Strategies for change
Causes of change
What type/kind of changes
• Incremental change
• Fundamental change
Effects of badly handled changes
Why change might be resisted
People and change
The psychological contract
Other causes of resistance
Understanding the Change
Force field analysis
The integrated Organization
The EASIER way to Lead Change
Strategies for Change
It is one of the most critical aspects of effective management. but the
nature of Change is may be increasingly complex, and it is more often
Causes of Change
Technological change continues to accelerate, so the speed with
which obsolescent occurs is also increasing
Competition is more intensifying, and becoming more global.
Customers are more demanding and no longer accept Poor service/Low
The demographic profile of the country is changing..
Share holders demands more value
What type of change
In any change situation the first thing to think are nature of the change and the situation
inside the organization. Although there are overlapping of approaches. There are differences
between what might be termed.
- It is a Progress by Evolution rather than Revolution
- Other words that had been used to describe; include “Strategic”, “Visionary”, and
- This can dramatically affect the future operations of the organization and frequently
involve major upheaval.
For both Incremental and fundamental change there are two other factors should be considered, which will affect the
approach to use to implement change
URGENCY – How urgent is the need for change in relation to the extent of the actions that have to be taken?.
RESISTANCE – Equally important is the degree of resistance to change.
Badly handled Change situations can lead to:
• The frustrations of otherwise sound strategies.
• The cost of implementation may rise.
E.g. Delays, Spoilt work, Emergency action that can be added to cost
• Benefits expected from the change may be lost.
• Motivation may be reduced within the organization
• Resistance to future changes may increase
APPROACHES TO INCREMENTAL CHANGE
NOTE: Choice of approach will be affected by:
Skills and Abilities of the Employees
Motivation of employees to participate
Culture of the Organization
Confidentiality of the Change
Longer-term motivational needs
APPROACHES TO FUNDAMENTAL CHANGE
The word “Visionary” is applied as a prefix to the description in three boxes. This is an important
Emphasis and although two of the descriptions have been met before, the size and a scale of
Fundamental change mean that reaching a shared vision is more difficult and more important
that it is with Incremental change.
People and Change.
Few people would like to work in organizations where nothing different ever happened, yet at the
same time we all know of situations being resisted, and made harder because of resistance.
The Psychological Contract - The unwritten and almost subconscious elements of the relationships.
Individuals gain from the Job;
Able to work on one’s own initiative
Opportunity to use certain skills
Companionship ( To a group of people, Relationship with customers )
And the things that they are expected to provide in return.
Loyalty to the company
Put extra time during crisis
Making task beyond the confines of the Job description
Other Causes of Resistance.
While the Psychological Contract may help us to explain some of the resistance to change that is not
immediately obvious, there are other causes Like:
Things that are perceived as affecting personal standing or prestige, or as altering the things we
value about our jobs, may be real threats although they are intangible and matters of the mind.
For most People change at work has been imposed and isn’t what they have chosen to undergo.
Lack of faith in those making the Change
Resistance increases when people in organization have a little respect for the abilities of those who
are causing the change.
A belief that something has been overlooked
When the people felt that their own insight or area of expertise might believe that important aspect
have been overlooked
The head and the heart
In some cases people appear to agree to a cause of action because the argument for it is so
powerful that they think of no reason not to agree
This can create ownership of the proposed change, creates a better awareness, and
reasons for it.
Points to consider when thinking about participation include:
Is participation desirable in the circumstances. Why? Why not?
Are there circumstances that prevent participation?. Can they be removed?
Who should participate: key people; your direct reports; everybody concerned?
What is the scope fro the participation: Decision making; Post-decision implementation?
How should participation be achieved?. .
This can reduce by ensuring that reasons, degree of urgency are understood.
Points to be considered when in planning communication include:
Who are the target group to receive the communication?
What should be communicated?
What kind of communication should be used: should this be the same for all groups?
Does the message address the concerns that those affected by the change are likely to feel?
A training approach designed specifically to help the implementation of change
Can also serve as a means of communication;
And provide a measure of participation
Points to consider for both Incremental and Fundamental change are:
How different will the job of each person be after the change, in terms of content and style?
Do their knowledge and abilities match these requirements?
How confident are the people concerned that they know and understand the new
requirements, and possesses the required competences?
Would a training initiative provide a mechanism to enable wider participation in the change
The need. . .
Effective management requires attention to detail, and
planning comes in at two places:
First, is to think through all aspects of the implications of
the second, is to set out all the actions that need to
take place in order to ensure that need to
take place in order to ensure that the change is
Force field ( or Equilibrium ) Analysis
To analyze all the forces for and against a decision
To learn a specialized method of weighing pros and cons when developing a plan
To be able to strengthen the forces supporting a decision, and reduce the impact of
opposition to it.
THE INTEGRATED ORGANIZATION
THE DESIRED CHANGE
A key to understanding is a trustful communication between a manager and subordinates.
Known to Unknown
Self to Self
known to BLIND
A) Feedback not sought B) Takes feedback, Gives little
C) Gives little, seeks little feedback D) Large area of understanding
Unhealthy and Healthy communication
THE EASIER APPROACH TO CHANGE
The EASIER way to Lead change
Activating Charismatic and behavioral aspects of Leadership
Ensuring Management and Administrative aspects
Envisioning -Size, Scope of activities, Economic strengths, Relationship with customers
and internal culture.
Activating - Task of ensuring that others in the organization understand, support
and eventually share the vision.
Supporting - Providing the necessary moral and practical support.
Implementing - Step about the detailed plans and schedules to turn a vision into reality.
Ensuring - Establishing, Monitoring and Controlling processes to ensure that:
All actions are taken on time, unless there is a conscious decision to change actions.
Where actions are changed, there is a good reason for the change and re-planning
for new circumstances.
The plans are still appropriate if the situation has changed.
Recognizing - Maybe positive or negative; Should be used to reinforce the change
and to ensure that obstacles to progress are removed.
THE INTEGRATED ORGANIZATION
THE DESIRED CHANGE