Mediu p oameni

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Mediu p oameni

  1. 1. Brenda Hoddinott P-01 INTERMEDIATE: PEOPLEIn this project, you use a grid to draw a softand gentle frontal portrait of a little girl,with emphasis on correct facial proportions.Hatching is used to shade realistic texturesfeatures, hair, and the forms of her face.Ashley is approximately 5-7 years old. In ayounger child, the eyes would appear to belower on the face and the nose and mouthwould be higher, closer to the eyes. As achild matures into an adult, the nose andmouth seem to shift downward on the face.This project is divided into the following three sections: DRAWING OUTLINES WITHIN A GRID: A grid helps identify the outlines of various parts of the drawing subject. You use careful observation of spaces and lines within individual grid squares to measure for accurate proportions. Remember to press very lightly with your pencil in this section because all your grid lines and most of your outlines will need to be erased (or lightened) later. SHADING LIGHT AND MEDIUM VALUES: You need 2H, HB, and 2B pencils to add light and medium values. The dominant light source, which is to the front and right of Ashley’s face, determines where the various light and medium values are located. ADDING THE FINAL SHADING: In this section you use mostly 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils to add final details and darker values.You need 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers, ruler, pencil sharpener,and good quality drawing paper. 19 PAGES – 17 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists from age twelve through adulthood with basic drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  2. 2. 2 DRAWING OUTLINES WITHIN A GRID Throughout this section, you use careful observation of spaces and lines within individual grid squares to measure for accurate proportions. A grid is a framework of vertical and horizontal reference lines on an image and/or drawing paper, used by artists to either enlarge or reduce the size of the original image. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. Remember to press very lightly with your pencil because all your grid lines and most of your contour lines will need to be erased (or lightened) later. Contour lines are created when the shared edges of spaces and/or objects meet. Contour lines can define complete objects or small sections or details within drawing subjects. The lines in the following illustrations have been darkened in a computer program and appear much darker that they actually are. 1) Draw a rectangle as your drawing space, and then measure and divide your rectangle into 56 equal squares, seven across by eight down. A drawing space (sometimes called a drawing format) refers to the area of a drawing surface within a specific perimeter, outlined by a shape of any size, such as a square, rectangle or circle. Use a light pencil (2H or HB). You will have 7 squares across and 8 squares down (a total of 56 squares). My drawing format is 7 by 8 inches with 1-inch squares. You may choose to use a larger drawing format for a larger drawing; simply make each of the 56 squares larger. Suggested alternative sizes include 10.5 by 12 inches (with 1.5-inch squares) or 14 by 16 inches (with 2-inch squares). ILLUSTRATION 01-01 2) Starting from the left, number the vertical squares along the top and bottom of with numbers 1 through 7. Lettering and numbering your grid squares helps you keep track of each square as you draw. For example, the nostrils will be drawn in square F-4. 3) Starting from the top, letter the horizontal squares down both sides with letters A through H.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  3. 3. 3 4) With your HB pencil, very lightly draw the outline of the head and chin. Until your eye is well trained to draw accurate proportions, using a grid is a huge help. When working with a grid, think of each square as a separate drawing. Following is the basic procedure for drawing with a grid:  Focus on one square  Pretend this one square is the total drawing.  Look at each line (or lines) and its position within this one square.  Note the shape of the spaces on either side of each line.  Take note of the areas where the various curved lines meet straight lines (such as the sides of the grid squares). ILLUSTRATION 01-02  As you draw, don’t think about what the subject is; rather, focus on the shapes, and spaces that define the actual lines.  Constantly double- check your proportions!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  4. 4. 4 5) Draw the outline of the face (as indicated by the outline of the hair around the face) and the tiny section of one ear that is showing (Square F-6). ILLUSTRATION 01-03Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  5. 5. 5 6) With your 2H or HB pencil, lightly draw the outlines of the eyes, nose and mouth. If you wish, you can add diagonal lines on the facial area of your grid, to help place the features more accurately. Refer to the next illustration. Observe that: the eyes are placed approximately halfway between the bottom of the chin and the top of the head, the eyes have double lines around their edges to indicate upper and lower eyelids, the space between the eyes is slightly wider than the width of an eye, and the nose is the same width as the space between the eyes. Work on only one feature at a time and draw it as well as you can. Observe the fine details of the nose (such as the placement of the nostrils) and the lips (such as the location of each end of the mouth and the curves of the lines which outline the lips). ILLUSTRATION 01-04 Take your time; patience is a virtue! This step is the most important towards completing a drawing with which you’ll be happy. Not even super fantastic shading, can rescue a drawing if the proportions are off!