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INTRODUCTIONThe ChallengeUrban structure and mobility are inextricably linked. Planning for a more effective location andf...
demands. Travel is increasing in virtually all regions of the world, usually at or faster than the rate ofeconomic growth,...
 by old used cars.     In the medium and longer term, electric, hybrid, and         fuel-cell vehicles is currently sma...
ACHIEVING                        SUSTAINABILITYIN        TRANSPORT : Case study of Didcot, Oxford shire.The selected devel...
1. SETTELEMENT SIZE     total population or number of dwellings within a contiguous built-up area.         Larger settle...
4.DENSITY     Density refers to the intensity of use      of land. In UK planning practice,      density is generally mea...
6. ACCESIBILITY OF KEY ISSUES     Accessibility refers to the ease of      reaching destinations or activities .     Pla...
8. MIX OF USES Mix of uses refers to the degree to which  different land uses are contained within a  geographic area, ge...
SUBURBAN TRAINS OF MUMBAI…Sustainable Urban Travel: A report   Page 9
ACHIEVING                        SUSTAINABILITYIN        TRANSPORT : Case study of Mumbai Local Trains…..     Spread over...
BRTS AHMEDABADSustainable Urban Travel: A report   Page 11
this award which was to be conferred in Washington DC in the US. Last year, this award was given toNew York for its transp...
Bus stations have passive solar design, aninexpensive way to keep stations naturallycool. The BRTS system has incorporated...
    Interchanges….     The essential feature of a road interchange for a BRTS system to be successful is to have a      ...
 Bus stands…     The bus stands are to located at           Operating elements consist of:      points of great trip ge...
 Vehicles…     For selection of BRT vehicles following    4. Vehicle Guidance      aspects must be taken into      cons...
     EFFICIENT MIXED PERSONALISED TRANSIT OPERATIONS     REDUCTION IN ACCIDENTS     IMPROVED AIR QUALITYCriticism….    ...
PROFILE....Pimpri – Chinch wad is a city in the Pune district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It consists of thetwin t...
HOW IS A BRTS FEASIBLE IN PIMPRI – CHINCHWAD ROUTES....The success of any BRTS system depends on the following factors:   ...
south and Nasik in the west. Hence the no of commuters can be expected to be high owing         to the strategic location ...
11. Wright L, Montezuma R. Reclaiming public space: the economic, environmental, and socialimpacts of Bogota´’s transforma...
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Report on sustainable urban travel bw

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Report on sustainable urban travel bw

  1. 1. INTRODUCTIONThe ChallengeUrban structure and mobility are inextricably linked. Planning for a more effective location andform of development is at the heart of the challenge to achieve sustainable travel. Reconcilingthe benefits of car travel with wider sustainability objectives continues to be difficult to achievein policy terms and in practice. In recent years the scale of traffic growth has arguably beenreduced as a result of policy initiatives, especially in urban centres. However, congestion andtransport carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions continue to rise in many areas. Walking, cycling andbus use are usually static at best and often still in long-term decline. Car dependency is often‘built in’ under current and envisaged development patterns.SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTSince the 1987 Brundtland Commission report brought global attention to the concept ofsustainable development, scholars and policy professionals have worked to apply its principles in theurban and metropolitan context. Sustainable development has proven an enduring and compellingconcept because it points policy in a clear, intuitive direction, yet is flexible enough to adapt toemerging new issues, technological and economic conditions, and social aspirations. It is appealingto advocates and scholars alike because it implies a systemic view of economy and ecology, andrequires comprehensive solutions that protect the interests of future generations. It is a testamentto the power and utility of this concept that after nearly two decades, efforts to translate it into themechanisms of urban1 policy continue to flourish, despite tremendous political, economic, social,institutional, and technological challenges. Yet, the transportation sector has proven to beparticularly difficult territory for the advancement of sustainable development policy.Transportation is a complex and porous social, technical, and economic system, difficult to addresscomprehensively. To the extent that policy guidance has been developed to address sustainabilityissues in general, it usually has only touched on a fraction of the myriad ways that transportation isintegrated into larger systems of human activity. Meanwhile, current trends are not encouraging.The most transportation efficient cities in the world are facing escalating motorization and mobility
