Exhibit 1.1 Selected stakeholders Interests for an NHS organizationStakeholder InterestsStaff Provision of quality health care Self development and promotion prospectsCurrent Job Satisfaction Receive excellent care and attention Work in a safe and good quality environment Enhance health prospects and life expectancyPatients Advice on how best to recover from treatment and avoid future health problemsUnions Access to information Responsibility to members to ensure fair working practices, safe environment Support from medical staff Support and advise members in all areas of employment rights, i.e. Equal Opportunities, Discrimination, Racial IncidentsGovernment Recruitment of new members Quality Standards Legal requirements/Health and Safety/Equal Opps/Pay and ConditionsPress Financial Management, high achievementbeing used and managed effectively Praise and publicity for ensure resources Adverse publicity – making the facts knownProspective Patients Challenging use of finances and pleasant environment Excellent treatment in a caring Access to information Choices
Exhibit 1.2 Stakeholders for a pharmaceutical company Stakeholders Interests General public Safe, reliable, tested drugs Legal/ courts Tested drugs which do not result in serious side effects for the users. Government Reasonably priced drugs which have been shown to be effective in use. Media Stories showing either the benefits of drugs or very harmful side-effects of drugs which have not been properly tested. Scientific Community Details of development and testing of new drugs. Shareholders Return on investment and shareholder value created. Suppliers Steady and secure demand for the products and services it supplies. Financial institutions A sound developing and following sound marketing and corporate strategies which will produce guaranteed returns from lending and investment. Rank and file employees Secure and interesting employment with good future prospects. Competitors New developments that lead to competitive advantage. Consumers Safe and effective treatments. Management Control and influence over what happens in the firm.
ADL Matrix Industry life cycle stageCompetitive Embryonic Growth Mature AgingPositionDominant Hold position and Hold position and Hold position and Hold position seek to maximize share expand with share industryStrong Attempt to Attempt to Hold position and Hold position or improve position improve position expand with harvest and maximize and be selective in industry share attempts to improve shareFavourable Selective attempts Attempt to Find niche and Harvest or phased out to improve improve position attempt to guard withdrawal position and be selective in it. attempts to improve shareTenable Selectively push Find niche and Find niche and Phased out for position attempt to guard it hang on or phased withdrawal or out withdrawal abandonWeak Improve or get out Turnaround or Turn around or Abandon abandon phased out withdrawal
Balanced ScorecardFigure 3.1 The balanced scorecard
EXHIBIT 3.5 FORD MODEL ‘T’—THE MINDSET OF HENRYFORDHenry Ford’s model ‘T’ remained unchanged for years while GeneralMotors (Chevrolet) was making changes often using new technology.Henry Ford said: ‘We’ll give the customer any colour he wants as longas it is black.’ It was an arrogant statement by an arrogant man who hadbeen on top so long he thought nothing could dislodge him from thenumber one position.In the late 1920s Ford nearly went out of business as a result of thismyopic approach. General Motors (Chevrolet) took over as number onein the US and Ford did not catch up until the late 1980s.
Blocks to Individual Creativity Strategic blocks: ‘one right answer approaches’, inflexibility in thinking. Theseaffect the approach taken to solve problems. They include the tendency to relyheavily on past experience or particular techniques without challenging theirappropriateness; focusing on a narrow range of options for either problemdefinition or problem solving; and adapting an over-ly serious approach toproblems which prevents the emergence of a playful, imaginative and humorousclimate. V alue blocks: ‘over-generalized rigidity influenced by personal values’.These occur when personal beliefs and values restrict the range of ideascontemplated. Values co-exist and failure to reconcile them contributes todifficult personal and organizational dilemmas. Perceptual blocks: ‘over-narrow focus of attention and interest’. These arisefrom a lack of sensory awareness at a physical level and therefore contribute to alack of awareness of implications of situations. Self-image blocks: ‘poor effectiveness through fear of failure, timidity inexpressing ideas, etc.’. These reduce effectiveness in advancing ideas assertively.They arise from a lack of self confidence in the value of one’s own ideas.Individuals may be reluctant to seek help and talk about personal feelings.This
EXHIBIT 3.6 BLOCKS TO CREATIVITY IN ORGANIZATIONSPeople and organizations tend to fall into a variety of traps whentrying to become more innovative.1 Identifying the wrong problem2 Judging ideas too quickly3 Stopping with the first good idea4 Failing to get the support of key personnel in the organization5 Failing to challenge assumptions
International Market Entry Methods• Indirect export• Direct export:• A domestic-based export department or division• An overseas sales branch or subsidiary• Travelling export sales representatives• Foreign-based distributors or agents• Licensing• Joint ventures• Direct Investment
E XHIBIT 12.2 WHA T IS A NE W PRODUC T?New to the world products: inventions— in-line skates,Polaroid cam era, etc.New category entries: P& G’s first sham poo, Ford ’s first M iniAdditions to product lines: Tid e liquid d etergent Productimprovements: current prod ucts m ad e better Repositionings:Arm & H am m er’s baking sod a repositioned several tim es asd raind eod orant, refrigerator d eod orant, etc .
Reasons for product failure• products lack useful/meaningful uniqueness• planning is poor during the introduction phase• the introduction is badly timed, e.g. before the market is ready for the product• key important points are sometimes overlooked in the enthusiasm to go ahead• poor marketing and failure after launch• the top management in the organization does not provide adequate support for the product• company politics, e.g. between various brand managers• unforeseen high product costs.
E XHIBIT 12.9 C ONC E PT TE STINGUniqueness of the conceptBelievability of the conceptImportance of the problem being addressedExtent to which the concept is interestingExtent to which it is realistic, practical, usefulExtent to which it solves a problem or meets a needHow much they like the conceptHow likely they would be to buy the productTheir reactions to the proposed priceWhat problems they see in using the product