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  6. 6. 6 7) Before you continue, examine the placement of the outlines of the individual features and correct any areas that you’re not happy with 8) Outline the iris, pupil and highlight in each eye. 9) Add the outline of her sweater. ILLUSTRATION 01-05Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  7. 7. 7 SHADING LIGHT AND MEDIUM VALUES You need 2H, HB, and 2B pencils to add the light and medium values. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding various pencils. Density refers to whether the individual lines are close together or far apart. The dominant light source, which is to the front and right of Ashley’s face, determines where the various light and medium values are located. Light source refers to the direction from which a dominant light originates. The placement of this light source affects every aspect of a drawing and subsequently tells you where to draw all the light values and shadows. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. To give you a sense of how hatching lines create the texture of Ashley’s hair, examine the next close-up section of her completed hair, and take note of the following:  A combination of light and dark values gives form to the hair. Some hatching lines are light and others are dark. For light lines you press very lightly with your pencil. Press harder with your pencil to make darker lines.  The hatching lines follow the contours of the outlines of the hair.  The lines used to draw realistic hair need to be ragged and uneven.  The lengths and thicknesses of the hatching lines are varied. ILLUSTRATION 01-06  The highlight sections are very light (even white in some places) which indicates form and a shiny texture. Highlights are the lightest sections of a drawing subject that define where light bounces off the surface.  The outside edges of the hair show a few untidy hairs to keep it looking natural. Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  8. 8. 8 10) Use your kneaded eraser to gently pat your lines until you can barely see them. 11) Erase your grid lines with either your vinyl or kneaded eraser. You can either erase all your grid lines at once, or only the grid lines that need to be erased before you begin each section of shading. 12) Use a freshly sharpened HB pencil and curved hatching lines to draw the section of hair in the following illustration. ILLUSTRATION 01-07Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  9. 9. 9 13) Add light and medium values to the bangs of her hair. If you have very little hatching experience, or if your hatching skills have become a little rusty, refer to the lessons in F-Level Beginner: Hatching. ILLUSTRATION 01-08Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  10. 10. 10 14) Add shading to the hair on the other side of the head. Don’t forget to add those soft wispy lines, which extend outside the perimeter of the hair, and create a realistic and natural texture. ILLUSTRATION 01-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  11. 11. 11 15) Lightly draw the visible sections of her eyebrows. 16) With your 2H and/or HB pencil, very lightly add shading to the face around the eyes and the ear. ILLUSTRATION 01-10Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  12. 12. 12 17) Shade in the iris, upper and lower eyelids, whites of the eyes, and corners of the eyes. Note that the shading of the iris is darker under the upper eyelid and on the side where the highlight is drawn. ILLUSTRATION 01-11Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  13. 13. 13 18) Use your 2B pencil, to shade in the pupil. Don’t press too hard with your pencil; you’ll make the shading darker in the next section. 19) With your HB pencil, draw half as many eyelashes as you think there should be. Note that the upper and lower eyelashes grow in many different directions, are different lengths and thicknesses in some places, are curved, appear thicker closer to the eyelids, and grow from the edges of the upper and lower lids and not the whites of the eye ILLUSTRATION 01-12Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  14. 14. 14 20) With your 2H and HB pencils, add light shading to the nose, mouth, neck, and the forms of the face. 21) Add a few wispy hairs extending onto her face. ILLUSTRATION 01-13Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  15. 15. 15 ADDING THE FINAL SHADING You use 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils to add final details and darker values. Note the areas that have light and middle values, or are left white. Be careful to not add too much dark shading. 22) With a freshly sharpened 2B or 4B pencil, carefully add a little darker shading to the sections of the hair in shadow areas. ILLUSTRATION 01-14 23) With your 6B pencil, add darker shading to the pupils of the eyes. 24) Add darker shading with a 4B pencil, to the shadow sections of the irises, under the upper eyelids. 25) With your 2B pencil, add a little darker shading around the bridge of the nose and the shadow sections of the whites of the eyes, under the upper eyelids. Study the hatching lines of different lengths and values, and observe how the shading gives depth around the eyes. Note the areas that are left white.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  16. 