  2. 2. demands. Travel is increasing in virtually all regions of the world, usually at or faster than the rate ofeconomic growth, and generally faster in the long run than the rate of reduction of energy andpollution intensity. In Europe, known for its historically compact urban centers, suburbanization andregional economic integration are powering the same growth in intercity goods movement andpassenger transport observed elsewhere. In the megacities of East Asia, a surging middle class ispouring its new wealth into automobiles, while governments are pushing bicycles off the streetsand expanding roadways at breakneck pace. If these cities, with historically efficient urbanstructures, are facing such setbacks, then the prospects for other cities look dim.HOW CAN SUSTAINABILITY BE ACHIEVED?Sustainability in transport can be brought about by the following: • REDUCE THE DEMAND TO TRAVEL BY CAR  shaping the design of cities  Restraining motorization.  Planning and policy to restrain light vehicles  increase land-use density • SHIFT TRAVEL TO A MORE EFFICIENT MODE  strong and optimized public transport,  integrating transit with efficient land use,  enhancing walking and cycling,  and encouraging mini-cars and electric two-wheelers.  bus rapid transit (BRT ) is gaining attention • IMPROVE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF TRAVEL  light-duty road vehicles  Energy efficient transport modes and vehiclesSustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 2
  3. 3.  by old used cars.  In the medium and longer term, electric, hybrid, and  fuel-cell vehicles is currently small  fuel economy regulations, taxes, and subsidies can be effective in promoting vehicle  efficiency improvements.  eco-driving styles, increased load factors, improved maintenance, in-vehicle technological aids, more efficient replacement tires, reduced idling, and better traffic management and route choice.THE DESIRED TRAVEL PATTERNThe desired travel characteristics can be summed up in the following diagram.Sustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 3
  4. 4. ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITYIN TRANSPORT : Case study of Didcot, Oxford shire.The selected development at Didcot comprises a mixed urban extension together with associatedinfrastructure. The 180 hectare site known as Great Western Park (GWP) is located around thewestern edge of the existing built-up area, about a mile from the grade separated interchange of theA4130 with the dual carriageway A34. Most of the site (and Didcot itself) falls within SouthOxfordshire District, the remainder within the Vale of White Horse district.Sustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 4
  5. 5. 1. SETTELEMENT SIZE  total population or number of dwellings within a contiguous built-up area.  Larger settlements provide an opportunity for greater self-containment and a mix of uses  We should aim to maximise the proportion of new development  metropolitan areas and large urban areas and settlements with a population of 25,000 tend to have shorter annual travel distances and lower car mode shares than average . 2. STRATEGIC SETTLEMENT LOCATION  the selection of areas for major new residential and non- residential development  To promote sustainable travel, the aim should be to locate development where travel generation is likely to be reduced.  Hence, in locations where there is good public transport accessibility, particularly for short trips to existing or new centres. 2. STRATEGIC TRANSPORT NETWORK  The strategic transport network refers to transport infrastructure that supports medium and long-distance travel.  It includes all modes whose configuration and design serves, and could potentially influence, spatial development patterns (e.g. rail, bus priority route and highway).  The strategic network can be conceived as an integrated network of different modes and ownership – with combined conflicts and opportunities.Sustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 5
  6. 6. 4.DENSITY  Density refers to the intensity of use of land. In UK planning practice, density is generally measured in dwellings per net hectare (dph), where the area includes developable residential land.5. JOB-HOUSING BALANCE  Jobs-housing balance refers to the approximate [equal] distribution of employment opportunities and workforce population across a geographic area  The aim of jobs-housing balance is to provide local employment opportunities that may reduce overall commuting distance among residentsSustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 6
  7. 7. 6. ACCESIBILITY OF KEY ISSUES  Accessibility refers to the ease of reaching destinations or activities .  Places that are highly accessible can be reached by many people quickly, whereas inaccessible places can only be reached by a few people in the same amount of time.  The focus for practitioners can be on improving accessibility rather than mobility, and in moving people rather than vehicles.Sustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 7
