Mediu k perspectiva 2

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Mediu k perspectiva 2

  1. 1. ON, ABOVE, AND BELOW In many everyday scenes, you see objects above your eye level (such as a THE HORIZON LINE THE HORIZON LINE tall building), straight ahead of you (such as a store window), and below your eye level (such as a sidewalk), all at the same time. In this lesson, you use one point perspective to render nine boxes from Brenda three different Hoddinott perspectives, into a single drawing.K-01 INTERMEDIATE: PERSPECTIVE TWOOne point perspective occurs when the frontal face of an object (such as a cube) is closest to you,and its edges recede into distant space and converge at a single vanishing point. This lessonincludes the following five sections: INTRODUCTION: Basic perspective terms and three common perspectives, on, above, and below the horizon line, are explained and illustrated. LOOKING STRAIGHT AHEAD AT BOXES: One point perspective is used to draw frontal views of three boxes on the horizon line. You begin by drawing a horizon line and vanishing point, and then use perspective lines to transform a square and two rectangular shapes into three-dimensional boxes. BOXES ABOVE THE HORIZON LINE: You draw three more boxes above the horizon line, and their perspective lines converge at the same vanishing point as those in the last section. CREATING BOXES BELOW THE HORIZON LINE: you draw three boxes below the horizon line with their perspective lines converging at the same vanishing point.Suggested drawing supplies include drawing paper, pencils, erasers, and a ruler. 15 PAGES – 29 ILLUSTRATIONS This article is recommended for artists of all ages and abilities, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2005 (Revised 2006)
  2. 2. -2- INTRODUCTION Geometric perspective (sometimes called linear perspective) is a method of representing subjects in a drawing, in such a way that they seem to recede into distant space, and appear smaller the farther they are away from you. Many of Mother Nature’s creations, such as trees and flowers, are very forgiving of an artist’s minor mistakes in perspective. However, drawing subjects such as people, animals, and most human-made objects need to be drawn with proper perspective in order to appear believable and proportionately correct. Check out E-04: One Point Perspective to discover how basic one point geometric perspective can transform a rectangle into a three-dimensional form. One point perspective occurs when the frontal face of an object (such as a cube) is closest to you, and its edges recede into space and converge at a single vanishing point. Three key terms (refer to Illustration 01-01) are used throughout this lesson to describe the process of using one point perspective to draw various boxes on, above, and below the horizon line: Horizon line: is a horizontal line (invisible in real life) sometimes referred to as eye level, which divides your line of vision when you look straight ahead. Your eye level and the horizon line are one and the same. Look straight ahead (rather than up or down), and the horizon line is directly in front of you. Wherever you go, from the top of the highest mountain, to the lowest valley, your eye level always stays with you. Perspective lines: are lines (invisible in real life) that extend from the edges of objects and recede into distant space until they finally seem to vanish at a point on the horizon line known as the vanishing point. Vanishing point (VP): is a point (invisible in real life) on the horizon line where the straight lines of an object(s) converge and the object(s) seems to disappear. Lines of objects, that are parallel or perpendicular (at a right angle) to the horizon line, don’t appear to go back in space and therefore rarely meet the vanishing point. ILLUSTRATION 01-01Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  3. 3. -3- The following illustrations show you different perspectives on three-dimensional boxes - on the horizon line, above the horizon line, and below the horizon line. The three boxes in Illustration 01-02 are on the horizon line with sections above and below. ILLUSTRATION 01-02 The frontal face of each box is touching the horizon line, and their tops and bottoms are out of view. The viewer is looking straight ahead. The boxes in Illustration 01-03 are above the horizon line, and seem to be floating in the air. ILLUSTRATION 01-03 The horizon line is below these three boxes, creating the illusion that you are looking upward. Observe that the bottom of each box is visible. The boxes in Illustration 01-04 are drawn below the horizon line. ILLUSTRATION 01-04 When boxes are drawn below the horizon line their tops are visible. Hence, viewers feel as though they are looking downward.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  4. 