16. 16 ILLUSTRATION 01-15 26) With your 2B pencil, add the darker shading to her lips, in the shadow areas of the nose, and on the lower section of her face. Note the many different values used to complete this detailed area of shading. Some areas are almost black and other areas are completely white. Note the creases on the lips. Leave a lighter area on her face surrounding the perimeter of the mouth. 27) With your 4B pencil add darker values to the sections under her hair, the nostrils, and along the inner edges of the opening of her mouth. ILLUSTRATION 01-16Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  17. 17. 17 28) Slightly darken the shading on her neck and sweater. 29) Touch up any areas you are not happy with. Have another look at your drawing and compare it to mine (refer to my final drawing on the next page). If an area is too light, you can make it darker by adding more shading with hatching lines. If you wish to make a section lighter, pull and stretch your kneaded eraser until it becomes soft, and then gently pat the shading that is too dark. Use your vinyl eraser to clean up any smudges or fingerprints on your drawing paper. Put today’s date on the back, sign your name and pat yourself on the back! You draw the three-dimensional forms of a face more accurately, when you have carefully observed and done drawings from the faces of actual models, such as yourself and your family and friends. Remember there is no right or wrong way to draw. As an artist, you can draw the forms and features of a frontal view of a face in many different ways, such as drawing just the light and shadow areas, or outlining with detailed lines and then adding shading. Take time to experiment with different ways of drawing, until you find the styles with which you are most comfortable. There are only three ways to improve your drawing skills… practice, practice and more practice! So grab another piece of paper, choose another lesson, and draw some more!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  18. 18. 18 ILLUSTRATION 01-17Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  19. 19. 19 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. These sites are respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  20. 20. Brenda Hoddinott P-02 INTERMEDIATE: PEOPLE In this lesson you draw a profile portrait of a young woman, by using a simple grid to help you set up accurate facial proportions. Shading of the facial features, hair, background, and facial forms is rendered with hatching graduations. This lesson is divided into the following five sections: SKETCHING ACCURATE FACIAL PROPORTIONS: As an artist, you can draw the forms and features of a human face in many different ways, such as drawing just the light and shadow areas, or outlining with detailed lines and then adding shading. However, no matter which style you choose to embrace, establishing correct proportions is the foundation for all successful realistic drawings. OUTLINING STRANDS OF HAIR: By outlining the strands of hair before you begin shading, you provide yourself with a roadmap for adding the various graduations. SHADING HAIR WITH HATCHING LINES: As you indicate the texture of the strands of hair, you focus on the various directions in which the hatching lines curve, and the different values which give form to the hair. BRINGING THE EYE TO LIFE: Shading is added to Claudette’s eye, eyebrow, and the forms around her eye. ADDING FINAL DETAILS: With hatching, you add shading to the background, nose, mouth, and neck and add final details to complete the drawing.You need 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, a ruler, vinyl and kneaded erasers, and good qualitydrawing paper. This lesson is recommended for home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators, as well as artists of all ages who have basic drawing and shading skills. 37 PAGES - 50 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  21. 21. -2- SKETCHING ACCURATE FACIAL PROPORTIONS As an artist, you can draw the forms and features of a human face in many different ways, such as drawing just the light and shadow areas, or outlining with detailed lines and then adding shading. Shading refers to the various shades of gray (values) in a drawing that make drawings look three-dimensional. However, no matter which style you choose to embrace, establishing correct proportions is the foundation for all successful realistic drawings. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. ILLUSTRATION 02-01 1) Draw a vertical rectangle as your drawing format (or drawing space). Drawing space (sometimes called a drawing format) refers to the area of a drawing surface within a specific perimeter, outlined by a shape of any size, such as a square, rectangle or circle. You can draw your format any size (such as 8 by 12 inches) as long as you have the same number of squares across and down, and they are all equal in size. The actual size of my drawing is 4 by 6 inches. ILLUSTRATION 02-02 2) Measure and then use a 2H or HB pencil to divide your rectangle into 24 equal squares, four across by six down. Inside a 4 by 6 inch rectangular format, your squares are 1 inch. However if your format is larger you need to draw larger squares. For example, inside an 8 by 12 inch format the squares are 2 inches. Press very lightly with your pencil; all your grid lines will need to be erased later.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  22. 22. -3- 3) Number your vertical squares 1 through 4 along both the top and bottom of your drawing format. 