Mediu j dexteritate si secrete

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Mediu j dexteritate si secrete

  1. 1. 130 Brenda Hoddinott J01 INTERMEDIATE: SKILLS & SECRETSDuring my lengthy career, I’ve made tons of mistakes and learned from them. Withnecessity being the mother of invention, I’ve also discovered numerous easier and moreefficient methods of working. These tips and helpful hints are designed to make yourdrawing experiences more pleasurable and less frustrating!To help you find what you need more quickly, this article is divided into the followingsections: Generally Speaking Perspective Working from Photos Figure Drawing from Life Values and Shading Protecting your Drawings Blending Shading Keeping the Enjoyment Composition Signing Your Name Drawing with a Grid Beyond the Sketchbook Drawing Portraits and People Warm Fuzzies 13 PAGES – 130 TIPS AND HELPFUL HINTS Published by Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised - July, 2009)
  2. 2. 2GENERALLY SPEAKING1) To prevent cramping and repetitive movement injuries, move your fingers and wrist as little as possible when you draw. You should also be moving your lower and upper arm.2) Stay away from poor‐quality graphite! Inexpensive graphite may work well for writing, but can scratch your drawing paper instead of going on smoothly. Professional drawing pencils are made with a higher‐quality mixture of graphite and clay and make marks that flow more smoothly.3) Always lay your graphite pencils somewhere safe so they don’t fall! When a pencil falls to the floor, the graphite inside the core breaks, and the pencil becomes very difficult to sharpen. Small pieces of broken graphite can jam up the inside of the sharpener.4) Purchase only professional quality mechanical pencils. You can find inexpensive novelty mechanical pencils in many stores. However, professional mechanical pencils that are designed for drawing can only be found in art supply stores. Most are expensive, but they tend to last much longer than the department store variety.5) Stay away from papers with a glossy surface! Glossy paper is toothless, and therefore too smooth for graphite or charcoal to properly stick to it.6) Stay away from acid! Don’t be fooled by cheap imitations of good‐quality drawing paper. Before you buy a sketchbook, look for a label that says the paper is acid‐ free. Just because the cover of a sketchbook says it’s suitable for drawing doesn’t mean it’s acid‐free. Your drawings can be ruined when poor quality paper deteriorates and turns yellow.7) Always take good care of a paper’s tooth! The tooth of any paper can be easily destroyed by pressing too hard on its surface with your pencil. If your shading begins to look shiny, the tooth is flattened beyond repair. Additional shading will no longer hold fast to the paper’s surface.8) The wrong erasers can ruin your drawings! Stay away from erasers that are colored (especially the pink ones) or very hard (such as those on the ends of some pencils).9) You can make a sanding tool similar to a sandpaper block. Cut sheets of sandpaper into long narrow pieces, and use a heavy duty stapler to hold them together at one end.10) Don’t draw on a flat surface! When you draw on a flat surface, the top of your paper is farther away from you than the bottom. As a result, you can end up with all sorts of problems trying to draw accurate proportions.11) You can clean your kneaded eraser by stretching and reshaping it several times (also known as “kneading”) until it comes clean. However, kneaded erasers eventually get too dirty to work properly, so pick up some extras.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  3. 3. 312) When drawing an oval or a circle, rotate your paper and examine it from different perspectives. View its reflection in a mirror to help locate problem areas.13) Draw slowly. Accuracy is more important than speed. Your speed will automatically improve the more you practice.14) Don’t press too hard with your pencils. Not only do these areas become impossible to touch up, but they also leave dents in your paper. When you try to draw over dents in the paper with a soft pencil (such as a 2B or 6B), they show up as light lines, spoiling the overall appearance of your drawing.15) Have a basic set of drawing materials pre‐packed so you can spontaneously take your art outside your studio whenever you want.16) When planning to draw outdoors, take into consideration such factors as weather, lighting conditions, time of day, and the angle from which you wish to capture your subject. Then make your plans accordingly.17) Practice drawing straight lines freehand in any way you find comfortable; however, you may want to use a ruler to draw straight lines for some subjects.18) A thorough visual examination of your subject is the most important ingredient for making great sketches.19) Drawing from actual objects enhances your memory. Each time you draw something new, valuable information is stored in your long‐term memory.20) Always feel comfortable to use your creative abilities to rearrange, modify, or even completely change, various components of subjects that inspire you!21) Display your unfinished drawings in a safe place in your home, where you see them frequently throughout the day. Each time you look at the drawing and see something that needs to be touched up, write yourself a note about the problem area, and go back to fix it later.22) Be careful not to put tape on your drawing paper as it may damage the surface when you remove it.23) If you need anything to look symmetrical, from a vase to a face, draw a faint line down the center of your drawing space before you begin. Visually measure the spaces on both sides of this line as you draw. You can even use a ruler to measure different sections if you wish to be very precise!WORKING FROM PHOTOS24) Unless you are an expert photographer, use photos only as reference tools and draw from actual objects whenever possible.25) Use a viewfinder frame to help you modify the composition of a photo before you begin drawing. You can make a viewfinder frame with heavy paper and two large paper clips.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  4. 4. 426) If you want the face in a photo to be at a slightly different angle, you can tilt your photo a little as you tape it to a piece of paper, and then add a mat to hide the tilted corners of the photo.27) Whenever you plan to do a drawing from photographs, take lots of pictures of the potential drawing subjects from several different angles. You need to be familiar with a subject from all sides, before you can accurately draw its forms.VALUES AND SHADING28) Before you begin shading, confirm that objects, spaces, and perspective elements are drawn correctly. Check the relationships of objects to one another, observe that angles, sizes, and proportions are accurate, and adjust as needed.29) Many artists prefer to work from light to dark. By drawing the light values first, you can then layer your medium shading on top of your light shading. This layering creates a nice smooth transition between values. The darkest values are then built in layers on top of the medium.30) Squinting, to see the different values of an object, provides you with a visual map for sketching the shape of each value.31) Almost everything has more than one value. Depending on the light source, most things have areas that are very light and others that are quite dark. When you can see these different values you can draw the object in the third dimension.32) When shading with graduations, you can make the transition from one value to the next barely noticeable by drawing the individual