4. -4- The perspective lines of objects at your eye level (on the horizon line), angle both downward and upward and meet at the vanishing point. Objects above you have perspective lines that angle downward to the vanishing point. The perspective lines of objects below you, angle upward toward the vanishing point. ILLUSTRATION 01-05 In this drawing, the cartoon figure’s eyes are aligned with the horizon line to help you understand the concept of eye level and horizon line being one and the same. In this lesson, simple boxes take you through the basic process of incorporating all three perspectives into one drawing. And, by the way, these principles also apply to drawing people, animals, and scenes, and are especially helpful for drawing cityscapes. LOOKING STRAIGHT AHEAD AT BOXES In this section, you use one point perspective to draw frontal views of three boxes on the horizon line. You begin by drawing a horizon line and vanishing point, and then use perspective lines to transform rectangular shapes into three-dimensional boxes. 1) Use your ruler to draw a horizon line that is parallel to the top and bottom of a square or rectangular drawing space (press very lightly with your HB pencil). Leave lots of room on your drawing paper above and below the horizon line. In addition to the three boxes on the horizon line, a second set of three boxes has to fit above them, and a third set below. 2) Add a small dot on the horizon line (the vanishing point) and mark it VP. ILLUSTRATION 01-06Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  5. 5. -5- When using geometric perspective to draw a straight-on view of a square or rectangular shape, the horizontal lines need to be parallel to the horizon line and the vertical sides need to be perpendicular (at a right angle). 3) Use an HB pencil and a ruler to draw a square on the horizon line. ILLUSTRATION 01-07 This square shape represents the flat frontal face of a box and is closer to the viewer than any of its other sides. 4) Draw a vertical (portrait format) rectangle to the left of the vanishing point, and a horizontal (landscape format) rectangle to the right of the vanishing point. ILLUSTRATION 01-08 5) Connect the upper and lower right corners of the square to the vanishing point with straight lines (perspective lines). ILLUSTRATION 01-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  6. 6. -6- 6) Connect an upper and lower corner, of the vertical and horizontal rectangles, to the vanishing point (as in Illustrations 01-10 and 01-11). ILLUSTRATION 01-10 ILLUSTRATION 01-11 7) Using the perspective lines as guidelines, draw vertical lines to complete each box. The distant edge of each box can be drawn as a vertical line at any point in between the two perspective lines. ILLUSTRATION 01-12 The distant edges of the boxes are parallel to the sides of the rectangle, and perpendicular to the horizon line.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  7. 7. -7- 8) Use a vinyl eraser to erase the perspective lines that are not sides of the boxes. You now have three properly drawn, three dimensional boxes. 9) Outline the boxes with a freshly sharpened HB pencil and a ruler. ILLUSTRATION 01-13 One point perspective can help you draw numerous objects, including buildings. BOXES ABOVE THE HORIZON LINE In this section you draw three boxes above the horizon line, and their perspective lines converge at the same vanishing point as those in the last section. ILLUSTRATION 01-14 10) Draw a vertical rectangle that is above the horizon line, and toward the far left of your drawing space.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  8. 8. -8- 11) Add a small square and a horizontal rectangle to the right of the vertical rectangle. ILLUSTRATION 01-15 12) Draw three perspective lines from three corners of the vertical rectangle down to the vanishing point (keep these lines very light). ILLUSTRATION 01-16Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  9. 9. -9- 13) Connect the small square to the vanishing point with three perspective lines. ILLUSTRATION 01-17 14) Connect three corners of the horizontal rectangle to the vanishing point. ILLUSTRATION 01-18Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  10. 10. - 10 - 15) Draw a vertical and horizontal line to complete the outline of each of the three boxes. Take note that small sections of two of the boxes above the horizon line, appear to be behind boxes that are on the horizon line. ILLUSTRATION 01-19 16) Use a vinyl eraser to erase the perspective lines and then outline the boxes with a freshly sharpened HB pencil and a ruler. ILLUSTRATION 01-20Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  11. 11. - 11 - CREATING BOXES BELOW THE HORIZON LINE In this section you draw three boxes below the horizon line. Their perspective lines converge at the same vanishing point as those above and on the horizon line, in the previous sections. 17) Draw a horizontal rectangle, a vertical rectangle, and a square below the horizon line. ILLUSTRATION 01-21 Eat your vegetables! They’re good for you! Or, in this case, learn perspective! You need it! Very few artists actually enjoy drawing perspective exercises. However, if your goal is to draw well, you absolutely need to know everything you possibly can about all aspects of perspective.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  12. 12. - 12 - 18) Connect three corners of each box to the vanishing point with lightly drawn straight lines. ILLUSTRATION 01-22 19) Draw a vertical and horizontal line to complete the outline of each of the three boxes. ILLUSTRATION 01-23Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  13. 13. - 13 - 20) Erase the perspective lines, and outline the boxes with an HB pencil as in Illustration 01-24. 