take care of themselves.    --Ben Franklin </li></ul>
    10. 10. Three Principles <ul><li>Everyone has the same amount of time </li></ul><ul><li>Two things stop you managing your time – you and everyone else </li></ul><ul><li>Different techniques for managing time works for different people </li></ul>
    11. 11. Overview of Some Key questions <ul><li>What do you want out of your life? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do you want to be in 5 years time </li></ul><ul><li>What do you want/need to achieve in your job? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you need to achieve by the end of the year? (use appraisal) </li></ul><ul><li>What do you need to achieve by the end of the month/week/day? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Go to Covey’s Time (Task) Management Matrix, But before <ul><li>Divide you tasks to: </li></ul><ul><li>Important and non important </li></ul><ul><li>Urgent and urgent </li></ul><ul><li>then act as follow: </li></ul>
    13. 13. Covey’s Time (Task) Management Matrix
    14. 14. <ul><li>Which quadrant should you avoid? </li></ul><ul><li>Which quadrant do you like to work in? </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse activity so far this week </li></ul>
    15. 15. Urgent vs Important <ul><li>Non-urgent, not important Ineffective put on hold, delegate, ignore </li></ul><ul><li>Urgent, not important Action do it now, do quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Non-urgent, important Plan plan, block time </li></ul><ul><li>Urgent, important Crisis avoid waiting, act immediately </li></ul>
    16. 16. Now you have to Analyse the Matrix look at the factors imposed by: <ul><li>Customer (external/internal) </li></ul><ul><li>Boss </li></ul><ul><li>Colleague </li></ul><ul><li>Yourself </li></ul>
    17. 17. Analyse by: <ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Improvement (better, cheaper, faster) </li></ul><ul><li>Change Management (new ideas, new services, new products) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Analyse by: <ul><li>Admin time (routine) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication time (giving and receiving) </li></ul><ul><li>Operational time (“the job”) </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision time </li></ul><ul><li>Wasted time </li></ul><ul><li>Executive time (planning, thinking, exploring, deciding) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Workaholics <ul><li>Never say “No” </li></ul><ul><li>Never say “Yes” to offers of help </li></ul><ul><li>Are poor delegators (“no one can do it as well as me”) </li></ul><ul><li>Have a reputation for delivering - so get more work </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t value training and development </li></ul>
    20. 20. Common Time Consumers <ul><li>Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Boss </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-ordinate/colleague/student </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Paperwork </li></ul><ul><li>Interruptions </li></ul>
    21. 21. Meetings - chairing <ul><li>Do the right people attend? </li></ul><ul><li>Does this particular meeting need to take place? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What’s its objective? By the end of the meeting we would have failed if we haven’t achieved … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider changing format, layout </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare and circulate agenda (with timings) </li></ul><ul><li>Make objective clear </li></ul><ul><li>Start on time, finish on time </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce each item clearly </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for discussion, decision, information, … ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Manage the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify outcome at end of item. Is the secretary clear? </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for AOB </li></ul>
    22. 22. Meetings - attending <ul><li>What’s your role in the meeting? </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t just sit there, take responsibility, help the chair </li></ul><ul><li>Set a good example: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>be prepared </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>don’t be late </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>speak clearly, calmly, positively, constructively </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Encourage chair to start promptly and end on time </li></ul><ul><li>Seek clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Offer to clarify, to summarise </li></ul>
    23. 23. Dealing with the Boss <ul><li>Be clear about your job role/description </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear about your main objectives & deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your boss informed </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>write reports, be honest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>If necessary, insist on regularity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>make notes of meetings, send memos to confirm discussions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Help build the team </li></ul>
    24. 24. Dealing with others <ul><li>Don’t waste time and energy with rows, misunderstandings and bad feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Be confident, open, non-judgmental (unconditional, positive regard) </li></ul><ul><li>Seek win: win </li></ul><ul><li>See opportunities not problems </li></ul><ul><li>Use shared problem-solving approach </li></ul><ul><li>Coach students/sub-ordinates/boss </li></ul>
    25. 25. Handling interruptions <ul><li>“ Have you got a minute?” “I can give you 5 minutes now or I can come to see you in about an hour” </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t walk away from meetings in someone else’s office. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t let phone calls take preference over meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Handle emails eg twice, four times a day </li></ul><ul><li>Have an open/closed door policy </li></ul><ul><li>Help other’s solve their problems, don’t take them over . </li></ul>
    26. 26. Handling paperwork <ul><li>Use central filing system </li></ul><ul><li>Use in-, pending-, out-trays, bring-forward file </li></ul><ul><li>Use folders/files </li></ul><ul><li>Handle your reading - chunk or bit by bit </li></ul>
