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Chapter 2.3 part 1

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Chapter 2.3 part 1

  1. 1. Chapter 2.3 
  2. 2. Telecommunications <ul><ul><li>Communication of information by electronic means </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications System Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers to process information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminals that send or receive data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications software </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Functions of Telecommunications Systems <ul><ul><li>Transmit information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish network between receiver and sender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Route messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform elementary processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform editorial tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert message speed or format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control flow </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Signals: Analog and Digital <ul><ul><li>Analog Signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous waveform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  Passes through communications medium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for video and audio communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Digital Signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discrete waveform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits date coded into two discrete states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for data communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modems translate computer´s digital signals into analog and vice versa </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Communication Channels <ul><ul><li>Wired Transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted wire: Telephone systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coaxial cable: cable television </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber optics: Dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microwave, Satellites, Cellphones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Hertz Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10^8-10^10 = cellular phones and mobile date networks 10^10-10^12 = microwaves (GRPS,GMS, 3rd generation, 3G) 10^13-10^14 = Wireless Media 10^15-10^16 = Fiber optics (visible area, from red to violet) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Communications Processors and Software <ul><ul><li>Front-end processor: manages communications for host computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrator: collects and stores messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controller: supervises communication traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiplexer: Enables single communication channel to carry data transmissions </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Network Topologies <ul><ul><li>Three different types of networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Star Network: all computers are connected to central host computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bus Network: links computers by a single circuit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ring Network: all computers linked by a loop </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. LANs, WANs, VANs <ul><ul><li>LAN (Local Area Network) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires own channel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enclosed in a limited distance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gateway, router, Network Operating System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WAN (Wide Area Network) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large distance span </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of cable, satellite, and microwave technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VAN (Value-Added Network) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private, multi-path, data only, third-party-managed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business Technologies <ul><ul><li>Three different types of conferencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teleconferencing: ability to talk with various people at the same time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data conferencing: two or more edit data files at the same time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing: users can see each other on screens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Electronic Data Interchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct exchange between organizations  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customer can purchase orders or process payments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seller can provide shipping, price updates and invoices </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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