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Drawspace.com drawspace guide to getting started with drawing

  1. 1. Ideal for homeschooling and self-directed learning!DRAWINGBOOK 1: GETTING STARTED Brenda Hoddinott Author of Drawing for Dummies and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People Illustrated120 pages and morethan 230 illustrations!► Choose the right drawing supplies► Set up a place to draw► Make a portfolio and viewfinder frame► 10 fun exercises and projectsFlesch-Kincaid Grade Level: 6.84Flesch reading ease score: 74.7
  2. 2. Brenda Hoddinott Artist, illustrator, art educator, curriculum designer, forensic artist (retired), owner of Drawspace.com, and author of Drawing for Dummies, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People Illustrated, and Drawing Book 1: Getting Started.********************************************************************** Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. With the help of learn-to-draw books, she developed good drawing skills by the age of 16. In 1982 Brenda left her well established career as a portraitist, graphic designer, and forensic artist, to move to Nova Scotia with her family. In addition to resuming the various facets of her art career, she began learning to paint in oils. From 1988 to 1994, Brenda began exhibiting her paintings and drawings in provincial and regional art exhibitions and competitions. She was honored with more than twenty prestigious visual art awards during these six years. Brenda and her partner John live in the suburbs of Halifax, Nova Scotia with their two SPCA rescue dogs, Timber (Huskador) and Katie (Rottbeagle). Their blended family includes five adult children and two grandchildren.**********************************************************************
  3. 3. I DRAWING BOOK 1 GETTING STARTED by Brenda HoddinottAuthor of Drawing for Dummies and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People Illustrated Published by Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada
  4. 4. II This book is dedicated to my loving partner, John Percy. Copyright © 2009 Brenda Hoddinott All rights reserved. No part of this electronic book shall be reproduced by any method or means, electronically sent or transferred to additional individuals or companies other than the original purchaser of this electronic book, or transmitted by any method or means; electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. This electronic publication contains the opinions and ideas of the author, Brenda Hoddinott, and it is intended to provide helpful and informative material on all aspects of the subject matter, specifically the basics of drawing. Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace.com disclaim any responsibility for any liability, damages, loss, or risk, personal or otherwise, which is incurred as a consequence, directly or indirectly, resulting from the use or misuse of information and applications of any of the contents of this book. Publisher: Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada Illustrations, curriculum, book layout, and cover design: Brenda Hoddinott Editor: Suzanne Beaton Brenda Hoddinott can be contacted at brenda@drawspace.com or through her website at http://www.drawspace.com.
  5. 5. III CONTENTS*****************************************************************Introduction .................................................................1 Look into this Book ..................................................................................3 Sizing up the sidebars ................................................................................3 ArtSpeak ....................................................................................................................3 Info Tidbit ....................................................................................................................3 Warning! ....................................................................................................................4 Tip! ............................................................................................................................4 Art Quote ...................................................................................................................4 Eyeing action icons ....................................................................................4 Shaping up with exercises ..........................................................................................4 Step-by-step projects .................................................................................................4 Action sidebar numbers and letters .............................................................................4 A few words on illustrations ........................................................................5 Insights into the Parts .............................................................................6 Part 1: Get Ready! .....................................................................................6 Part 2: Get Set! ..........................................................................................6 Part 3: Go Draw! ........................................................................................6 How to Use this Book ..............................................................................6Part 1: Get Ready! ......................................................7 Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing ...................................................9 A Brief History of Drawing .....................................................................11 In the time of the caveman .......................................................................11 The birth of classical art ...........................................................................12 Remembering the Renaissance ................................................................13 The Inside Scoop on Drawing ................................................................14 Drawing is an action word ........................................................................15 YOU can draw! .........................................................................................15
  6. 6. IV Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades ...................17 Traveling Back in Time with Graphite ....................................................17 How the “lead” pencil got its name ...........................................................18 The link between graphite and sheep .......................................................19 Making the Grade ...................................................................................19 Hard is light .............................................................................................21 Soft is dark ..............................................................................................22 Combining soft and hard grades ...............................................................23 Finding out your grade .............................................................................24 Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums ..............................................25 Picking out Proper Pencils ....................................................................26 Wood-encased pencils .............................................................................28 Graphite pencils .......................................................................................................27 Charcoal pencils .......................................................................................................27 Other fun pencil mediums ........................................................................29 Mechanical pencils ...................................................................................................29 Woodless graphite pencils ........................................................................................29 Sticks and Stones (oops!) Powders ......................................................31 Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers .............................33 Check up on Tooth (without a Dentist!) .................................................34 The surface of a smooth tooth ..................................................................35 Big smile for a medium tooth ....................................................................36 Textures on a rough tooth .........................................................................37 Sketchbooks and Papers .......................................................................38 Softcover, hardcover, or sheets? ..............................................................39 Weighing in on paper ...............................................................................39 Larger is not always better .......................................................................40 Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics ..................................................41 Tools for Erasing ....................................................................................41 Vinyl erasers ............................................................................................41 Kneaded erasers ......................................................................................42 Sharpening your Mediums .....................................................................43 Pencil sharpeners ....................................................................................43
