Genomics in Sudan's Health Planning: Opportunities and  Challenges  Ghaiath Hussein Genomics Course. March 3, 2008
Outline of Presentation  <ul><li>Sudan’s Health Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of genetic/genomic research  </li></ul>...
Sudan at a glance <ul><li>Infant mortality rate :   91.78 deaths/1,000 live births </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy at bi...
Major Causes of Death (2002) Source: Death and DALY estimates by cause, 2002 http://www.who.int/entity/healthinfo/statisti...
Global Fund Source:  http://www.theglobalfund.org/programs/countrysite.aspx?countryid=SUD&lang=en   $14,458,591 $36,961,89...
Examples of recent genetic research <ul><li>BRCA1 and BRCA2 status in a Central Sudanese series of breast cancer patients:...
“ There can be no peace until people have enough to eat… investments in agricultural research today can cultivate peace to...
Opportunities North American edition: 31 July 2000 Asian edition: 12 February 2001
Opportunities <ul><li>Translating the knowledge being created by genomics  and basic research into  applications that impr...
Genomic Research Strategy to confront HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis Pre-clinical Discovery Genomics <ul><li>Vaccines ...
Challenges facing introduction/utilization of genomics
Political challenges <ul><li>Political transition </li></ul><ul><li>CPA commitments </li></ul><ul><li>International player...
Economical challenges <ul><li>Uncertainty associated with biotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Dichotomy of Private and Public ...
Scientific challenges <ul><li>Academia-MOH dichotomy  </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of infrastructure (equipments) </li></ul><ul>...
Bridging Gaps <ul><li>Involvement of academia in health policy setting </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy for genomics “It can hel...
Discussion  Thank You
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Genomics in sudan's health policy

674 views

Published on

A presentation I gave for the course on Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues in Genomics & Biotechnology during my master in Canada.

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
674
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Genomics in sudan's health policy

  1. 1. Genomics in Sudan's Health Planning: Opportunities and Challenges Ghaiath Hussein Genomics Course. March 3, 2008
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation <ul><li>Sudan’s Health Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of genetic/genomic research </li></ul><ul><li>What are the challenges facing introduction/utilization of genomics? </li></ul><ul><li>Political challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Economical challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Steps forward </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sudan at a glance <ul><li>Infant mortality rate : 91.78 deaths/1,000 live births </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy at birth: male: 48.24 Y, female: 50.03 Y (2007 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Total fertility rate: 4.69 (2007 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.3% (2001 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 400,000 (2001 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of child malnutrition 2000-06 (% of underweight U-5 children) 41 % </li></ul><ul><li>Area : total: 2,505,810 sq km Population : 39,379,358 (2007 est.) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Major Causes of Death (2002) Source: Death and DALY estimates by cause, 2002 http://www.who.int/entity/healthinfo/statistics/bodgbddeathdalyestimates.xls 5 5 17 Tuberculosis 8 5 17 Measles 8 6 19 Diarrhoeal diseases 7 6 20 HIV/AIDS 9 6 22 Malaria 3 8 28 Ischaemic heart disease Years of Life Lost % % Deaths (1000)
  5. 5. Global Fund Source: http://www.theglobalfund.org/programs/countrysite.aspx?countryid=SUD&lang=en $14,458,591 $36,961,894 $75,055,623 TB $29,516,727 $58,920,846 $161,671,134 HIV/AIDS  $19,973,804 $131,613,679 $33,240,453 Malaria Total Funds Disbursed Approved Funding: Total Funding Request :
  6. 6. Examples of recent genetic research <ul><li>BRCA1 and BRCA2 status in a Central Sudanese series of breast cancer patients: interactions with genetic, ethnic and reproductive factors (Breast Cancer Res Treat (2007) 102:189–199) </li></ul><ul><li>Onchocerca volvulus: Genetic Diversity of Parasite Isolates from Sudan (Experimental Parasitology 97, 24–34 (2001)) </li></ul><ul><li>Different genetic patterns of Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA variation, with implications to the peopling of Sudan (Hisham Hassan, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity and molecular fingerprints in sub-Saharan African breast cancer: studies in Central Sudan - Renato Mariani-Costantini (2007) </li></ul>
  7. 7. “ There can be no peace until people have enough to eat… investments in agricultural research today can cultivate peace tomorrow… biotechnology is not the enemy, starvation is.” Jimmy Carter
  8. 8. Opportunities North American edition: 31 July 2000 Asian edition: 12 February 2001
  9. 9. Opportunities <ul><li>Translating the knowledge being created by genomics and basic research into applications that improve clinical practice and public health. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis – development of effective disease interventions, </li></ul><ul><li>Combating resistance to antibiotics and other drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Combating, cardiovascular disease, diabetes cancer and other NCDs </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial ecology - epidemiology </li></ul><ul><li>Control of hospital acquired infections </li></ul>
  10. 10. Genomic Research Strategy to confront HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis Pre-clinical Discovery Genomics <ul><li>Vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>Microbicides </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs </li></ul>EUROPEAN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES CLINICAL TRIALS PARTNERSHIP (EDCTP) Clinical Trials (Phase II/III) H I G H R I S K P R O J E C T S <ul><li>Vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs </li></ul>HIV/AIDS Malaria TB NEW INSTRUMENTS CROSS-CUTTING TOPICS Phase I trials Source: Confronting the major communicable diseases linked to poverty. Anne Degrand-Guillaud
  11. 11. Challenges facing introduction/utilization of genomics
  12. 12. Political challenges <ul><li>Political transition </li></ul><ul><li>CPA commitments </li></ul><ul><li>International players </li></ul><ul><li>Political decentralization vs. scientific centralization </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing conflict and instabilities in some regions. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Economical challenges <ul><li>Uncertainty associated with biotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Dichotomy of Private and Public sectors: difference in values, cultures, mechanisms and tolerance of risk </li></ul><ul><li>Poor IP and patenting system </li></ul><ul><li>Economic sanctions, including science </li></ul>
  14. 14. Scientific challenges <ul><li>Academia-MOH dichotomy </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of infrastructure (equipments) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of training on genomics </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific sanctions (limited western investigation/investment) although theoretically lifted </li></ul><ul><li>“ Under the new ruling, U.S. citizens are no longer required to seek a license from OFAC for any transactions with individuals in Iran, Cuba, and Sudan that &quot;directly support the publishing and marketing of manuscripts, books, journals, and newspapers.&quot; (Science, 24 December 2004) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Bridging Gaps <ul><li>Involvement of academia in health policy setting </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy for genomics “It can help” </li></ul><ul><li>“ genomic education” in under- and postgraduate medical curricula </li></ul><ul><li>Public Engagement </li></ul>
  16. 16. Discussion Thank You

×