4) Letter your horizontal squares A through F down both sides of your drawing format. ILLUSTRATION 02-03 By numbering and lettering the squares, you can better keep track of which grid square you are working inside. Try to think of each square as a separate drawing. To measure for accurate proportions, you carefully observe the spaces and lines within individual squaresCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  23. 23. -4- 5) Focus on square A-3 and draw what you see inside. ILLUSTRATION 02-04 Pretend this one square is the total drawing. Refer to illustrations 02-04 and 02-05, and the following step-by-step instructions. Find the place where a line meets the top of this square. It is very close to the right. Place a dot here. Check out the area where a line meets the bottom of the square. It is slightly right of the center of the bottom side of this square. Draw another dot here. Look at the lines themselves. Take note of the shapes of the spaces on either side. ILLUSTRATION 02-05 Observe whether the lines are straight, curved or angular. Note the size of the angle of angle lines, the directions in which the curved lines bend, and the length and angle of straight lines in relation to this square. Take note of the areas where curved lines meet straight lines. Be sure to check that your proportions are as close as possible to mine.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  24. 24. -5- 6) Lightly sketch the perimeter of the face, neck, and the top of the hair. Refer to the following five illustrations. Use the same technique for drawing the lines inside each square, as described in the previous step. ILLUSTRATION 02-06 Remember; don’t think about what the subject is. Instead, focus on the shapes, and negative and positive spaces that define the actual lines. If you wish, you may even want to try drawing upside-down!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  25. 25. -6- ILLUSTRATION 02-07Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  26. 26. -7- ILLUSTRATION 02-08Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  27. 27. -8- ILLUSTRATION 02-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  28. 28. -9- ILLUSTRATION 02-10Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  29. 29. - 10 - 7) With your 2H or HB pencil, very lightly draw the eye, eyelid, iris and eyebrow. Observe the placement of the eye within square C-3. Refer to the following illustrations as you outline the various parts of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 02-11 Note that the shape of the eye is almost triangular. ILLUSTRATION 02-12 The iris is represented by a vertical oval (called an ellipse). Approximately one-third of the iris is hidden under the upper eyelid. ILLUSTRATION 02-13Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  30. 30. - 11 - The line which marks the outer corner of the eye is extended downward to the left. ILLUSTRATION 02-14 The form of the eyeball inside the orbital cavity is enhanced by adding an upward curved line to the edge of the upper eyelid and a downward curved line to the edge of the lower eyelid. ILLUSTRATION 02-15 Note the double line, which represents the edge of the lower eyelid. ILLUSTRATION 02-16Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  31. 31. - 12 - ILLUSTRATION 02-17 The overall shape of the eyebrow is more curved towards the edge of the face. Keep your lines light for now; you can make the eyebrows darker when you add shading. Observe the shape of the line that defines the crease of the upper eyelid, above the eye. This line identifies the form of the orbital cavity.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  32. 32. - 13 - ILLUSTRATION 02-18 8) With careful attention to each square, draw the nose and mouth. Refer to illustrations 02-18 to 02-20 as you draw, and observe: The fine details of the nose, such as the placement of the nostril. The curved line that identifies the opening of the mouth. The curved outlines of the lips. The location of the corner of the mouth.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  33. 33. - 14 - ILLUSTRATION 02-19Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  34. 34. - 15 - ILLUSTRATION 02-20Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  35. 35. - 16 - ILLUSTRATION 02-21 OUTLINING STRANDS OF HAIR By outlining the strands of hair before you begin shading, you provide yourself with a roadmap for adding the various graduations. 9) With your HB pencil draw the outlines of the various sections of hair. Refer to illustrations 02-21 to 02-27. When outlining the individual strands of hair, use curved rather than straight lines, even when rendering what is considered straight hair.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  36. 36. - 17 - ILLUSTRATION 02-22Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  37. 37. - 18 - ILLUSTRATION 02-23Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  38. 38. - 19 - ILLUSTRATION 02-24Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  39. 39. - 20 - ILLUSTRATION 02-25Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  40. 40. - 21 - ILLUSTRATION 02-26Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  41. 41. - 22 - ILLUSTRATION 02-27 Go over your drawing closely and compare it to mine. Examine closely the placement of the individual strands of hair as well as the facial features. Correct any areas that you’re not happy with. 10) Use your kneaded eraser to pat your entire drawing until all the lines are so faint that you can barely see them.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  42. 