21) Check over your drawing carefully, especially the outlines of the boxes, and confirm that everything is drawn correctly. ILLUSTRATION 01-24 Even though the technical aspect of this drawing is complete, consider having some fun by adding some shading, or additional details to transform the boxes into cartoon characters or buildings. Illustrations 01-25 to 01-29 may offer some ideas to get your creative juices flowing. Then sign your name, write today’s date on the back of your drawing, and put a smile on your face!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  14. 14. - 14 - ILLUSTRATION 01-25 ILLUSTRATION 01-26 ILLUSTRATION 01-27 ILLUSTRATION 01-28 ILLUSTRATION 01-29Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  15. 15. - 15 - Check out Lesson E-01: Basic Perspective for Beginners for a well illustrated overview of the secrets of various aspects of perspective and how they help create the illusion of three-dimensional spaces in drawings. BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Fine Art Education http://www.finearteducation.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. ART PUBLICATIONS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  16. 16. Drawing anBrenda HoddinottK-02 INTERMEDIATE: PERSPECTIVE TWOYou need to understand ellipses in order to correctly draw cylindrical or cone shapes objects,such as vases, ice cream cones, mugs, plates, and tires on vehicles. In this exercise, I show youhow to use one point perspective to accurately draw an ellipse. You need your sketchbook, apencil, and a ruler.This project is divided into three sections: EYEING A CIRCLE IN PERSPECTIVE: You know a circle is round. But, a circle changes its shape to an oval when viewed in perspective. Hence, drawing ellipses correctly requires you to record circles as you actually see them, not as your mind knows or perceives them to be. DRAWING A BASIC ELLIPSE: I show you how to draw an ellipse correctly with one point perspective. DRAWING A PRECISE ELLIPSE: If a drawing subject, or your style of drawing, needs a more precise ellipse, follow the directions in this section. 7 PAGES – 15 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists with strong drawing skills and a basic understanding of geometric perspective, as well as advanced students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Publishing for Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2008
  17. 17. 2 Figure 201 EYEING A CIRCLE IN PERSPECTIVE An ellipse looks like an oval shape, but in fact is simply a circle drawn in perspective. Perspective is a complex aspect of drawing. Don’t expect to be able to master all components right away. Be patient with yourself. Careful observation of objects around you expands your understanding of perspective. Your skills at rendering perspective, improve with practice. Drawing circles in perspective means unlearning some of what your brain currently knows about what it sees, and readjusting its perceptions to a different set of rules. You know a circle is round. But, a circle changes its shape to an oval when viewed in perspective. Hence, drawing ellipses correctly requires you to record circles as you actually see them, not as your mind knows or perceives them to be. Examine the ellipses and cylinders above and below the horizon line (marked HL) in figure 201. Take note, that the closer the ellipses are to the horizon line, the narrower they appear. Perspective is a visual illusion in a drawing in which objects appear to become smaller, and recede into distant space, the farther away they are from the viewer. Horizon line is an element of perspective, also known as eye level that refers to an imaginary horizontal line that divides your line of vision when you look straight ahead. Your eye level always stays with you wherever you move. The horizon line is usually drawn parallel to the upper and lower sides of a square or rectangular drawing space. Vanishing point is an imaginary point (marked VP in this drawing) on the horizon line where perspective lines seem to converge. Perspective lines are straight, angular lines (invisible in real life), which extend from the edges of subjects back to a vanishing point(s) on the horizon line.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  18. 18. 3DRAWING A BASIC ELLIPSEIn this exercise I show you how to draw an ellipse correctly with one point perspective. Youneed your sketchbook, a pencil and a ruler.1) Draw a straight horizontal line as the horizon line. Figure 202 Refer to figure 202.2) Add a dot in the center of the line as the vanishing point.3) Draw two lines below and parallel to the horizon line to represent the top and bottom of a square viewed in perspective. Refer to figure 203. Now you have three parallel lines. Figure 203 4) Connect the lowest parallel line to the vanishing point with two straight lines. Refer to figure 204. Now you have the other two sides of your square shape, drawn in perspective. Figure 2045) Erase all lines except the four of your new square shape. Refer to figure 205. Figure 205 The square shape in Figure 205 serves as a guide for drawing an ellipse.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  19. 19. 