    27. 27. Handling emails <ul><li>One-touch emails </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritise replies </li></ul><ul><li>Read/reply eg 2-4 times a day (not as ‘phone) </li></ul><ul><li>Use folders </li></ul><ul><li>Paper copy for filing? </li></ul><ul><li>Regularly bounce clean </li></ul><ul><li>Join mailing-lists selectively </li></ul><ul><li>Delete junk mail without reading </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t overload other people’s mailboxes </li></ul>
    28. 28. Time Management steps <ul><li>Step 1 - List Your Tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2 - Fill In Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3 - Stop When Day/Week Is Full </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4 - If Tasks Remain, Remove Time From Nonessential Tasks (i.e., Sleeping, Eating), Go To Step 2. </li></ul>
    29. 29. My strategies and tricks <ul><li>Annual planning meeting and 6-monthly review </li></ul><ul><li>Regular mentoring, ( advising ) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep up-to-date </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely take work home </li></ul><ul><li>Keep reasonable hours </li></ul><ul><li>Work at home - change of place/location </li></ul><ul><li>Block time in diary </li></ul><ul><li>Chunk reading </li></ul><ul><li>Keep looking ahead in diary </li></ul><ul><li>On-going and daily “to do” lists </li></ul><ul><li>Keep watch 5 mins fast </li></ul><ul><li>Aim never to be late for appointments </li></ul><ul><li>Stop beating myself up for getting it wrong! </li></ul>
    30. 30. Organize Timing for Tasks <ul><li>Priority Order </li></ul><ul><li>Task Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Category Order </li></ul>
    31. 31. Using Small Bits <ul><li>Optimize yourself for Large piece of work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Bits are Unavoidable (5, 10, 15 min) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Making Them Useful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning (At least 10 minutes a day) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning / Organization daily tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication - Email, Phone Call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity / Brainstorming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Tasks </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. The Art of Procrastination (postpone doing something, especially as a regular practice) <ul><li>Art of Delaying the Inevitable </li></ul><ul><li>Tips: Where can you lose time? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worrying about finishing on time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worrying about the final outcome. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interruption and disturbances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing “unimportant” things first. </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Some Days Are Impossible <ul><li>In spite of best efforts - It’s still impossible to get everything done. </li></ul><ul><li>Partly the Environment or too many commitments. </li></ul><ul><li>This can lead to stress. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Finally <ul><li>If you’ve worked on your time management and the job doesn’t fit into a sensible day: </li></ul><ul><li>Seek advice from line-manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with prioritising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with what to say “no” to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If all else fails - change your job! </li></ul>
    35. 35. In Conclusion NOW <ul><li>You All Know How To Manage Your Time. </li></ul><ul><li>Then manage it, don’t lose it. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Lecture Note on Delegation and Empowerment
    37. 37. <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegation – a way to accomplish job tasks with each person taking a part of the work and responsibility which best uses and extends her skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowerment – creation of a work environment which allows each individual to work to his/her highest capacity. An empowered workplace is a safe climate for people to work together with freedom to take initiative, to create, to solve problems, and to assume the responsibility of completing the task. </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Components Of Follower Maturity <ul><li>Job maturity – the amount of task-relevant knowledge, experience, skill, and ability that the follower possesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological maturity – the follower’s self-confidence, commitment, motivation and self-respect relative to the task at hand. </li></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>Why Delegate? </li></ul><ul><li>Here are a few good reasons to delegate: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To build individual confidence and increase motivation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To share the power and responsibility. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To provide growth experiences and to model the value of skill development. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To create a sense of importance and belonging for the employee. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To encourage independence, initiative, and creative problem solving. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>How to Delegate? </li></ul><ul><li>Skills and Jobs: Making the Match </li></ul><ul><li>The three key processes for delegation are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the skills of the individual. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly define the tasks to be completed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain feedback from individual to confirm accurate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>assessment of skills. </li></ul></ul></ul>Delegating and Empowering
    41. 41. <ul><li>Skills and Jobs: Making the Match </li></ul><ul><li>To check for a match between skills and jobs, consider the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The individual’s abilities to do the job. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of the job and timeline needed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The consequences of success and failure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The relationships with others who are involved. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment and loyalty of the individual. </li></ul></ul></ul>Delegating and Empowering