shading lines different lengths. Sometimes a short line, placed inside a space between two other lines, helps make the transition look smoother.33) Step back from your drawing from time to time and have a look at the overall values. You may need to make some areas lighter and others darker.34) Take your time when drawing the forms of an object (or living being). Draw the shapes first and then shade in the light and shadows.35) Capturing the illusion of a three dimensional reality is more important than rendering patterns and/or textures.36) Use a piece of scrap paper to experiment with drawing the different textures you plan to use, before incorporating them into your actual drawing.37) Your drawings can appear flat, rather than three‐dimensional when too little contrast in values is used. Unless you are trying to achieve a specific mood or want the subject to look flat, always use a full range of values.38) The textures of some three‐dimensional objects are difficult to translate into a two‐dimensional drawing, for example a seashell, or a highly textured piece of driftwood. Photocopy (or scan and print) black and white images of a section of the object, so you can see the texture on a flat piece of paper before you begin adding shading.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  5. 5. 539) When shading a drawing subject with crosshatching, turn your paper around in various directions as you work, so that you are always using your natural hand movement. You should also try holding your arm in different positions as you draw. Whatever you find to be the most comfortable is right for you.40) When drawing an animal or person, visually break the subject down into shapes and measure proportions. Closely examine the areas where parts of the body bend, twist, or are extended or outstretched.41) The shading in a cast shadow (on the surface on which an object is sitting) is darker closer to the object and becomes gradually lighter as it moves outward.BLENDING SHADING42) Blending is difficult for beginners. Develop strong skills with traditional shading techniques, such as hatching and crosshatching, before you attempt blending. For blending to work well, you need to be reasonably skilled at putting graduated values on your paper. After all, there has to be something to blend. On the other hand, expecting blending to fix poorly done shading, simply isn’t realistic.43) When blending NEVER use your fingers! As a matter of fact, don’t touch your drawing paper in the sections where you plan to blend. Your skin can transfer oil to the paper, which becomes noticeable after blending (especially in light and middle values). Creating a smooth tone then becomes darn near impossible.44) Realistic shading with blending needs a broad range of values. The most common blending mistake is to over blend dark values. Either use blending very sparingly in dark shadowed areas, or don’t blend your dark values at all. If blending removes too much graphite, you can darken the values again by adding more graphite.45) Be careful not to wear away tissues or paper towels so your fingers are doing the blending. Wrap several layers around your finger and check often that the tissue isn’t wearing away.46) The final look of blended shading can be affected by many factors, including your choice of blending tools, shading techniques, media, and types of drawing paper.47) Don’t give up if you don’t like your first few attempts at blending. With patience and practice your blending skills improve.COMPOSITION48) An ideal composition requires components of different values, textures, shapes, and sizes. However, remember to keep it simple! Too many objects in a drawing creates overcrowding and disharmony.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  6. 6. 649) Choose a drawing format that best fits your subject; for example, many portraits look better in a vertical rectangle (sometimes called portrait format) rather than horizontal (often referred to as landscape).50) You can unify a still life drawing by choosing objects that relate to one another. Some themes to consider are: gardening tools and plants, kitchen utensils and food, table settings, themes based on texture or color (such as all black or all white objects), or an arrangement of children’s toys.51) A composition becomes more intriguing when you highlight your center of interest with more detail and a stronger contrast in values than other aspects of your drawing.52) Include an odd number of objects into a grouping, rather than an even number, whenever possible.53) Pay close attention to the shapes of negative and positive spaces.54) Often you discover perfect drawing subjects with imperfect compositions. If nature or man has placed an object in a position you don’t like, draw it in a different place on your paper or simply leave it out.55) Study composition by examining the works of masters. When you understand the basic guidelines of composition, you become more confident in planning your drawings, and subsequently your drawings improve.56) A shading plan, in the form of a thumbnail sketch, provides you with a blueprint for a composition.57) Use some of the basic elements of composition such as balance, shading, proportion, and overlapping to draw the viewer’s eye to your focal point.58) Arrange your objects asymmetrically. Taller objects usually look better off to one side.59) Place your focal point off center within the boundaries of your drawing space. In other words, don’t position a focal point dead center (sometimes called a bull’s eye)! While this serves to make your focal point stand out, all the other parts of your drawing may be ignored and your overall composition becomes weak.60) Don’t place all the dark or all the light values on one side of your drawing space. Rather, balance dark and light values in much the same way as objects. Sometimes, simply moving objects slightly to the right or left or drawing them lighter or darker than they appear in actuality, balances the composition.DRAWING WITH A GRID61) No matter how careful you are, when you draw with a grid, accidents do happen. If you draw some lines in the wrong grid squares, simply erase that section, redraw the grid lines, and keep on going! Lightly drawn lines are easy to erase!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  7. 7. 762) Draw the grid on your photo with a fine tip permanent marker or an ordinary ballpoint pen. They can be seen more clearly than a pencil, which tends to scratch the surface of the photo.63) Never draw a grid directly on a valuable photo! Make a photocopy, or scan and print it, and work from the copy.64) Using a grid helps render precise facial and figurative proportions and correct perspective when working from a photo.65) If you don’t like drawing grids on photos, pick up a few sheets of clear (don’t buy frosted) acetate at an art supply store. Draw grids with squares of different sizes on separate sheets with a very fine permanent marker (or draw the grid in Photoshop and print it on the acetate). To grid a photo, especially one you don’t want to damage, you simply place the clear grid over the photo, and you are ready to draw. As an extra perk, you can reuse acetate grids over and over again.66) Tape the corners of your drawing paper to a large sheet of graph paper to help draw the grid lines. Adjust the size of each square proportionate to the size you want the drawing to be. For example, if you want your drawing to be twice the size of the photo, use four (2 by 2) of the one‐quarter‐inch graph squares, to represent one, quarter‐inch grid square on the photo.DRAWING PORTRAITS AND PEOPLE67) When drawing a frontal