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Introduction to
Lithium Battery
Technology
1
Lithium (Ion)
Hazard Focus
Gerry Flood of Lith Safe
2
Battery Features
Battery Chemistry
Lithium Metal (Primary)
Benefits/Drawbacks
•Used one time
•Discarded after use
•Long shelf life
•Lower self-discharge
•High energy density
3
Battery Features
Battery Chemistry
Lithium Ion (Secondary)
Benefits
•Rechargeable
•Cost advantages (long term)
4
Battery Features
Battery Chemistry
Lithium Ion (Secondary)
Benefits
•Largest energy density
•High electrochemical potential
•Low maintenance
•Low self-discharge
5
Battery Features
Battery Chemistry
Lithium Ion (Secondary)
Drawbacks
•Considerable fire potential
•Requires safety circuitry
•Questionable tolerance for aging
•Transportation and storage restrictions
Battery Features
6
Lithium (Ion) Focus
They have a negatively charged Carbon anode,
a positively-charged Metal Oxyde Cathode and Lithium
Ion Compound as electrolyte.
Lithium Ion Batteries run down and require recharging.
Lithium Ion Automotive batteries hold a large amount
of potential energy!
Battery Failure and
Thermal Runaway
7
Lithium (Ion) Focus
8
Battery Failure
Thermal Runaway
10
Battery Failure
Energetic Battery Failure
The Anatomy of Thermal Runaway Propagation
11
Battery Failure
Lithium metal deposits
Lithium Ion cellEnergetic Battery Failure
Electrical Abuse
•Lithium plating
a) A chemical/electrical
process that basically
transforms free lithium
ions into lithium metal
(deposits).
a) Fire and explosion risks
grow substantially
Battery Fire Behavior
12
Lithium (Ion) Focus
13
Battery Fire Behavior
Battery Fire Classes
Batteries can be “multi-classed”
with some fitting comfortably into
ALL four common classes!
14
Battery Fire Behavior
Battery Fire Classes
Lithium (Primary)
•Combustible build materials (A)
•Combustible metals (D)
•Possibly energized (C)
15
Battery Fire Behavior
Battery Fire Classes
Lithium Ion (Secondary)
•Combustible build materials (A)
•Flammable Electrolyte (B)
•Possibly energized (C)
Question:
Can Lithium Plating add a
“Combustible metals”
component?
16
Battery Fire Behavior
Battery Fire Classes
Class A – Water works Best
Class B- Smother Effects on
flammable liquid, venting
gases, N2 possible
Class C - Non Conductive
Agent, CO2
Class D – Metals, Dry
Powder, Sand
17
Battery Fire Behavior
Composed of many
“ordinary
combustible”
materials
Battery Fire Classes
Question: Why are lithium (ion) batteries not limited
to any one class of fire?
18
Battery Fire Behavior
Battery Fire Classes
Question: Why are lithium (ion) batteries not limited
to any one class of fire?
Contain flammable
liquids in electrolyte
form
19
Battery Fire Behavior
Battery Fire Classes
Question: Why are lithium (ion) batteries not limited
to any one class of fire?
May possess an
electrical shock
hazard
20
Battery Fire Behavior
Battery Fire Classes
Question: Why are lithium (ion) batteries not limited
to any one class of fire?
Lithium (primary)
cells possess
combustible metals
21
Battery Fire Behavior
Battery Fire Properties
Question: What are the properties of
Lithium (ion) cell burn?
Gas release (burn and no burn)
Severe:
•Skin burn
•Eye irritation
•Respiratory issues
•Disorientation
22
Battery Fire Behavior
Battery Fire Classes
Question: What are the properties of
Lithium (ion) cell burn?
•Hydrogen
•Carbon dioxide
•Carbon monoxide
•Methane
•Ethylene
•Ethane
•Propylene
Source: Sandia National Labs. Gas
release during cell venting.
23
EUCAR Hazard Levels
(European Council for Automotive Research)
Hazard
Level
Description Classification Criteria
0 No effect No effect. No loss of functionality
1
Passive protection
activated
No defect; no leakage; no venting fire or flame;
no rupture; no explosion; no exothermic reaction or thermal runaway.
Cell irreversibly damaged. Repair is needed.
2 Defect / Damage
No leakage; no venting fire or flame; no rupture; no explosion; no exothermic
reaction or thermal runaway. Cell irreversibly damaged. Repair is needed.
3
Leakage
Δ mass < 50%
No venting, fire or flame*; no rupture; no explosion.
Weight loss < 50% of electrolyte weight (electrolyte = solvent + salt)
4
Venting
Δ mass ≥ 50%
No fire or flame*; no rupture; no explosion.
Weight loss ≥ 50% of electrolyte weight (electrolyte = solvent + salt)
5 Fire or Flame No rupture; no explosion (i.e., no flying parts)
6 Rupture No explosion, but flying parts of the active mass
7 Explosion Explosion (i.e., disintegration of the cell)
24
Battery Fire Suppression
Suppression Methodology
Remember:
Thank You!