  8. 8. 8. MIX OF USES Mix of uses refers to the degree to which different land uses are contained within a geographic area, generally a building, street or neighbourhood. The location of key facilities such as health facilities and schools in relation to other uses should be assessed and planned for at the city- region, sub-regional and local scales Sustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 8
  9. 9. SUBURBAN TRAINS OF MUMBAI…Sustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 9
  10. 10. ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITYIN TRANSPORT : Case study of Mumbai Local Trains…..  Spread over 464 route kilometres, The Suburban Railway system operates on 1500 V DC / 25000 V AC (Virar-Borivali & Kasara - Titwala) power supply from overhead catenary lines. The suburban services are run by electric multiple units (EMUs). 191 rakes (train sets) of 9- car & 12-car composition are utilised to run 2342 train services, carrying 6.94 million passengers per day.  Over 88% of the commuters in Mumbai travel by Suburban trains  Mumbais Suburban Rail System carries about 64 lakhs (6.4 million) passengers per day.  About 4700 passengers travel in a 9-car rake during peak hours, as against its rated carrying capacity of only 1,700.Sustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 10
  11. 11. BRTS AHMEDABADSustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 11
  12. 12. this award which was to be conferred in Washington DC in the US. Last year, this award was given toNew York for its transportation system.BRTS presently runs along the following routes :1.R.T.O to Kankaria Lake2. Kankaria Lake - Maninagar Railway Station - Kankaria Telephone Exchange3. Dani Limbda to Narol4. Narol - Soni ni ChalBRTS AHMEDABAD –What makes it sustainable?  reducing transportation greenhouse and air pollution emissionsThe sustainability factor is decided by thefollowing factors:  improving safety and access for bicyclists and pedestrians .  lessening the impact of climate change A major reason for the AJL clinching the title is that the city residents embraced their new  which enhances the sustainability BRTS system 35,000 daily passengers to and liveability of its community or commute to work, to school and elsewhere. In region just a few months of operation, AJL has  through innovative transportation transformed the delivery of transit in South strategies . Asia. BRTS stations here uses innovative central median stations pulled away from the  This leads to increase mobility for all, junctions.Sustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 12
  13. 13. Bus stations have passive solar design, aninexpensive way to keep stations naturallycool. The BRTS system has incorporated high-quality pedestrian facilities in some corridors,as well as bicycle lanes. Besides, this the cityhad initiated car-free days. BRTS systems can positively impact air quality if car and motorbike drivers start taking trips by bus, said Sophie Punte, executive director of the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities (CAI- ASIA ).Essential Features of a successfulBRTS  Road Sections  Adequate road width is are required to accommodate the various road utilities for a successful BRTS .  Various other features such as walking tracks and cycle tracks can be incorporated along with BRTS to make the entire system more efficient.Sustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 13
  14. 14.  Interchanges….  The essential feature of a road interchange for a BRTS system to be successful is to have a minimum no of interchanges.  Signalized intersections stop the exclusive bus route, hence the entire point of rapid transit is lost.  The no of feeder inputs into the BRTS network has to be made efficient.  Exclusive bus ways….  There needs to be exclusive bus bays to ensure speedy and efficient transport  lesser no of signalized intersections  elevated bus bays in areas where ROW is less that required.Sustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 14
  15. 15.  Bus stands…  The bus stands are to located at  Operating elements consist of: points of great trip generators. · Adequate curb space for the number  Safety elements : of buses expected at the stop at  Passenger protection from passing onetime traffic  ·Bus routing patterns  ·Access for people with disabilities  ·Directions (i.e., one-way) and widths  All-weather surface to step from/to of intersection streets the bus  ·Types of traffic signal controls (signal,  ·Proximity to pedestrian crossings stop, or yield)  ·Proximity to major trip generators  ·Volumes and turning movements of  ·Convenient passenger transfers to other traffic the existing AMTS routes with nearby  ·Width of pedestrian pavements stops  ·Pedestrian activity through  Street lighting intersectionsSustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 15
  16. 16.  Vehicles…  For selection of BRT vehicles following  4. Vehicle Guidance aspects must be taken into consideration.  5. Aesthetics, Identity and Branding  1. External Dimension and Capacity  2. Access  - Internal Layout  - Doors & Aisle width  - Floor Height  3. Fuel ChoiceBRTS AHMEDABAD –Advantages…  ECONOMY  INCREASED PUBLIC TRANSIT PATRONAGE  EFFICIENT PUBLIC TRANSIT OPERATIONSustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 16