view of a face, draw a line of symmetry on your paper before you begin. This line serves as a guideline for visually measuring horizontal distances so the head and face don’t end up lopsided.68) Always add some shading to the whites of peoples’ or animals’ eyes.69) In a graphite or charcoal portrait, you can imply the color of the iris of an eye, by using different values. Brown eyes are very dark in value, almost as dark as the pupil. Hazel, blue, or green eyes are mostly shaded with middle values. Pale blue, green, or gray eyes are very light in value and contrast sharply to the dark pupil.70) The secret to drawing teeth well, is to hardly draw them at all! Simply allow the shading of the lips, the upper and lower gums, and the shadows created by the light source to define them. Teeth, which are farther back in the jaw, need to be shaded darker because they are in the shadows of the mouth. Never draw lines between the individual teeth, or else they end up looking like a checkerboard!71) Never draw eyelashes from the tip down toward the eyelid. Always draw them in the direction in which they grow, from the eyelid (or root) outward.72) Soft lighting works best for portraits of young children.73) The eyes of babies and children are more rounded, the irises appear to be much larger, and their eyebrows are lighter than those of adults.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  8. 8. 874) Babies’ heads are proportionately large when compared to their tiny bodies, but their faces are disproportionately tiny. The most common mistake of beginners, attempting to draw a baby’s portrait is to make the face too big, in proportion to the size of the skull. An adult face is half the size of the adult cranial mass. However, a baby’s face is approximately one third the size of his or her cranial mass.75) Resist the temptation to make a baby’s hair too thick or full. When it comes to babies, the old expression “less is more” applies nicely. Too much hair in a drawing can make the baby look older than his or her actual age.76) You age progress a person by illustrating the changing three‐dimensional exterior forms of the skeletal structure, and by transforming the outward appearance of the skin, fat, and muscles pulled downward by gravity. You can’t accurately depict the aging process by simply drawing lines on a person’s face.77) When drawing a cartoon or caricature of someone familiar, such as a friend, family member, or a celebrity, exaggerate prominent features. If the eyes are far apart, draw them even farther apart. If his or her eyebrows are heavy, thick and dark, draw them heavier, thicker, and darker! If he or she has a big chin or nose, draw it larger! If the hair is thin, make it thinner and if it’s thick, draw it thicker!78) The various parts of eyes look very different when you view them from different angles. People’s eyes also change shape with different facial expressions.79) When drawing eyes, you need to draw the forms of the face, and the various folds of skin around the eyes.80) Whenever you draw eyes, keep the initial sketch lines very light so they can be erased later. No part of an eye should be drawn with dark bold lines. Instead of lines, use contrasting shading graduations to separate the various parts of the eye, and give depth to their forms.81) A full range of facial expressions are created by the movements of muscles. As various muscles do their jobs, different sections of the face move and often create folds and wrinkles in the skin.82) When someone is feeling down (sad), the corners of the mouth curve down. If a person is feeling up (happy), the corners of the mouth curl up.83) When selecting a pose for a portrait, something as simple as the tilt of a head, can make your drawing more interesting, and even tell something about the personality of your model.PERSPECTIVE84) When viewing the world according to geometric perspective, the farther away objects, animals, and people are, the smaller they appear to be.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  9. 9. 985) Perspective allows you to draw people visually correct and more realistic. Long parts of a body, such as arms or legs, look disproportionately short when viewed from an end.86) Find opportunities to view people from extreme perspectives in real life. You can even lie on the floor and have a friend or family member (the taller the better) stand beside you. As you look up at the person take note that the person’s head will look especially tiny, his or her legs and feet look disproportionately large, and the entire body looks much shorter than it actually is.87) Be patient with yourself. Your abilities to render perspective accurately, improve with practice, and eventually become instinctive. Careful observation of people and objects around you expands your understanding of perspective.88) The horizon line and your eye level are the same thing. Objects at your eye level seem to touch the horizon line, and their perspective lines converge both downward and upward. Objects above your eye level are above the horizon line and their perspective lines converge downward. Angular lines of objects below your eye level (below the horizon line) converge upwards.89) Always draw the horizon line parallel to the upper and lower sides of a square or rectangular drawing space.90) You can create the illusion that clouds near the horizon line are farther away, than those directly overhead, by drawing them smaller, closer together, and lighter in value.91) By overlapping closer objects over distant objects, the illusion of depth is enhanced.FIGURE DRAWING FROM LIFE92) Identifying the exterior three‐dimensional forms of adult bodies, as defined by bones, fat, and muscles, is more important to artists than memorizing the names of different parts of the body.93) Choose poses that are expressive, artistically pleasing, and comfortable for your model.94) Use tape or chalk to mark the placement of a model’s body on the surface on which he or she is sitting, standing, or lying. For example, by marking the outline of the model’s feet in a standing pose, he or she can easily find the correct pose again after a break.95) Experiment with different drawing media such as conté, charcoal, or graphite sticks and use large sheets of paper when sketching figures.96) When figure drawing from a live model, have snacks and beverages handy. Remember, modeling is very difficult.97) Don’t worry if your drawings of hands and feet look all wrong at first. Just do your best and in time, you will get better!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  10. 10. 