25

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NASA Presentation

  • 1. Introduction to Lithium Battery Technology 1 Lithium (Ion) Hazard Focus Gerry Flood of Lith Safe
  • 2. 2 Battery Features Battery Chemistry Lithium Metal (Primary) Benefits/Drawbacks •Used one time •Discarded after use •Long shelf life •Lower self-discharge •High energy density
  • 3. 3 Battery Features Battery Chemistry Lithium Ion (Secondary) Benefits •Rechargeable •Cost advantages (long term)
  • 4. 4 Battery Features Battery Chemistry Lithium Ion (Secondary) Benefits •Largest energy density •High electrochemical potential •Low maintenance •Low self-discharge
  • 5. 5 Battery Features Battery Chemistry Lithium Ion (Secondary) Drawbacks •Considerable fire potential •Requires safety circuitry •Questionable tolerance for aging •Transportation and storage restrictions
  • 6. Battery Features 6 Lithium (Ion) Focus They have a negatively charged Carbon anode, a positively-charged Metal Oxyde Cathode and Lithium Ion Compound as electrolyte. Lithium Ion Batteries run down and require recharging. Lithium Ion Automotive batteries hold a large amount of potential energy!
  • 7. Battery Failure and Thermal Runaway 7 Lithium (Ion) Focus
  • 10. 10 Battery Failure Energetic Battery Failure The Anatomy of Thermal Runaway Propagation
  • 11. 11 Battery Failure Lithium metal deposits Lithium Ion cellEnergetic Battery Failure Electrical Abuse •Lithium plating a) A chemical/electrical process that basically transforms free lithium ions into lithium metal (deposits). a) Fire and explosion risks grow substantially
  • 13. 13 Battery Fire Behavior Battery Fire Classes Batteries can be “multi-classed” with some fitting comfortably into ALL four common classes!
  • 14. 14 Battery Fire Behavior Battery Fire Classes Lithium (Primary) •Combustible build materials (A) •Combustible metals (D) •Possibly energized (C)
  • 15. 15 Battery Fire Behavior Battery Fire Classes Lithium Ion (Secondary) •Combustible build materials (A) •Flammable Electrolyte (B) •Possibly energized (C) Question: Can Lithium Plating add a “Combustible metals” component?
  • 16. 16 Battery Fire Behavior Battery Fire Classes Class A – Water works Best Class B- Smother Effects on flammable liquid, venting gases, N2 possible Class C - Non Conductive Agent, CO2 Class D – Metals, Dry Powder, Sand
  • 17. 17 Battery Fire Behavior Composed of many “ordinary combustible” materials Battery Fire Classes Question: Why are lithium (ion) batteries not limited to any one class of fire?
  • 18. 18 Battery Fire Behavior Battery Fire Classes Question: Why are lithium (ion) batteries not limited to any one class of fire? Contain flammable liquids in electrolyte form
  • 19. 19 Battery Fire Behavior Battery Fire Classes Question: Why are lithium (ion) batteries not limited to any one class of fire? May possess an electrical shock hazard
  • 20. 20 Battery Fire Behavior Battery Fire Classes Question: Why are lithium (ion) batteries not limited to any one class of fire? Lithium (primary) cells possess combustible metals
  • 21. 21 Battery Fire Behavior Battery Fire Properties Question: What are the properties of Lithium (ion) cell burn? Gas release (burn and no burn) Severe: •Skin burn •Eye irritation •Respiratory issues •Disorientation
  • 22. 22 Battery Fire Behavior Battery Fire Classes Question: What are the properties of Lithium (ion) cell burn? •Hydrogen •Carbon dioxide •Carbon monoxide •Methane •Ethylene •Ethane •Propylene Source: Sandia National Labs. Gas release during cell venting.
  • 23. 23 EUCAR Hazard Levels (European Council for Automotive Research) Hazard Level Description Classification Criteria 0 No effect No effect. No loss of functionality 1 Passive protection activated No defect; no leakage; no venting fire or flame; no rupture; no explosion; no exothermic reaction or thermal runaway. Cell irreversibly damaged. Repair is needed. 2 Defect / Damage No leakage; no venting fire or flame; no rupture; no explosion; no exothermic reaction or thermal runaway. Cell irreversibly damaged. Repair is needed. 3 Leakage Δ mass < 50% No venting, fire or flame*; no rupture; no explosion. Weight loss < 50% of electrolyte weight (electrolyte = solvent + salt) 4 Venting Δ mass ≥ 50% No fire or flame*; no rupture; no explosion. Weight loss ≥ 50% of electrolyte weight (electrolyte = solvent + salt) 5 Fire or Flame No rupture; no explosion (i.e., no flying parts) 6 Rupture No explosion, but flying parts of the active mass 7 Explosion Explosion (i.e., disintegration of the cell)