46) Draw two lines, Figure 206 connecting each set of two opposite corners. The point where these two lines intersect is the exact center of your square (Figure 206). This point is also the center of the ellipse you draw. Figure 2077) Draw line AB perpendicular to the two parallel sides of the square (Figure 207).8) Add line CD parallel to the two parallel sides of the square. Refer to Figure 208. Points A, B, C, and D Figure 208 mark the center point of each of the four sides of your square.9) Lightly sketch an oval inside the square that touches each of the four points: A, B, C, and D. Figure 209Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  20. 20. 510) Erase all lines that are not part of your ellipse. Figure 210 For most drawing needs, this ellipse works great.DRAWING A PRECISE ELLIPSEIf a drawing subject, or your style of drawing, needs amore precise ellipse, follow the directions in this section.1) Follow steps 1 to 8 in the previous section.2) Use a ruler to connect dots A and D, D and B, B and C, and C and A.You now have Figure 211another squaredrawn at anangle insidethe originalsquare.3) Focus your attention on Figure 212 the four large triangular shapes created by the four corner sections that are not part of the new square. Notice that each of the four triangular shapes is divided in half by a line.4) Use a ruler to measure the total length of each of these four lines, divide the distance by three, and mark two dots to identify the three equal lengths. Refer to Figure 213 on the next page. Some artists prefer to divide each of these lines into halves, and others like to divide each into five or more sections for increased accuracy. I get by just fine with only thirds.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  21. 21. 6As you develop Figure 213stronger skills withperspective, you maywant to experimentwith dividingthese four linesinto more thanthree sections,for increasedaccuracy.5) Lighten your drawing with a kneaded eraser.6) Take your time and draw the ellipse, and then erase the guidelines. Use dots A, B, C, and D as well as the inner dots you just drew as reference points.My favorite places Figure 214to draw the lines ofthe ellipse are justpast the one-thirdpoints (measuredfrom the insideoutward).If you want a line drawing of an ellipse Figure 215appear even more three dimensional,make the line thicker toward theforeground. Naturally,according to perspective,things appear smaller thefarther they recede into thebackground. Therefore it’slogical to make the line thinneron the side of the ellipse that isfarther away. Refer to Figure 215.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  22. 22. 7BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHYAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, BrendaHoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalkpastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  23. 23. DRAWING A WITH 2-POINT PERSPECTIVE Brenda HoddinottYou need to use geometric perspective to accurately render cylindrical objects, such as K-03 INTERMEDIATE: PERSPECTIVE TWOvases or mugs. In this project, I show you how to use 2-point perspective to draw acylinder. You need your sketchbook, a pencil, and a ruler.Before you begin this lesson, complete Lesson K04 - Two Point Perspective and LessonThis project is divided into two sections:K02 - Drawing an Ellipse. DRAWING A RECTANGULAR FORM: You draw a three-dimensional rectangle with 2-point perspective. TURNING A RECTANGULAR FORM INTO A CYLINDER: You set up guide points, use the points to draw ellipses, and then connect the outside edges to create a cylinder. 6 PAGES – 13 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists with strong drawing skills and a basic understanding of geometric perspective, as well as students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Publishing for Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2008
  24. 24. 2DRAWING A RECTANGULARIn this section, you draw a three-FORMdimensional rectangle with 2-pointperspective. Refer to Lesson K04 - Two Point Perspective is a visual illusion in a drawingPerspective for a more detailed lesson. in which objects appear to become smaller, and recede into distant space, the fartherThe first step is to draw a rectangular form away they are from the viewer.(or cube) approximately the same size andproportions as the cylinder you plan to Horizon line is an element of perspective,draw. You use two-point perspective to also known as eye level that refers to ancorrectly draw the rectangular form. imaginary horizontal line that divides your line of vision when you look straight ahead. Your eye level always stays with you1) Draw a horizon line and mark two wherever you move. The horizon line is usually drawn parallel to the upper and Refer to Figure 301. Keep all your vanishing points. lower sides of a square or rectangular lines very light, so you can easily drawing space. erase them later. Vanishing point is an imaginary point (marked VP in this drawing) on the horizon2) Draw a line (AB) vertical to the line where perspective lines seem to horizon line, to represent the converge. corner edge of your form. Perspective lines are straight, angular lines (invisible in real life), which extend3) Connect the top and bottom of line from the edges of subjects back to a AB to each of the vanishing points. vanishing point(s) on the horizon line. Figure 301 Refer to Figures 302 and 303. The point where each line ends is on the diagonal4) Draw lines CD and EF parallel to line AB. perspective lines. Now all the sides of your rectangular form are in their proper places.5) Connect points C and D to VP-2, and connect E and F to VP-1.