10SIGNING YOUR NAME98) Spend some time experimenting with the letters in your name and come up with a creative signature that will be easy to use.99) Sign your name in the same medium used for rendering the drawing. For example, if the drawing is in charcoal, sign your name in charcoal.100) The best place to sign your name is in either the lower right or lower left corner of your drawing. Sketch your name very lightly first, and then if you like its position, you can then draw it darker.101) Be careful not to make your signature too large, because it will distract from the artwork. On the other hand, if you make your signature too small, it will be difficult to read.PROTECTING YOUR DRAWINGS102) When your drawing is completely finished, a spray fixative can protect it from being accidentally smudged. The instructions on the can often say you can erase after using this spray, but erasing hasn’t worked well for me. They also say that you can work over the spray. However, I find the spray changes the texture of the paper, and graphite especially, won’t adhere to the surface as well after it’s been sprayed.103) Use spray fixative only in a well‐ventilated place or outside on a fine day. Three or four very light coatings of fixative work much better than one or two heavy coats.104) Don’t store your drawings, with either clear tape or corrugated cardboard, touching them. Either of these items can discolor your drawings, and do permanent damage after only a few weeks.105) Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper, to prevent you from smudging your drawing.106) The natural oils or dirt on someone’s hands can damage your drawing paper. Handle drawing paper by its edges, and never touch the surface, unless absolutely necessary (even before you begin to draw). Before you show a drawing to another person, let him or her know that the drawing is very delicate, and can be ruined if they touch it. Then watch them VERY closely, in case they forget!107) Put your drawings away in a safe place when you are finished working!108) Never place or hang drawings in direct sunlight, no matter how well protected you think they are. Better safe than sorry!109) Have a special surface for cutting drawing papers and boards. A completed drawing that has been accidentally cut in half becomes two pieces of scrap paper.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  11. 11. 11110) Never rest a cup of coffee (or any other beverage) on your drawing surface or you’ll end up with a soggy brown mess instead of a drawing.111) Drawings always need to be framed behind glass. Make sure that both the mat and the backing are acid‐free. If you’re framing a drawing you’re really fond of, use conservation glass, available at most reputable framing shops. Better still, if you can afford it, have your drawings professionally framed.WARM FUZZIES112) Drawing is a journey, not a destination. The day that you are totally happy with your drawings is the day you pack up your supplies and quit. Learning to draw is an infinite quest.113) You need three invaluable ingredients in order to improve your drawing skills ‐ practice, practice, and more practice! Drawing is an action word – you learn by doing!114) Experiment with lots of different shading techniques until you find what works best for you. You are a unique individual with distinctive artistic needs. Stay true to yourself and continue developing your own vision and style. Remember there is no right or wrong way to draw.115) Maintain a sketchbook and save all your favorite drawings. Reflecting back on your personal journey as an artist is inspirational and self‐affirming.116) Draw in a way you really love. Styles are neither right nor wrong… they just are. With time, your style develops all by itself.117) Talent is the self‐discovery that you possess the ability, and motivation needed to become exceptional. This acquired physical or mental aptitude is accessible to you, and can be developed with hard work, patience, and dedication.KEEPING THE ENJOYMENT118) Make some time to draw every day. Find a peaceful space that is comfortable and free of distractions. If you begin to tire or feel frustrated, take a break. When you return have a fresh look at your drawing and touch up anything you’re not happy with.119) To prevent your eyes from becoming too tired, always make sure you have adequate lighting. Natural light through a window is best in the daytime. On overcast days and in the evenings, a flexible‐neck study lamp can focus light directly on your drawing surface.120) Make sure your proposed project isn’t more than you can handle. If you’re a beginner to drawing, choose a subject you feel is very, very simple. You set yourself up for a frustrating experience by taking on a project beyond your skill level.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  12. 12. 12121) Always choose a drawing subject that appeals to you. Otherwise you may get bored halfway through your project.BEYOND THE SKETCHBOOK122) Take time to examine, and appreciate a diverse range of art and artists. Art has become very accessible in recent years through galleries, art books, and the Internet. With careful observation of the drawings of other artists, you gain invaluable information, which you can apply to your own drawings.123) Watch your local newspapers and media for art exhibitions and plan to attend as many as possible. You can usually meet and chat with artists in your community by attending the openings of these shows.124) You can enhance your artistic development by practicing mental and visual exercises, such as optical illusions.125) Check out your local community based educational facilities and recreational centers, for programs in your area. You can always benefit from drawing classes and workshops. You can meet others who also want to improve their drawing skills and you are exposed to different techniques and drawing styles.126) Plan an outing, find some floral models, and draw them from various perspectives. Do close‐up detailed drawings of the textures and forms of the individual petals and leaves, which define their unique qualities.127) If you can access life‐drawing classes, you have the highly rewarding opportunity to draw from live models. As you uncover local art resources, you meet other artists, and have opportunities to become involved in art groups. Many art groups organize incredible workshops, taught by prominent artists, and the camaraderie and enjoyment is well worth your time.128) Explore garage sales, flea markets, and antique stores, and find some “old” objects to draw. Old, weathered and worn objects have a lot of “personality” which you can identify, and incorporate as an integral part of your drawing.129) The Internet is a vast resource for drawing lessons; an extensive list of artists provides online tutorials, lessons, and courses. Take time to investigate and participate in some of the wonderful drawing e‐groups on the Internet, where international artists share tips, critique one another’s works, and openly discuss various art techniques and art resources.130) Check out the Internet or your public library to find out more about the history of art. Be sure not to miss Renaissance, Romanticism, Realism, or Impressionism.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  13. 13. 13 BRENDA HODDINOTT As a self‐educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist (retired), and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including her favorites: graphite and paint. Brenda is the author of Drawing for Dummies (Wiley Publishing, Inc., New York, NY) and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (Winner of the Alpha‐Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha ‐ Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN). She is currently writing two books on classical drawing. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong drawing and painting skills through self‐directed learning.During her twenty‐five year career as a self‐educated civilian forensic artist, variouscriminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including the RoyalCanadian Mounted Police. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from theRoyal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membershipfrom “Forensic Artists International”.In 2003, Brenda retired from her careers as a forensic artist and teacher to work full timewriting books and developing her website (Drawspace.com). This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilitiesthroughout the world.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  14. 