42. - 23 - SHADING HAIR WITH HATCHING LINES Before drawing the hatching lines, which indicate the texture of the strands of hair, it is very important that you observe the directions in which the hatching lines curve. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. As you add shading to each individual strand, take note of the various values which give form to the hair. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding various pencils. Form as applied to drawing, is the illusion of the three-dimensional structure of a shape, such as a circle, square or triangle, created in a drawing with shading and/or perspective. ILLUSTRATION 02-28 Use the following guidelines to help with the shading: The lightest values (the highlights) need to be left white. The light values are shaded with a 2H pencil. The medium values are shaded with an HB pencil. The dark values are rendered with a 2B pencil. The really dark values in the shadow sections are added with a 4B pencil. Remember to erase your grid lines with either your vinyl or kneaded eraser before you begin each section of shading.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  43. 43. - 24 - ILLUSTRATION 02-29 11) Use various freshly sharpened pencils, and curved hatching lines, to draw the dark sections of hair in illustrations 02-29 and 02-30. The hatching lines follow the contour of the lines drawn to indicate the outlines of the sections of hair. ILLUSTRATION 02-30 Also, observe that the hair is lighter in some places with white paper showing clearly, which indicates shine on the hair and the three dimensional form of the strands.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  44. 44. - 25 - ILLUSTRATION 02-31 12) With your HB pencil draw the two sections of slightly lighter hair in illustrations 02-31 and 02-32. ILLUSTRATION 02-32 Before you move on to each new step, make sure all grid lines have been erased in the areas in which you will be drawing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  45. 45. - 26 - 13) Add shading to the remaining sections of hair on this side of her face. The overall shading becomes lighter in value closer to the face. ILLUSTRATION 02-33Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  46. 46. - 27 - 14) Beginning at the forehead and slowly progressing down the face to the jaw and neck, use hatching lines, and a 2H pencil to add shading to the face. This shading defines the forms of the forehead, cheekbone, jaw and neck. ILLUSTRATION 02-34Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  47. 47. - 28 - 15) With your 2H pencil, draw some very light wisps of hair that appear to fall gently onto her face. Keep in mind the old cliché “Less is more” as you draw the wisps of soft hair. They are drawn lightly and curve in many different directions. Each individual hair seems to originate from an existing strand and loosely follows its contours. ILLUSTRATION 02-35Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  48. 48. - 29 - BRINGING THE EYE TO LIFE In this section, you add shading to Claudette’s eye, eyebrow, and the forms around her eye. You need to be familiar with the following terms: Highlight: a bright spot that defines where light bounces off the surface of the eye. Iris: the colored circular shape (surrounding the pupil) of the eye. Pupil: the dark circle inside the iris, which adjusts its size to different lighting conditions. ILLUSTRATION 02-36 Don’t forget to erase the grid lines in the areas where you will be drawing. 16) Lightly outline a small circular shape in the upper section of the iris as the highlight. The highlight will need to be left white. ILLUSTRATION 02-37 17) Add shading to the iris with HB and 2B pencils. The shading is darker closer to the upper eyelid. 18) With your 6B pencil, add shading to the pupil of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 02-38 19) With a great deal of patience, use a freshly sharpened HB pencil to draw the upper eyelashes. Note that they curve down (not up), and are very small and thin on the side farther away from the nose. Also note they are curved, all different lengths and grow in several different directions. Draw only half as many eyelashes as you feel there should be.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  49. 49. - 30 - ILLUSTRATION 02-39 20) Use your 2H pencil to add light shading to the white of the eye on the left. 21) Add shading to the section of the lower eyelid on the left. 22) Add a few thin curved lines as the lower eyelashes. Note how thin they appear toward the left. ILLUSTRATION 02-40 23) With your 2H and HB pencils, very lightly and carefully add the shading around the eye, eyelid, and the facial forms around the eye. ILLUSTRATION 02-41 Refer to illustrations 02-40 to 02- 44. Observe how the shading gives depth to this area. Note the areas that are left white.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  50. 50. - 31 - ILLUSTRATION 02-42 ILLUSTRATION 02-43Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  51. 51. - 32 - ILLUSTRATION 02-44 24) With your HB pencil and curved hatching lines, draw the eyebrow. Note that the hairs grow in different directions and that the brow is curved downward towards the edge of the face. ILLUSTRATION 02-45Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  52. 52. - 33 - 25) Use 2H and HB pencils to add the gentle shading on the forehead. 