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  25. 25. 3 Figure 302 Figure 303 6) Lighten your entire drawing with a Refer to Figure 304. Be careful not to kneaded eraser. erase the horizon line and vanishing points. Figure 3047) Use a ruler and an HB pencil to lightly outline the top and bottom In the next section you add guide sides of the rectangular form. points to help you draw a realistic cylinder. shows you two methods for drawing Lesson K02 - Drawing an Ellipse ellipses.In this section, you set up guide points, use the points to draw ellipses, and then connectTURNING A RECTANGULAR FORM INTO A CYLINDERthe outside edges to create a cylinder.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  26. 26. 48) Find the center points of the top and Figure 305 bottom of the rectangular form by connecting each set of opposite Refer to Figure 305. As you work, you corners. can erase unnecessary lines if you wish. However, don’t erase the horizon line and vanishing points yet.9) Draw a line from each of the two vanishing points, through the center Refer to Figures 306 (computer points of the top and bottom sides. generated) and/or Figure 307 (hand drawn). These lines identify the center point of each side of the top and bottom shapes. Figure 306 Figure 307 Figure 30810) Mark the center points of each side with tiny Dots mark dots the center points (Figures 308 and 309).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  27. 27. 5 Refer to Figure 310. The outline of each ellipse needs Figure 309 11) Draw an ellipse in both the top and bottom shape. to intersect all four dots. Figure 310 12) Connect the outer edges of the ellipses with straight lines to form the shape of a Refer to cylinder. Figure Figure 311 311. 13) Erase all the lines, except the cylinder. 14) Erase the section of the bottom ellipse on the far side of the cylindrical form (Figure 312). Figure 312 Figure 31315) Have some fun with shading and transform your cylinder into an object of your Check out Figure choice. 313, to see how I shaded my cylinder.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  28. 28. 6BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHYAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, BrendaHoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalkpastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  29. 29. TWO-POINT Brenda HoddinottIn this lesson, you use two point geometric perspective to transform a single vertical line K-03 INTERMEDIATE: PERSPECTIVE 2into a three-dimensional form. The cube in this lesson is drawn below the horizon line;hence, you feel that it is slightly below you.This lesson includes the following two sections: SETTING UP TWO POINTS OF PERSPECTIVE: You draw a horizon line and two vanishing points in preparation for drawing a cube with two point perspective. DRAWING A CUBE IN PERSPECTIVE: When the corner of a cube appears closer to you than one of its sides, you need to use two-point perspective to illustrate it correctly.Suggested drawing supplies include drawing paper, pencils, erasers, and a ruler. This lesson is recommended for artists with good drawing skills and a basic understanding of geometric perspective, as well as advanced students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 5 PAGES – 8 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2008 (Revised - June, 2009)
  30. 30. 2 Perspective is a visual illusion in a drawing in which objects appear to become smaller, and recede into distant space, the farther away they are from the viewer. Geometric perspective (sometimes called linear perspective) is a method of representing subjects in a drawing, in such a way that they seem to recede into distant space, and appear smaller the farther they are away from you. Two point perspective occurs when the corner of a straight sided form (such as a cube) is closer to you than one of its sides, none of its sides are parallel to the horizon line, and its edges recede in space and converge at two vanishing points. Horizon line is an element of perspective, also known as eye level that refers to an imaginary horizontal line that divides your line of vision when you look straight ahead. Your eye level always stays with you wherever you move. Vanishing point is an imaginary point (often marked VP) on the horizon line where perspective lines seem to converge. Perspective lines are straight, angular lines (invisible in real life), which extend from the edges of subjects back to a vanishing point(s) on the horizon line.Drawing in proper perspective means unlearning some of what your brain currently knowsSETTING UP TWO POINTS OF PERSPECTIVEabout what it sees, and readjusting its perceptions to a different set of rules.For example, you know a cube has six sides. But, you actually see no more than three sidesat any one time (unless it’s made of clear glass). Most objects are not transparent anddrawing them correctly requires that you record them as you actually see them, not as yourmind knows or perceives them to be.In this section, you draw a horizon line and two vanishing points in preparation fordrawing a cube with two point perspective.1) Use your ruler to draw a horizon line that is parallel to the top and bottom of a Press very lightly with your HB pencil. Refer to Figure 401. square or rectangular drawing space.2) Add two small dots on opposite ends of the horizon line to represent the two I have marked them with VP1 and VP2. vanishing points. FIGURE 401Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  31. 