14. TO OR NOT TO Brenda HoddinottJ-02 INTERMEDIATE: SKILLS & SECRETSIn order for blending to work well, an artist must be very skilled at rendering graduated values.After all, there has to be something to blend. This lesson provides guidance for properly addingshading to graphite drawings prior to blending, discusses the process of blending, and introducesvarious blending tools and methods.Artists with the basic skills of hatching and/or crosshatching graduations can explore varioustechniques and tools for blending graphite drawings, throughout the following five sections: COMPARING SHADING WITHOUT AND WITH BLENDING: You compare the same drawing of a smooth grape before and after it is blended, so you can see which style you prefer. A discussion provides insights into the shading and blending processes. SUGGESTED BLENDING TOOLS: Blending is the process of rubbing shading lines with a blending tool (sometimes called a blender), to evenly distribute the drawing media over the surface of the paper. The pros and cons of various types of blending tools are discussed. HOW NOT TO SET UP FOR BLENDING: As demonstrated in this section, expecting blending to fix poorly done shading in a graphite drawing, is totally unrealistic. SETTING UP HATCHING FOR SMOOTH BLENDING: Blending is popular, and many beginners love to use blended hatching in their graphite drawings. SETTING UP CROSSHATCHING FOR SMOOTH BLENDING: Small, delicate crosshatched strokes on smooth paper, creates a softly rendered graduation of values without blending. However, there is absolutely nothing wrong with using blending for any drawing, if an even smoother texture is the look you wish to achieve. 11 PAGES – 16 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists, with good shading skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, Revised 2005
  15. 15. -2- COMPARING SHADING WITHOUT AND WITH BLENDING When I was new to drawing, I always used blending to make my graduated shading smooth. However, it didn’t work well for most of my portraits because the texture of the skin tended to look like porcelain, or the faces ended up looking like cartoons. Blended drawings often look non-realistic and flat when the blending is not done well. I spoiled many drawings before I figured out how to do blending properly. I eventually discovered that blending graphite isn’t a deep dark secret! The key to ending up with beautiful shading with blending is to apply your initial shading with carefully rendered squirkling, hatching or crosshatching graduations before you begin blending. Well done blending is also dependant on the different pencils you use and the types of paper and blending tools you choose. You just have to experiment with different techniques and drawing supplies until you find what works best for you! By using contour crosshatching lines that followed the forms of the grape (Illustration 02-01), I created the illusion of form and depth. The cast shadow grounds the grape so it doesn’t look like it is floating. The darkest values in the shadow are close to the lower edge of the grape to help create the illusion of weight. ILLUSTRATION 02-01 This drawing was prepared for blending as follows:  First, the grape and its shadow were carefully outlined.  Light values were then added with contour crosshatching.  I added darker shading until I achieved a strong contrast of values. Contrast measures the degree of difference between the light and dark values within shading.  The shadow was added with hatching lines.  Small intricate details, such as the stem were defined last.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  16. 16. -3- In Illustration 02-02, you see the grape after the hatching and crosshatching lines were blended with Q-tips and facial tissues. The blending process was as follows:  Using a Q-tip, I first very gently blended the light values around the highlight of the grape.  Working progressively from light to dark I used circular movements to blend the values.  If the shading became too light in the dark shadowed areas, I added more graphite and blended again.  I continued applying graphite to certain sections and repeating the blending process with facial tissues until I was happy with the results.  The shadow was blended very slightly from light to dark, so some of the hatching lines were still noticeable. ILLUSTRATION 02-02Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  17. 17. -4- I love hatching and crosshatching techniques and find the visible lines to be artsy and fun. The shading in Illustration 02-01 was done with both hatching and crosshatching lines, in preparation for blending the values, to create the shiny texture of the grape in Illustration 02-02. It is completely up to you whether you choose to blend or not to blend. Both techniques are a lot of fun, so it all comes down to the personal preference of the artist! Examine both drawings of the grape, without and with blending, to see which you prefer. Drawing shading with hatching, squirkling, or crosshatching lines is much easier to control than blending values together. Expect to not be happy with your first few tries to blend graphite. However, with time, patience, and practice you do get better! Refer to Q-02 Grape Smoothie in Intermediate: Places and Things for step-by-step instructions on drawing, shading, and blending the grape illustrated in this lesson. SUGGESTED BLENDING TOOLS Blending is the process of rubbing shading lines with a blending tool (sometimes called a blender), to evenly distribute the drawing media over the surface of the paper, thereby achieving a smooth graduation of values. Various blending tools create different textures. Texture is the surface detail of an object, as defined in a drawing with various shading techniques. The senses of touch and sight help identify the surface texture of drawing subject. Some blending tools to consider experimenting with include:  Facial Tissues: are great for softening most pencil strokes, but be careful not to wear the tissue away to the point that your fingers are doing the blending and not the tissue. Wrap several layers around your finger and check often that the tissue isn’t wearing away.  Blending Stumps or Tortillons: are tightly wound sticks of paper with points on both ends. You find them in art supply stores and can choose from lots of different sizes. Big ones are great for large areas of shading, and the tiny ones work well for more detailed sections of your drawing.  Paper Towels: are another option and are more durable than facial tissues.  Q-tips: work beautifully for tiny detailed sections of drawings, and offer lots of control when moving graphite around on your paper.  Paper: brings out the texture of the drawing paper, which in turn can create some really neat textures in your drawings.  Felt: creates different textures for a variety of drawing subjects. You should stay with white pieces so colored dyes don’t spoil your drawings. You can find felt at department or craft supply stores, sometimes sold in convenient 1 by 1 foot squares.  Chamois: This stuff is available in lots of stores and is great when you need to create a very smoothly textured surface, such as for glass or a shiny piece of fruit.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  18. 