26) With your 2B and 4B pencils, lightly shade the background in the top right corner of your drawing and down toward the nose (this is also known as “negative space”). Refer to illustrations 02-45 and 02-46. Observe that the shading graduates darker toward the lower face, and defines and accentuates the profile of the face. 27) Add some soft wisps of hair to the front top of her hair with a 2H pencil. ILLUSTRATION 02-46 ILLUSTRATION 02-47Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  53. 53. - 34 - ADDING FINAL DETAILS In this section, you add shading to the background, nose, mouth, and neck and add final details to complete the drawing. 28) Add the lighter shading which defines the shape of the nose with your 2H pencil. The hatching lines are of different lengths and values on the nose. 29) Add a little darker shading in the shadow areas of the nose with your HB pencil. 30) With your 2B pencil, add the dark shading for the nostril. ILLUSTRATION 02-48 31) With your 4B pencil add more shading in the background. The values become progressively darker as you get closer to the bottom of the drawing. 32) With your HB pencil add the shading around the mouth and for the lips. Observe closely the creases on the lips and the shading. Note the many different values used to complete this detailed area of shading. Some areas are almost black and others are completely white. Leave a lighter area around the perimeter of the mouth. 33) Continue shading the background with a 4B pencil. Note that this shading is gradually becoming darker as you progress further down the page.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  54. 54. - 35 - ILLUSTRATION 02-49 34) With your 4B pencil, draw in the visible section of hair on the other side of her lower face, that appears to be under the chin. Study the curl and notice the many different dark values, the darkest being on the left. 35) Slightly darken the shading on the neck. 36) With your 4B pencil, complete the background shading, ensuring that it graduates progressively darker toward to the bottom. 37) Have one final look at your drawing and touch up any areas you are not happy with. If an area is too light, add some more shading with hatching lines. If you wish to make a section lighter, pull and stretch your kneaded eraser until it becomes soft, and then gently pat the shading that is too dark. Use your vinyl eraser to clean up any smudges or fingerprints on your drawing paper. Put today’s date on the back, sign your name on the front, and pat yourself on the back!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  55. 55. - 36 - ILLUSTRATION 02-50Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  56. 56. - 37 - There are only three ways to improve your drawing skills… practice, practice and more practice! So grab another piece of paper, choose another lesson, and draw some more! BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  57. 57. Brenda Hoddinott P-03 INTERMEDIATE: PEOPLEIn this project, you set up simple horizontal and vertical guidelines for drawing accurate facialproportions of babies.Skills presented include: identifying the facial development from newborn to toddler;understanding and respecting the diversity of babies’ heads and faces; drawing horizontal andvertical facial guidelines; and placing an infant’s ears and features within vertical and horizontalfacial guidelines.The proportions of a baby’s head are much different than those of an older child or an adult.Many beginners tend to draw a baby’s face too big in proportion to his or her head, resulting in a“mini” adult rather than an accurately drawn baby. In this project, you discover where to placefacial features and ears on an infant approximately one-year-old.This lesson is divided into the following four parts: EXAMINING BABIES’ FACES: understanding the inherent diversity of a mosaic of babies’ faces. HORIZONTAL GUIDELINES: drawing horizontal guidelines for the placement of ears and facial features. VERTICAL GUIDELINES: drawing vertical guidelines for placing facial features. PLACING FEATURES: sketching a baby’s ears and facial features correctly within the guidelines.Suggested drawing supplies include: good quality white drawing paper, a ruler, various graphitepencils, and kneaded and vinyl erasers. Recommended for artists with good drawing skills from age 12 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators 9 PAGES – 17 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada (Revised 2006)
  58. 58. -2- EXAMINING BABIES’ FACES Before you attempt to draw individual features on a baby’s face, it helps to know how to plan a place for everything, sort of like a blueprint. Some variations of rules for remembering human facial proportions are simple and others are quite complex. I prefer simple guidelines that are easy to remember. The heads and faces of babies come in many shapes and sizes. However, the same basic guidelines for proportions, apply to each of them. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. In this project you focus on an infant approximately one-year-old. During the first two years of life, the human face grows very quickly and undergoes drastic changes. In this illustration, you see portraits of my daughter, Heidi at three different ages, from newborn to age two. As a very young infant (the first drawing), her eyebrows are very light, she has very little hair, and her face is tiny. At age one (the second drawing) the lower section of her face has developed to allow room for a few teeth. By two, her jaw has developed to accommodate more teeth, her eyebrows are darker, and her hair is thicker. ILLUSTRATION 03-01 Each baby is physically unique due to inherent variations in skin and eye colors, quantity and texture of hair such as thick, thin, straight or curly, and sizes and shapes of heads, faces, and features. Even identical twins often have subtle differences. Have a peek at the following six cartoon drawings of babies (on the next page), and note the many different sizes and shapes of their heads. Take note of the following: The eyes, nose, mouth and ears are all in the lower half of a baby’s head. A baby’s face is quite tiny when compared to the overall size of his or her head. The lower sections of babies’ faces come in many different shapes. Babies’ heads, eyes, noses, mouths and ears, come in many shapes, and sizes from very large to tiny.