31. 3When the corner of a building (or any straight sided form) is closer to you than one of itsDRAWING A CUBE IN PERSPECTIVEsides, none of its sides are parallel to the horizon line. You use two-point perspective toillustrate it correctly. The cube in this lesson is drawn below the horizon line; hence, youfeel that you are above it.3) Draw a line (marked AB) vertical to the horizon line, to represent a corner edge This vertical line represents the corner of the cube that is closest to the viewer. of a cube (Figure 402). FIGURE 4024) Draw a straight line from the upper and lower points of line AB to each of the Refer to Figure 403 on the following page. These lines represent the top and bottom of vanishing points. two sides of the cube that appear to recede into distant space. FIGURE 403 The point where each line ends is on the two diagonal perspective lines (Figure 404).5) Draw lines CD and EF parallel to line AB.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  32. 32. 4 FIGURE 404 Now all the sides of your rectangular form are in their proper places (Figure 405).6) Connect point C to VP2, and connect E to VP-1. FIGURE 405 FIGURE 4067) Refine the lines that identify the cube with a dark pencil Refer to Figure 406. (or fine tip marker).8) Erase the perspective lines you don’t need (Figure 407), and add shading if you wish (Figure 408).Sign your name on the back of yourdrawing, write today’s date on each,and put a smile on your face!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  33. 33. 5 FIGURE 407 FIGURE 408 As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic BRENDA HODDINOTT artist (retired), and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including her favorites: graphite and paint. Brenda is the author of Drawing for Dummies (Wiley Publishing, Inc., New York, NY) and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN). She is currently writing two books on classical drawing. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong drawing and painting skills through self-directed learning.During her twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, variouscriminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including the RoyalCanadian Mounted Police. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from theRoyal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membershipfrom “Forensic Artists International”.In 2003, Brenda retired from her careers as a forensic artist and teacher to work full timewriting books and developing her website (Drawspace.com). This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilitiesthroughout the world.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  34. 34. DRAWING K-05 INTERMEDIATE: PERSPECTIVE 2 In this lesson, you use two point geometric perspective to transform seven vertical lines into seven three dimensional boxes. Two boxes are above the horizon line, two on the horizon line, and three below. This lesson includes the following two sections:WITH TWO POINT PERSPECTIVE: I discuss three-dimensional boxes that EXAMINING BOXES RENDERED WITH TWO POINT are above, on, and below your eye level (horizon line). PERSPECTIVE SETTING UP TO DRAW SEVEN BOXES: You first draw Brenda Hoddinott a horizon line and two vanishing points, and then add seven vertical lines as the front corner edges of seven boxes. BOXES: You follow along with six simple steps to finish TURNING LINES INTO THREE DIMENSIONAL your drawing of seven boxes. Suggested drawing supplies include drawing paper, pencils, erasers, and a ruler. This lesson is recommended for artists with good drawing skills and a basic understanding of geometric perspective, as well as advanced students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Publishing for Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2008
  35. 35. 2 Perspective is a visual illusion in a drawing in which objects appear to become smaller, and recede into distant space, the farther away they are from the viewer. Geometric perspective (sometimes called linear perspective) is a method of representing subjects in a drawing in such a way that they seem to recede into distant space, and appear smaller the farther they are away from you. Two point perspective occurs when the corner of a straight sided form (such as a cube) is closer to you than one of its sides, none of its sides are parallel to the horizon line, and its edges recede in space and converge at two vanishing points. Horizon line is an element of perspective, also known as eye level that refers to an imaginary horizontal line that divides your line of vision when you look straight ahead. Look straight ahead (rather than up or down), and the horizon line is directly in front of you. Your eye level always stays with you wherever you move. Vanishing point is an imaginary point on the horizon line where perspective lines converge. Perspective lines are straight lines (invisible in real life), which extend from the edges of objects back to a vanishing point(s) on the horizon line. Objects above the horizon line create the illusion that you are looking upward; their perspective lines angle downward. Objects on the horizon line create the illusion that you are looking straight ahead; their perspective lines angle both downward and upward. Objects below the horizon line create the illusion that you are looking downward; their perspective lines angle upward.EXAMINING BOXES RENDERED WITH TWO POINT PERSPECTIVEVery few artists actually enjoy drawing perspective exercises. However, if your goal is to draw well, you absolutely need to knoweverything you possibly can about all aspects of perspective.In many everyday scenes, you see objects above your eye level (such as a tall building), straight ahead of you (such as a storewindow), and below your eye level (such as a sidewalk), all at the same time. Figure 501 shows three-dimensional boxes that areabove, on, and below your eye level (horizon line).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  36. 36. 3Above the horizon lineBoxes 1 and 2 are above the horizon line and seem to be floating in the air. Take note of the following: The horizon line is below these boxes, creating the illusion that you are looking upward. Two sides and the bottom of each box are visible. Their perspective lines angle downward to two vanishing points. FIGURE 501On the horizon lineBoxes 3 and 4 are on the horizon line with sections above and belowthe horizon line. Take note of the following: The horizon line cuts through these boxes, creating the illusion that you are looking straight ahead. Only two sides of each are visible; their tops and bottoms are out of view. Their perspective lines angle both downward and upward and meet at two vanishing points.Below the horizon lineBoxes 5, 6, and 7 are below the horizon line. Observe the following: You feel as though you are looking downward. Two sides and the top of each box are visible. Their perspective lines angle upward toward two vanishing points.When the corner of a building (or any straight sided form) is closer to you than one of its sides, none of its sides are parallel to theSETTING UP TO DRAW SEVEN BOXEShorizon line. You need use two-point perspective to illustrate it accurately.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  37. 37. 4In this section, you first draw a horizonline and two vanishing points. You then FIGURE 501add seven vertical lines as the frontcorner edges of seven boxes.Finally, you add perspective lines toidentify the placements of two sides ofeach.1) Use your ruler to draw a horizon line that is parallel to the top and bottom of a square or rectangular drawing space FIGURE 502 (Figure 501).2) Add two small dots on opposite ends of the horizon line to represent two vanishing points.3) Draw two vertical lines that extend both above and below These vertical lines represent the the horizon line. corner edges of two boxes that are on the horizon line (Figure 501).4) Draw two vertical lines above These lines are the corner edges of the horizon line (Figure 502). two boxes above the horizon line.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  38. 38. 55) Draw three vertical lines below the horizon line FIGURE 503 These lines mark the frontal edges of boxes below (Figure 503). the horizon line.6) Add perspective lines from the top and bottom of Begin with the two vertical lines above the horizon line, each vertical line to both vanishing points. then the two on the horizon line, and finally work your way down to the three below the horizon line. FIGURE 504 Refer to Figures 504 to 510. Each vertical line needs four perspective lines going to the vanishing points. These lines represent two sides of each box that appear to recede into distant space.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  39. 39. 6In Figures 504 and 505,perspective lines connect FIGURE 505the tops and bottoms of thetwo vertical lines that areabove the horizon line, toeach of the vanishingpoints. FIGURE 506 Figure 506 shows the top and bottom of the shorter vertical line on the horizon line connected to the two vanishing points.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  40. 40. 7Figure 507 shows the longer line on thehorizon line connected to the vanishing FIGURE 507points.In Figure 508, the first of three linesbelow the horizon line is connected to thevanishing points. FIGURE 508 FIGURE 509Figure 509 shows the middle line belowthe horizon line connected to the twovanishing points.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  41. 41. 8 In Figure 510, all vertical lines are connected to both FIGURE 510 vanishing points. Before you continue to the next section, make sure each vertical line has all four perspective lines. TURNING LINES INTO THREE DIMENSIONAL BOXES In this section, you follow along with five simple steps to finish each of the seven boxes. 7) Complete the seven Figures 511 to 514 boxes. demonstrate the five steps for completing the first box. You then use either three or five steps to complete the remaining six boxes. The first box to be completed is above the horizon line on the left.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com

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