18. -5- HOW NOT TO SET UP FOR BLENDING Of course, you know that you will end up with the same white paper you begin with if you try to blend without a base of graphite. On the other hand, expecting blending to fix poorly done shading is also totally unrealistic. In the following exercises, you need 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils; good quality drawing paper; and blending tools such as facial tissues, paper towels and/or Q-tips. 1) Draw several random lines with a 2B pencil on your drawing paper. Draw lots of loosely sketched lines (as in Illustration 02-03) ILLUSTRATION 02-03 2) Wrap a facial tissue (or piece of paper towel) around the end of one of your fingers. With gentle circular movements, blend the lines together as well as you possibly can. As you can clearly see, poorly rendered shading lines cannot be magically transformed into beautiful smooth blending; no matter what tools you use, or how much time you spend trying to make it work. ILLUSTRATION 02-04Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  19. 19. -6- 3) Draw a loosely rendered graduation of values from light to dark or from dark to light. In Illustration 02-05, a set of hatching lines is graduated from dark to light. In Illustration 02-06, you find a graduation from light to dark. ILLUSTRATION 02-05 ILLUSTRATION 02-06 When blending NEVER use your fingers! As a matter of fact, try not to ever touch your drawing paper with your fingers or hands in sections you plan to blend. The powder component in graphite works almost exactly like the fingerprinting powder used by criminal investigative sections of police departments. Your skin can transfer oil to the paper. This oil becomes visible after blending, especially in the lighter values. Then, it becomes darn near impossible to create a smooth, even tone with graphite in those areas with finger or hand prints.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  20. 20. -7- 4) Wrap a facial tissue or a small piece of fabric or paper towel around the end of one of your fingers. You are welcome to experiment with any other blending tools, such as a blending stump or a tortillon. 5) With gentle circular movements, blend the lines together as well as you possibly can. Try any techniques you can think of to obtain a nice smooth graduated tone with blending from these loosely drawn lines. Even if the surface of your paper survives your attempts, you will inevitably end up with a messy, rough, smudgy effect as you can see in Illustrations 02-07 and 02-08. ILLUSTRATION 02-07 ILLUSTRATION 02-08 Now that you know how NOT to set up for blending, try the techniques in the next section and make an effort to get better results. SETTING UP HATCHING FOR SMOOTH BLENDING Some well accomplished and professional artists have perfectly mastered blending techniques and their drawings look incredible. Blending is popular, and many beginners also love to use blending techniques in their graphite drawings. But, blending is unbelievably difficult to do well.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  21. 21. -8- Don’t allow any instructor or teacher to convince you that their way of blending is the best. Experiment with as many different techniques and tools as you possibly can. If you like certain ways of blending, use them, but keep your mind open and never hesitate to try new techniques and/or tools. You are a unique individual with distinctive artistic needs. In order to continue developing your own vision and style, you must stay true to yourself! I very rarely use blending in my own drawings because I love seeing shading lines and the textures they create. But, you have to decide for yourself what you like or don’t like! In this lesson, I show you what blending techniques work well for me. 6) Render a graduation with hatching lines that are close together. Your values should graduate very gently from light to dark or from dark to light. Shading lines need to be close together and tightly rendered with a very smooth and gentle gradation from dark to light (or light to dark). This will ensure a smooth blending of the pencil marks into a graduation. A piece of scrap of paper, placed under your drawing hand as you draw, will protect your drawing from the oils of your skin. ILLUSTRATION 02-09 ILLUSTRATION 02-10Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  22. 22. -9- 7) With any blending tool you prefer, gently blend your hatching graduation from the lighter section toward the darker section. Continue blending until your graduation is as smooth as you like, but be careful not to rub the surface of your paper off! Illustrations 02-12 and 02-13 show detailed, close-up views of blended hatching, from light to dark and dark to light. ILLUSTRATION 02-11 ILLUSTRATION 02-12 ILLUSTRATION 02-13 SETTING UP CROSSHATCHING FOR SMOOTH BLENDING I love to shade my drawings with meticulously rendered crosshatching lines. Small, delicate strokes on smooth paper, creates a softly rendered graduation of values without blending. However, there is absolutely nothing wrong with using blending for any drawing, if an even smoother texture is the look you wish to achieve.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  23. 23. - 10 - 8) Render a graduation (from light to dark or from dark to light) with crosshatching lines that are close together. ILLUSTRATION 02-14 9) Blend your crosshatching graduation from light to dark. Keep a piece of scrap paper under your hand to prevent accidentally smudging or transferring oils from your hands onto your drawing surface. Illustration 02-16 shows a close-up view of blended crosshatching. ILLUSTRATION 02-15 ILLUSTRATION 02-16 Even though I recommend some specific blending tools, please don’t limit yourself to my suggestions! Experiment with some creative ideas of your own! Just make sure whatever you choose is clean and that colored items (such as fabrics) don’t leave their dyes on your drawing!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  24. 24. - 11 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  25. 25. SECRET Brenda Hoddinott J-03 INTERMEDIATE: SKILLS & SECRETS Many popular still life subjects are symmetrical. Knowing how to employ a short cut for rendering symmetry, not only saves time, but can also make your drawing subjects look more accurate.Back in the day of the dinosaur, a commercial art teacher showed me this method of drawingsymmetrical objects. It has proven invaluable for numerous aspects of my lengthy art careerincluding graphic design, forensic art, jewelry design, and the rendering of portraits and still life.In this project, your goal is to draw a symmetrical still life object. You can either follow theinstructions to render the vase in this lesson, or you can select an object from your home, office,etc., and draw from life. If you plan to draw from life, choose a simple subject. Take a tour ofyour home and see what catches your eye; for example, vases, flowerpots, and wine glassesmake gorgeous drawings.Suggested drawing supplies include paper, pencils, erasers, a pencil sharpener, a ruler, and asheet of tracing paper. This project is recommended for artists from age 12 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 7 PAGES – 15 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – Revised 2006