  17. 17.  EFFICIENT MIXED PERSONALISED TRANSIT OPERATIONS  REDUCTION IN ACCIDENTS  IMPROVED AIR QUALITYCriticism….  LARGE NO OF STATIONS MAKE IT TIME CONSUMING  INCREASED NUMBER OF INTERSECTIONS DO NOT KEEP THE SYSTEM”RAPID”.  BUSES NOT SUITABLE FOR A SINGLE ENTRY SINGLE EXIT SYSTEM – FOR INDIAN CONDITIONS.PIMPRI CHINCHWAD –THE GEF PROJECT FOR MORE LIVABLE CITIES ININDIA…..Sustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 17
  18. 18. PROFILE....Pimpri – Chinch wad is a city in the Pune district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It consists of thetwin towns of Pimpri and Chinch wad which are governed by a common municipal body (the Pimpri-Chinch wad Municipal Corporation or PCMC). It is located to the North-West of Pune and is wellconnected to the Pune city proper via the Old Pune-Mumbai HighwayPimpri-Chinchwad is a major industrial hub and hosts one of the biggest industrial zones in Asia. Theindustrial estates in the city were established by the MIDC. The city is home to the Indian operationsof major automobile companies like Premier Limited, Mahindra Navistar, Bajaj Auto, BEL OptronicDevices Ltd, TATA Motors (formerly TELCO), Kinetic Engineering, Force Motors (formerly Bajaj Tempo)and DaimlerChrysler.Sustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 18
  19. 19. HOW IS A BRTS FEASIBLE IN PIMPRI – CHINCHWAD ROUTES....The success of any BRTS system depends on the following factors:  Adequate ROW : In case of Pimpri- Chinchwad most part of the BRTS route passes through the NH4 which is 30 m wide, so ROW is not a hindrance. The route of Wakad to Nasik Phata and also the route of Nigdi to Dapodi passes for majority of the road length through the national highway, so getting an exclusive pathway for the bus system is no a problem.  Lesser intersections: The intersections along the NH4 and most roads in Pimpri – Chinchwad are either subways or elevated corridors, so lesser hindrance for the BRTS. So due to lesser no of signalized intersections the BRTs could actually fulfill the idea of a faster public transit mode.  Economically placed bus stations: The no of bus station must be at adequate intervals that ensures feasibility by getting enough passengers and also that the speed does not go below the economic limit. In case of both the routes, Nigdi and Wakad are the origin areas for transportation as both the areas are primarily residential areas. Whereas Dapodi and Nasik Phata are two destination areas as both these areas lie in the dense industrial regions. Hence it forms a strong destination area in the region. Hence stress should be on placing the bus stops economically as to effectively cater to all commuters without compromising on the speed.  Adequate no of commuters: BRTS is an expensive system, and for the system to run successfully, adequate no of commuters must be ensured. Pimpri- Chinchwad is a densely populated region which is growing rapidly owing to the growing industrial belt in the region. The people of the area are employed in the region; hence there is a huge demand for a mass transit mode. Also the Nasik Phata (meaning Gateway to Nasik) area is actually the entry point to Pune city in theSustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 19
  20. 20. south and Nasik in the west. Hence the no of commuters can be expected to be high owing to the strategic location of important function.  Right Choice of Vehicle: The right choice of vehicle is necessary so that it suits the Indian conditions is necessary for success of the system. As happened in Ahmedabad, the one way single entry exit system caused a lot of trouble. The buses which were primarily designed for use under AC did not suit the Indian condition as breakdown of the AC system can lead to disaster.REFERENCES…Journals:1. Charles Correa”Mumbai", India Today, Sept 2010.Websites:2. www. ahmedabad municipal corporation.org3. www.pimpri chinchwad municipal corporation .gov.in4. www. indian railways. InPublications:5. AHMEDABAD BRTS –Project Summary Report by CEPT, Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, 20086. AHMEDABAD BRTS – Executive summary report by CEPT, Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation,20077. European conference of ministers of transport. Urban travel and sustainable development:overview of the project; August 19, 2004. Available from:http://www.cemt.org/UrbTrav/overview.htm.8. Planning for Sustainable Travel Summary Guide October 2009, www.plan4sustainabletravel.org9. Report on: Investing in Sustainable Urban Transport -the GEF Experience, September 200810. Todd Goldman a, Roger Gorham ,Sustainable urban transport: Four innovative directions ,2007Sustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 20
  21. 21. 11. Wright L, Montezuma R. Reclaiming public space: the economic, environmental, and socialimpacts of Bogota´’s transformation. Cities for People Conference Walk21: Copenhagen; June 2004.Sustainable Urban Travel: A report Page 21

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