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  59. 59. -3- ILLUSTRATION 03-02 Babies’ heads generally appear to be proportionately wider and shorter than those of adults. The rules of proportion in this lesson apply to pretty much all infant head shapes. HORIZONTAL GUIDELINES Look closely at the faces of the two babies (below). The heads are different shapes, but the same horizontal proportions apply to each. I have added four horizontal lines (AB, CD, EF, and GH) so you can see what goes where: Line AB: The tops of the ears and the tops of the upper eyelids touch this line. Line CD: This line marks the locations of the bottoms of the ears and the nose. Line EF: Along this line is the lower lip. Line GH: This line identifies the bottom of the lower jaw, not the bottom of the soft tissue under the chin. Many infants have what is commonly called a “double chin”. ILLUSTRATION 03-03 Think of the horizontal facial proportions of a baby in terms of three halves. Basically you divide the whole length of the head in half, then divide the lower half in half, and finally divide the lower half of the lower half in half! Sound confusing? Don’t worry, in this part I take you through this process step by step! Set up your drawing paper, let the dog in, sharpen your pencil and find your ruler!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  60. 60. -4- ILLUSTRATION 03-04 Before you begin, you may want to draw a straight line down the center of your page (a line of symmetry) to help keep your head shape symmetrical, and to use as a guide for measuring for the placement of horizontal guidelines. 1) Draw a circular shape similar to an egg with the top half wider than the bottom. Use good quality white drawing paper in case you need to erase. An HB pencil worked well for me, but you can use whatever pencil you prefer. ILLUSTRATION 03-05 2) Measure the total vertical distance between the top of the head and the bottom of the chin. 3) Divide this total measurement in half and mark it with a small dot. 4) Draw a horizontal line (AB) through this dot, dividing the head into two halves. Line AB is halfway between the top of the head and the bottom of the chin. ILLUSTRATION 03-06 If you slept through math classes, feel free to use a calculator for figuring out the distances.5) Draw line GH, parallel to line AB, close to the bottom of the chin. Line GH identifies the approximate location of the bottom edge of the lower jaw rather than the bottom edge of the chin itself. The edge of a baby’s chin isn’t a reliable point for measurement because most babies have chubby chins or even double chins. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  61. 61. -5- ILLUSTRATION 03-07 6) Measure the vertical distance between line AB and line GH. 7) Divide this measurement in half and mark it with a small dot. 8) Draw a horizontal line through this dot, parallel to lines AB and GH, dividing the lower half of the head into halves. 9) Mark this new line CD. ILLUSTRATION 03-08 10) Measure the vertical distance between line CD and line GH. 11) Divide this measurement in half and mark it with a small dot. 12) Draw a horizontal line through this dot, parallel to lines CD and GH. 13) Mark this new line EF. VERTICAL GUIDELINES Because a baby’s head is approximately “five eyes” wide at its widest point, I divide the face into five equal sections for placing the vertical guidelines. In this part, you draw vertical guidelines for the placements of a baby’s facial features. Examine the faces of the two babies in the two drawings on the next page. The width of the space between the eyes is equal to the width of an eye. Both the nose and mouth are approximately the same width as an eye (or the space between the eyes). The faces are quite different, but the following vertical proportions apply to each. KL: The outer corner of the eye on the left touches or overlaps this line. MN: This line shows the location of the inside corner of the eye, the edge of the nose, and the corner of the mouth (on the left).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  62. 62. -6- ILLUSTRATION 03-09 OP: The inside edge of the left eye, the left edge of the nose, and the corner of the left side of the mouth touches or overlaps this line. QR: This line marks the outer edge of the left eye. ILLUSTRATION 03-10 14) Draw a vertical line on each side of the head at its widest points. Mark the line on the left IJ, and the one on the right ST. These two lines are perpendicular to the horizontal lines. ILLUSTRATION 03-11 15) Measure the horizontal distance between lines IJ and ST. 16) Divide this distance by five, and mark the four points. 17) Add lines, KL, MN, OP, and QR at each of the four points.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  63. 63. -7- ILLUSTRATION 03-12 PLACING FEATURES Your blueprint is complete and it’s time to add a face to your drawing. You may prefer to draw different features, as you follow along with the steps. 