  26. 26. -2- In this exercise your goal is to draw a symmetrical still life object. Symmetry is a balanced arrangement of lines and shapes, on opposite sides of an often-imaginary centerline. Many popular still life subjects are symmetrical, and knowing a short cut for rendering symmetry not only saves time, but also makes your drawing subjects more realistic. ILLUSTRATION 03-01 ILLUSTRATION 03-02 Examine the two wooden objects in illustration 03-01. Imagine a vertical line down the center of each object dividing it in half (illustration 03-02). On each side of this line is a mirror image of the other side of the object; hence, the sides are symmetrical. You can either: follow the instructions and render the vase shown in Illustration 03-03; or, you can select an object from your home, office, etc. and draw it from life. ILLUSTRATION 03-03 ILLUSTRATION 03-04 1) Lightly sketch an outline of the vase. Observe the lengths of the lines, the directions in which they curve, and the shapes of the spaces in between the lines. If you plan to draw from life, choose a simple subject. Take a tour of your home and see what catches your eye. For example, vases, flowerpots, and wine glasses make gorgeous drawings. Place your object on a flat surface, and follow along with the text instructions, while using the illustrations as visual references.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  27. 27. -3- ILLUSTRATION 03-05 2) Use a ruler to measure two different horizontal distances on the vase. I chose the neck of the vase and the widest part of the large circular section. 3) Mark the centers of these distances with dots, to identify the approximate placement of the vertical center (the line of symmetry) of the vase. 4) Use a ruler to draw a line of symmetry through the dots. The goal is to end up with a vertical line down the middle of the vase. You may even need to rotate your drawing slightly so the line of symmetry is vertical rather than at an angle. ILLUSTRATION 03-06 5) Figure out which side of your sketch looks the most like the shape of the vase. The right side of my sketch looks more believable, and closer to the shape of the vase. 6) Lighten all the rough sketch lines on the good side, with your kneaded eraser. 7) Take your time, and refine the good side of your drawing with a freshly sharpened pencil. As you draw, constantly refer to the vase or object. 8) Use your vinyl eraser to completely erase the less desirable side of the vase.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  28. 28. -4- ILLUSTRATION 03-07 9) Use a ruler to draw a horizontal line across the vase, perpendicular to the vertical line. 10) Tape tracing paper over the completed half of your drawing. Refer to Illustration 03-08. Don’t put tape on the sections of the paper to be occupied by the drawing of the vase; the tape may damage the surface when you pull it off. ILLUSTRATION 03-08 11) Use a sharp pencil (2B or 4B) and a ruler to accurately trace the intersecting vertical and horizontal lines. 12) Sharpen the pencil again, and trace all the curved lines of the vase as precisely as possible. When you’re done, you have this half of the vase drawn on the tracing paper.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  29. 29. -5- 13) Carefully remove the tracing paper. 14) Flip the tracing paper over to the reverse side. The graphite should now be on the down side of the tracing paper. 15) Position the tracing paper on the missing half of the vase. Make sure the vertical and horizontal lines overlap one another. ILLUSTRATION 03-09 16) Tape the tracing paper in place. 17) Use a pencil (or a ball point pen) to go over each line of the half of the vase on the tracing paper. The graphite, of the drawing on the reverse side of your tracing paper, serves as a carbon for transferring the image onto your drawing paper. ILLUSTRATION 03-10 18) Carefully remove the tracing paper and erase the horizontal and vertical lines. You now have a faint mirror image of half of the vase. 19) Outline the lines a little darker to match the first side you drew. Refer to the completed outline on the next page.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  30. 30. -6- ILLUSTRATION 03-11 An outline drawing of a vase is now awaiting a light source so it can be shaded! 20) Arrange your lighting however you wish, and add shading to your symmetrical outline. How you set up your lighting, influences every aspect of shading and ultimately whether or not your drawing subject looks three-dimensional. For example, examine the two photos and drawings below. ILLUSTRATION 03-12 ILLUSTRATION 03-13 A light source from the upper right (Illustrations 03-12 and 03-14) results in a three-dimensional drawing. Illustrations 03-13 and 03-15 demonstrate back lighting, which tends to flatten subjects as much as using a flash to take a photo. ILLUSTRATION 03-14 ILLUSTRATION 03-15Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  31. 31. -7- BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  32. 32. AN IMAGE By Cindy Wider Art educator, art curricula designer, award- winning gallery-represented artist, and author of Paint in Your PyjamasJ-04 INTERMEDIATE: SKILLS & SECRETSA telltale sign of a professional artist is the ability to render a neat, clean artwork. Yet, quiteoften in early stages of the creative process, a potential masterpiece becomes irreparablysmudged, soiled, or damaged. This wonderful simple technique shows you how experiencedartists transfer the primary components of a drawing (or other image) to a fresh clean sheet ofpaper.As an aside, this technique is unknown to many students of art, but is certainly not new; in fact, itcan be traced (pun intended) back to the great masters of the Renaissance.This exercise is divided into two sections: SETTING UP FOR A TRANSFER: All you need is an image to use for testing this technique, a good quality sheet of drawing paper, masking tape, and an HB, 2B, or 4B graphite pencil. TRANSFERRING YOUR IMAGE: In this section, you transfer the important parts of your image to a new sheet of paper. 6 PAGES – 3 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists of all ages and skill levels, as well as students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Publishing for Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2008
  33. 33. -2- SETTING UP FOR A ARTSPEAK TRANSFER Technique refers to a well-defined procedure, such Many students of art are in awe of a as a particular way of rendering shading, used to professional artist’s ability to turn out neat accomplish a specific task. Quite often, more than clean drawings. However, in addition to one technique is suitable for successfully completing many years of experience, professional a task; hence, the artist’s selection of a technique is artists also know a few artistic secrets. The generally based on individual preferences and technique taught in this lesson is unknown personal style. to many students of art, but is certainly not Proportion is the relationship in size of one new; in fact, this technique can be traced component of a drawing to another or others. (pun intended) back to the great masters of Perspective is a visual illusion in a drawing in which the Renaissance. objects appear to become smaller, and recede into Most artists use rough sketch lines, marks, distant space, the farther away they are from the and measuring devices during the process of viewer. decision-making in the early stages of Shading (noun) refers to the various values within a creating an artwork. Many artists even drawing that make images appear three- prefer working out potential problems such dimensional; (verb) the process of adding values to as proportion and perspective on a drawing so as to create the illusion of texture, form inexpensive paper before beginning a and/or three-dimensional space. masterpiece. In addition, drawings can be Rough sketch is a quickly rendered drawing that easily smudged, soiled, or damaged. Erasing illustrates the important elements of a subject with all these markings can be very difficult (and very few details. sometimes impossible). Graphite is a soft black form of opaque carbon The good news is that you can easily found in nature, often mixed with clay in the manufacture of graphite pencils. transfer your initial rough sketch (or damaged drawing) onto another surface. Medium refers to a drawing tool, such as a graphite Transferring a drawing to a fresh clean sheet pencil, used to make marks on a drawing surface. of paper allows you to restart with all the Texture refers to the surface detail of an object. The important aspects, such as proportion properties of a texture can be identified with vision, already in place. You are then all ready for a sense of touch, and a general knowledge of the the fun parts such as shading and final subject. details. AS AN ASIDE The word Renaissance, derived from the French word rebirth, refers to the diverse changes that occurred within European culture from the early twelfth century to the late sixteenth century. Between 1480 and 1527, during the period known as the High Renaissance, many of history’s most renowned artists created some of the greatest masterpieces our world has ever known. During this short period in history, visual art developed more than at any other time since the beginning of mankind. Today, this rebirth, also referred to as new birth, continues its growth with a resurgence of the learning and teaching of traditional drawing techniques in home schooling, recreational, and academic learning environments.Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  34. 34. -3- Time to take this technique for a test drive! You need: An image to use for testing this technique. Maybe you already have a TIP! rough sketch with the potential to become a great drawing. If not, Do not use print an image that you like from your computer files. This technique graphite transfer works best when the image to be transferred is on thin paper. paper! It does not erase easily An HB, 2B, or 4B graphite pencil. and also stands A sheet of good quality drawing paper. out as quite a different texture Masking tape than that created by graphite pencils. TRANSFERRING YOUR IMAGE In this section you transfer the important parts of your image to a new sheet of paper. 1) Use the side of an HB, 2B, or 4B pencil to rub the back of your image. You can rub the entire backside of the image (by holding your pencil almost flat to your paper) or only the sections you want to transfer. Refer to Figure 401. If you can see your drawing clearly enough through the page when you flip it over, you can rub the picture at your desk. However, if you can’t see the image and do not wish to shade the entire back of the page, simply take your drawing over to a window, place it picture side out, and press it against the glass (so the sun allows your image to show through). If you want, you can tape the corners of the paper to the glass. Figure 401: View of the backside of a sheet of drawing paper. A graphite pencil is used to rub the important parts of a drawing of a teapot.Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  35. 35. -4- 2) Flip your drawing back over so it’s right side up. TIP! 3) Place it onto a fresh new sheet of drawing paper with the 2B and 4B pencils rubbed surface facing down. tend to make very dark transferred 4) Attach the image to the new paper with a small piece of lines. If you are masking tape on either end of the top of the page. transferring an intricate image, an 5) Press firmly (but not so hard that you indent your page) HB may work better. with an HB pencil or pen, and follow around the lines of your image that you want to transfer onto new paper. Refer to Figure 402. Remember; be very careful not to indent your page! Test a small area first and check to see that it is working. The lines should be barely visible, just dark enough to see.) This process will transfer the image onto your new page ready for shading. Figure 402: The image being transferred is on top of the new sheet of paper. A pencil is used to go over all important lines. TIP! Occasionally, you might see some indentation marks as a result of transferring your image. These show up as tiny white lines once you begin to shade the area. You can correct these sections by gently filling in the white area with the very tip of your HB or 2B pencil. Press super softly and stroke the area with gentle feather-like strokes. Indentation marks pose more of a problem in the dark shadow areas. As you become more confident with your drawing skills, you can choose to draw the shadow shapes directly onto the newly transferred image (you will still have to draw super-soft to avoid indentation marks.)Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  36. 36. -5- 6) Gently lift up and remove your image to expose the transferred drawing underneath. Refer to Figure 403. Your drawing is transferred. The image may not be as dark as in my illustration; I used a 4B pencil so that the transferred image would be dark enough for you to see clearly. You are now ready to gently sketch your shadow and highlight shapes before you begin the shading process. Figure 403: Your transferred lines should be very faint, much lighter than in this illustration. I have used a dark pencil so you can see the demonstration more clearly. TIP! If your image has come through darker than you wish, you can erase it back to barely visible. Use a kneaded eraser to gently pat the entire surface until the lines become very faint.Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  37. 37. -6- Drawspace.com is proud to introduce Cindy Wider Art educator, art curricula designer, award-winning gallery- represented artist, and author of Paint in Your Pyjamas Cindy Wider currently resides in Noosa on the Sunshine Coast of Queensland, Australia with her husband Stuart, and daughters Isha and Sumaya. Art philosophy I believe that almost everyone has the natural gifts needed for learning to draw and paint, and that art has the ability to heal and help us to reach our full human potential. Art is the missing language that can bridge the gap in communication when words are not enough. It is my life purpose to share my love of art, through inspiring and motivating others to realize their natural gifts for drawing and painting. My passion for helping others to learn to draw and paint comes from the joy and excitement I experience through the process of creating art and my desire to share that feeling! I stumbled upon my natural gifts for art at the age of 23years and wished I had known about it sooner. Professional accomplishments After ten years of serious art study Cindy went on to become one of her community’s leading artists with her artworks gracing the walls of many of the major hotels, corporate boardrooms and private homes as well as selling overseas. She began tutoring at the local Technical and Further Education College in 1988 and then went on to establish the largest on-going private art tuition school in Port Lincoln, then several years later in Noosa Queensland. For many years Cindy worked as a part time freelance illustrator for the internationally renowned rubber stamp company, ‘Annaleey crafts.’ In 2005, along with her husband Stuart she was commissioned by the Microsoft Corporation to produce an original artwork for their Sydney headquarters, and limited edition prints for the annual corporate gift to their business associates. You can view Cindy’s paintings at: http://www.thecoopergallery.com.au/wider/wider.htm Paint in Your Pyjamas Have you been asking yourself, "Who am I and what do I really want out of life?” Perhaps youve been selflessly dedicating all your energy to your children or partner to help them fulfill their dreams and goals. Maybe youre working hard just to earn a living. But now you feel the time has come to do something for yourself. If so, this book is just for you... You can buy Cindy’s book, ‘Paint in Your Pyjamas – every Woman’s guide to finding your life purpose through art’ at: http://www.paintinyourpyjamas.com/Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com

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