  7. 7. Contents V Sandpaper blocks and sheets ..................................................................43 A Few Extras ..........................................................................................44 Stuff you can’t do without .........................................................................44 Pencil case ...............................................................................................................44 Portfolio ....................................................................................................................44 Ruler ........................................................................................................................44 Viewfinder frame .......................................................................................................45 Nice to have, but not necessary ...............................................................45 Display boards ..........................................................................................................46 Spray fixative ...........................................................................................................46 Manikins ...................................................................................................................46Part 2: Get Set! .................................................47 Chapter 6: Setting up For Drawing ..............................................49 A Comfy Place to Sit and Draw ..............................................................49 Choosing a drawing surface .....................................................................50 Shedding light on your art ........................................................................50 Good Posture First! ................................................................................51 How NOT to sit! ........................................................................................52 Sitting correctly ........................................................................................52 Putting Together a Portable Studio .......................................................53 Chapter 7: Making a List, Portfolio, and Viewfinder Frame ........55 Action 7A: The Shopping List ................................................................55 Must have ................................................................................................55 Nice to have .............................................................................................56 Supplies for making a portfolio .................................................................57 Supplies for making a viewfinder frame ....................................................57 Supplies for a portable studio ...................................................................57 Action 7B: Making a Portfolio ................................................................57 Deciding on a size ....................................................................................58 Option 1: Using one large sheet of board .................................................58 Option 2: Using two pieces of board .........................................................61 Adding ties and final touches ...................................................................62 Action 7C: Making a Viewfinder Frame .................................................63
  8. 8. VI Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Chapter 8: Give Yourself a Helping Hand ....................................65 Holding your Mediums ...........................................................................65 Becoming a Natural ...............................................................................67 Leonardo the lefty ....................................................................................67 Finding your natural hand movement ........................................................68 Rotating your paper as you draw ..............................................................68 Part 3: Go Draw! ...............................................69 Chapter 9: Putting your Supplies to Work ...................................71 Action 9A: Sketching a Self-Portrait .....................................................71 Action 9B: Creating Values with Squirkles ...........................................72 Action 9C: Playing with Pencils ............................................................76 Action 9D: Playing with Erasers ............................................................77 Action 9E: Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper ............................80 Part 1: Circular shape ..............................................................................81 Part 2: Straight-sided shape .....................................................................84 Part 3: Circle ............................................................................................88 Just for fun! ..............................................................................................90 Action 9F: Framing with a Viewfinder ...................................................91 Three steps for framing a view .................................................................92 Create a sketch by framing your view .......................................................93 Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings ............................................95 Action 10A: Drawing a Caveperson .......................................................95 Action 10B: A Realistic Eye ...................................................................99 Action 10C: Mugly Wigglebottom ........................................................103 Outlining Mugly with neat lines ...............................................................104 Squirkling shading for Mugly ..................................................................108 Glossary ............................................................................................115
  9. 9. Foreword by Robert A. Roughley VII Foreword***************************************************************** I have known Brenda Hoddinott for many years. It was during a difficult life transition that she provided me with the gift of encouragement to explore my creative self-awareness. Until that point, I didn’t believe that I was creative or artistic. My perception of art and creativity was limited by my perfectionist ideals of what defined “artistic ability”. However, with patience (and a sense of humor), Brenda played a pivotal role in helping me reconnect with my artist within. When Brenda first approached me to write the forward for this, her third book; Drawing Book 1: Getting Started – the first in a series for homeschooling families and self-directed learners, I was filled with joy. Not only because she asked me, but because I had been eagerly awaiting the completion of this learning resource. For many, including those who learn outside the boundaries of traditional and prescribed learning environments, access to quality learning and teaching materials is limited. Many of the existing resources on the market are written and published without careful attention to the learning needs of the intended audience. As an educator with graduate training and expertise in curriculum and instructional design, I believe that Brenda Hoddinott has not only responded to, but has exceeded the expectations of her audience with this invaluable arts-based curriculum. Blending expertise with encouragement, Brenda’s lesson plans and instructions accommodate a wide range of learning styles, abilities, and skill levels. Most notably, her genuine and compassionate nature extends to her teaching of art and drawing, as she leads students on a journey of self-discovery through self-directed learning. For the past fifteen years, my own journey has taken me into the field of education. The integration of my training has allowed me to participate in many roles: learner, teacher, mentor, and advocate. As a learner, I pursued undergraduate degrees in music and elementary and adult education.