18) Add the ears with the tops touching horizontal line AB and the bottoms touching horizontal line CD. 19) Add a curved line (indicating the lower jaw) touching line GH and in between vertical lines MN and OP. ILLUSTRATION 03-13 20) Modify the outline of the perimeter of the head (between lines AB and CD) leaving an opening for the tops of the ears. 21) Extend the outlines of the tops of the ears slightly towards the center of the face. ILLUSTRATION 03-14 22) Draw the eyes slightly below AB. The eye on the left is between vertical lines KL and MN. The one on the right is between OP and QR. The widest section of the head is “five- eyes wide”. The width of an eye is equal to one of the five horizontal spaces.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  64. 64. -8- ILLUSTRATION 03-15 23) Draw the eyebrows very lightly. Babies’ eyebrows generally tend to be very light. On some babies’ faces they are almost invisible. 24) Add more details to the ears. ILLUSTRATION 03-16 ILLUSTRATION 03-17 25) Draw a nose. The lower section of the nose is close to or touches the horizontal line CD. The nose is between or extends slightly past vertical lines MN and OP. 26) Draw a mouth. The lower lip is on or slightly above line EF. The mouth is approximately the same width as an eye or the nose. 27) Use your kneaded eraser to lighten the outline of the top of the head until it’s almost invisible, and then add some hair. Sign your name, add today’s date on the back of your drawing, and then pat yourself on the back!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  65. 65. -9- BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  66. 66. Nude figures are illustrated in this article; hence, the content is recommended for mature artists. Artists under the age of 18 need permission from an adult before viewing.GUIDELINES FOR THE Brenda HoddinottP04 INTERMEDIATE: PEOPLEThis article discusses proportional guidelines that canhelp artists render more believable and accurate figuresketches and drawings.Humans have infinitely different but equally magnificent bodies that can be transformedinto wonderful drawings. Drawing people’s bodies proportionately correct is an integralaspect of figure drawing. This article is divided into the following four sections: MEASURING HEIGHTS IN HEADS: This section describes the artistic process of measuring the height of figures in heads. While the measurement unit of a foot is always precisely 12 inches, the size of a head measurement unit can be different for each person you draw. INFANTS AND CHILDREN: This section discusses how head measurements can be applied to children in spite of the fact that individual children experience different rates of growth and their body proportions change at various stages of development. EXPLORING ADULT BODIES: I discuss the need for artists to respect all human figures as wonderful drawing subjects. Diverse adult body types are illustrated and the visual differences between male and female figures are explored. COMPARING THE PROPORTIONS OF ADULT BODIES: Despite their height differences, the vertical proportions of most male and female figures can be accurately rendered with three simple principles and a basic set of proportional guidelines. 8 PAGES - 12 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for mature artists. The curriculum is easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2002 (Revised 2007)
  67. 67. 2MEASURING HEIGHTS IN HEADSWhen drawing figures, forget about measuring their height in feet, inches, orcentimeters! Artists measure the height of a human figure in heads! This simply meansusing the length a person’s head to measure the height of his or her body (naturally, themeasurement unit of a head excludes hair). For example, an average one-year-old childis between 4 and 4 ½ heads tall.While the measurement unit of a foot is always precisely 12 inches, the size of a headmeasurement unit can be different for each person you draw. Human heads becomelarger as they grow from birth through adulthood. For example, as a child matures froma baby to an adult, the overall length of his or her head grows approximately threeinches. Even fully grown adult heads come in a vast range of sizes.By comparing an infant’s head to that ofan adult, (Figure 401) you can get a goodsense of the drastic changes in size andproportions, which occur as a human headgrows. Figure 401: The length of my daughter’s head grew approximately three inches between age one and adulthood.Even though head sizes vary considerably, guidelines can still be applied to people soas to render a body size that looks believable in a drawing.INFANTS AND CHILDRENIndividual children experience different rates of growth and their body proportionschange at various stages of development. For instance, one-year-olds can be as large astwo-year-olds, and three-year-olds can be as tiny as two-year-olds. Hence, there is noway to definitively say that a child of a specific age should be drawn a certain height.The most noticeable changes in human bodies occur during the first three years of life.The proportions of infants’ bodies are very different from thoseof adults. Babies’ heads are quite large when compared tothe rest of their bodies. Between birthand two years, their heads growmore quickly than at any othertime in their lives.Therefore, the measuring unit ofa head is constantly getting largeras the child gets older.Figure 402: Babies’ bodies grow much more quickly than their heads.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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