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Containers: Don't Skeu Them Up

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June 2019 update for CloudExpo Santa Clara
Skeuomorphism usually means retaining existing design cues in something new that doesn't actually need them. However, the concept of skeuomorphism can be thought of as relating more broadly to applying existing patterns to new technologies that, in fact, cry out for new approaches.

In his session at ServerlessSUMMIT, Gordon Haff, Technology Evangelist at Red Hat, will discuss why containers should be paired with new architectural practices such as microservices rather than mimicking legacy server virtualization workflows and architectures.

It's far more fruitful and useful to approach containers as something fundamentally new and enabling that's part and parcel of an environment including containerized operating systems, container packaging systems, container orchestration like Kubernetes, DevOps continuous integration and deployment practices, microservices architectures, "cattle" workloads, software-defined everything, management across hybrid infrastructures, and pervasive open source as part of a new platform for cloud apps.

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Containers: Don't Skeu Them Up

  1. 1. CONTAINERS:CONTAINERS: DON'T SKEU THEM UPDON'T SKEU THEM UP USE MICROSERVICES INSTEADUSE MICROSERVICES INSTEAD   Gordon Haff, Technology Evangelist, @ghaff, ghaff@redhat.com June 2019
  2. 2. A skeuomorph /ˈskjuːəmɔrf/ is a derivative object that retains ornamental design cues from structures that were necessary in the original. Examples include pottery embellished with imitation rivets reminiscent of similar pots made of metal and a software calendar that imitates the appearance of binding on a paper desk calendar. Wikipedia
  3. 3. THE CASE AGAINST SKEUOMORPHSTHE CASE AGAINST SKEUOMORPHS
  4. 4. THE CASE AGAINST SKEUOMORPHSTHE CASE AGAINST SKEUOMORPHS
  5. 5. CONTAINERS TOOCONTAINERS TOO
  6. 6. 2007
  7. 7. THE PARTITIONING BAZAARTHE PARTITIONING BAZAAR Independent systems Hardware partitions Logical partitions Virtual machines Containers (Zones, OS virtualization) Application virtualization Resource groups  
  8. 8. THE PARTITIONING BAZAAR: 2019THE PARTITIONING BAZAAR: 2019   Virtual machines (w/ hardware assists)   Containers Application virtualization Resource groups           Cloud native (or just "containers")    
  9. 9. TRADITIONAL VS. CONTAINERSTRADITIONAL VS. CONTAINERS TRADITIONAL CONTAINERS
  10. 10. CONTAINERS OPTIMIZE FOR NEW PRACTICESCONTAINERS OPTIMIZE FOR NEW PRACTICES Scale-out / loosely-coupled Short-lived Single-function Component of a larger whole Replaceable Less stateful Immutable DevSecOps     WARNING!  OVERSIMPLIFICATION ALERT! Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/pondapple/6502194585
  11. 11. ENTER MICROSERVICESENTER MICROSERVICES
  12. 12. WHAT ARE MICROSERVICES?WHAT ARE MICROSERVICES? TextText http://martinfowler.com/articles/microservices.html
  13. 13. ISN'T THIS JUST...ISN'T THIS JUST... Source: TIBCO
  14. 14. IMPORTANT DIFFERENCESIMPORTANT DIFFERENCES Source: PWC Lighter-weight communications protocols Improved understanding of functional separation More open source and vendor-neutral philosophies Scale-out infrastructure standardization and automation Alignment with evolving practices such as DevOps
  15. 15. AUTONOMOUSAUTONOMOUS Data and functionality exposed only through service calls over the network Designed to be externalizable No back-doors
  16. 16. BOUNDED CONTEXTBOUNDED CONTEXT Avoid having to know too much about the surrounding services Can be modified or updated independently Should be robust in the face of changes to other services
  17. 17. SMALLSMALL Well-defined function "Fits in your head" Owned by a single cross-functional team Organized around business capabilities (Conway's Law) Source: Kathy CC/Flickr https://flic.kr/p/b9fFV
  18. 18. SIGNS YOU MIGHT NEEDSIGNS YOU MIGHT NEED MICROSERVICESMICROSERVICES Having trouble coordinating function teams like DBAs and UI engineers Brittle apps. Minor changes cause major breakage Your CICD process is bogged down by big deployments Different teams keep reinventing the wheel (in gratuitously different ways) Hard to experiment Source: Daniel Pratts CC/flickr https://flic.kr/p/7RE6yc
  19. 19. ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES Easier for teams to pick the right tool for the job Easier for teams to pick an appropriate release cycle Easier to build resiliency and scale-out Easier to do updates and CICD Potentially more scalable Easier to do DevOps!   Source: KegRiver CC/flickr https://flic.kr/p/at2Jt2
  20. 20. ON THE OTHER HANDON THE OTHER HAND Source: CC/flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/firstdown/2456119103 Architectural effort Service boundaries Communication overhead Do you need it?
  21. 21. NOT EVERYTHING IS ANOT EVERYTHING IS A MICROSERVICEMICROSERVICE Cost of migrating existing apps May not need the scale Monoliths may be the first step even for cloud native Containerization has benefits even without microservices Broader idea of twelve-factor apps Evolutionary approaches often most practical       Source: Eric Fischer CC/flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/walkingsf/4622376356E
  22. 22. COMMON THREAD:COMMON THREAD: NEED TO RUN AS AN ORCHESTRATEDNEED TO RUN AS AN ORCHESTRATED (API-CENTRIC) SYSTEM(API-CENTRIC) SYSTEM Source: CC/flickr https://www.flickr.com/photos/42931449    www.planetofsuccess.com/blog/
  23. 23. WHY TODAY?WHY TODAY? "Software is eating the world" Everyone is scaling Architectures and practices across enterprises, HPC, and web-scale converging Tap into open source community innovation           Source: Google
  24. 24. HARD PARTSHARD PARTS Hardest is political/people How do you test, deploy and manage? Untangling existing apps and defining service boundaries for new ones Clusters and memory at scale New availability mechanisms Emergent behaviors Source: Keith Allison CC/flickr https://flic.kr/p/abGcs9
  25. 25. THANK YOU!THANK YOU!

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