    42. 42. <ul><li>Skills and Jobs: Making the Match </li></ul><ul><li>Before you delegate, ask: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the individual capable of doing the job? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will she/he be committed to it and take it seriously? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How important is this task to the total operation’s success? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the timeline reasonable? </li></ul></ul></ul>Delegating and Empowering
    43. 43. <ul><li>Step 1 for Successful Delegation </li></ul><ul><li>Establish desired results. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly describe the results you want. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explain how the results fit into the team’s or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>organization’s big picture. </li></ul></ul></ul>Delegating and Empowering
    44. 44. <ul><li>Step 2 for Successful Delegation </li></ul><ul><li>Identify guidelines and deadlines for accomplishing the results. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Together establish the boundaries and limitations of the work. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State and agree upon the benchmark, checkpoints, and deadlines that will ensure successful accomplishment. </li></ul></ul></ul>Delegating and Empowering
    45. 45. <ul><li>Step 3 for Successful Delegation </li></ul><ul><li>Define accountabilities and standards to measure accomplishment. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure to give the individual the authority to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>complete the task. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secure commitment from the individual; ask </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>directly for it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specify chain of command for problem solving. </li></ul></ul></ul>Delegating and Empowering
    46. 46. <ul><li>Step 4 for Successful Delegation </li></ul><ul><li>List resources needed for successful completion of results. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who are the people who will be helping? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What supplies or tools are needed? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What outside people need to be notified that this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individual will be taking on this job? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify any financial or budget impact. </li></ul></ul></ul>Delegating and Empowering
    47. 47. <ul><li>Step 5 for Successful Delegation </li></ul><ul><li>Determine consequences of achieving or not achieving the results. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be specific in detailing what success or failure will </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>look like. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What will be the impact of success in this task for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the team, organization, and individual? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What will be the impact of failure in this task for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the team, organization, and individual? </li></ul></ul></ul>Delegating and Empowering
    48. 48. <ul><li>6. Checking Out the Delegation Preparation Worksheet </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describe a task you want to delegate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List the skills and abilities of the individual to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>whom you may delegate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Draft the desired results you want. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify any known guidelines or deadlines. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List resources you believe the individual may need. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List the consequences of not achieving this task. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List the consequences of achieving this task. </li></ul></ul></ul>Delegating and Empowering
    49. 49. <ul><li>7. Finally do a Personal Check-In Delegation Assessment before you delegate again </li></ul><ul><li>Think back to a task you delegated recently and consider the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What was the task? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Were you satisfied with the results achieved? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What did you do or say as you made this assignment? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What did you do that worked or did not work? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What would you do differently next time? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 50. In Summary: What To Delegate?? <ul><li>Things You Don’t Want To Do </li></ul><ul><li>Things You Don’t Have Time To Do </li></ul><ul><li>Things the Subordinate Can Do Better </li></ul><ul><li>Things the Subordinate Needs To Do To Grow Professionally </li></ul>
    51. 51. In summary: How to Delegate?? <ul><li>Decide What to Delegate </li></ul><ul><li>Specify Responsibilities and Limits Clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Specify Expectations Concerning Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Get Feedback From Subordinate </li></ul><ul><li>Inform Others Who Need to Know </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange For Necessary Information </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Support But Avoid Responsibility </li></ul>
    52. 52. Reading List <ul><li>Effective Time Management, John Adair, Pan </li></ul><ul><li>One Minute Manager Meets the Monkey, Kenneth Blanchard, Harper Collins </li></ul><ul><li>Making Meetings Work, Patrick Forsyth, CIPD </li></ul><ul><li>The Effective Academic, Leslie Johnson, Oxford Brookes University </li></ul><ul><li>The Lecturer’s Toolkit, Phil Race, Kogan Page </li></ul><ul><li>Seven Habits of Effective People, Stephen Covey </li></ul>
    53. 53. Thanks for the Attention <ul><li>Questions and comments are welcomed </li></ul>