  10. 10. VIII Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started My graduate work focused on educational and curriculum studies, and counseling psychology. As I transitioned from learner to teacher, I worked with children from kindergarten to grade six, with a focus in special education. Later in my career, I became a consultant for change in curriculum development and inclusive education. My current positions have merged my credentials and focus into three main areas: teacher development (teaching professionals how to teach), reflective practice, and inclusive education. And now, after years of study, I have the pleasure of putting my academic “stamp of approval” in the front pages of this very unique and thorough approach to art education. In my various personal and professional roles, I have learned, unlearned, and relearned the importance of creativity and artistic expression in marking our developmental milestones and other life transitions. As an educator and co-learner with students of all ages, abilities, self-identities, and worldviews, I have noticed the effect of inclusive and purposeful curriculum in the emergence of the creative self. As a counseling practitioner, I have witnessed the long-term, negative implications resulting from the demise or discontinuation of arts-based education in traditional and homeschooling settings. As human beings, we possess the intentions of creativity, but are far too often limited by the influence of those who fear the unlimited possibilities that come from creative thinking. Someone once said, “What we learn from others becomes our own through reflection”. I encourage readers, learners, and practitioners to build upon this quotation and consider that what one sees in their own self-reflection is the core of one’s creative identity. Each chapter of this book represents a stage in the development and awareness of one’s artistic self. Through her gentle and supportive directions, unique humor, and detailed visual illustrations, Brenda joins her learners as they discover their creative talents. It is my hope that you find this experience just as enlightening as you explore, discover, (or even rediscover!) your own artist within. Robert A. Roughley B.A., B.Ed., BAEd., M.Ed., MC., Doctoral Student, University of Calgary Instructor, Teaching and Learning Centre, University of Calgary
  11. 11. Introduction 1 Introduction***************************************************************** YOU can learn to draw! ArtSpeak All you need is some vision and a way to hold a drawing medium. ArtSpeak is a fun word used to describe the This book tells you about vocabulary of art. drawing supplies, and shows you how to use Drawing (verb) refers to them. Several simple the process of applying exercises and projects a medium to a surface help you warm up your to create an image Figure 01: A hand is drawing a drawing hand. (Figure 01). cartoon. I also discuss how to set Drawing (noun) is an Figure up a practical place to image created on a 02: A draw indoors. In addition, drawing surface with a cartoon drawing you find out what to pack drawing medium (Figure is created in a portable studio so 02). with a you can comfortably pencil. Vision is the ability to draw outdoors. see. In this introduction, you Medium refers to any Figure 03: A regular find out about each drawing tool (anything from pencil with a medium part of this book and inside a wooden a pencil to the burnt end of holder is a very all the different types of a stick) used to make marks popular drawing tool. sidebars. You are also on a surface. introduced to several art related words and terms. Sidebar is a box of text (some have illustrations) that provides additional information about a topic. Finally, I explain the very This sidebar is called ArtSpeak, and it provides best way to work through you with definitions of art words and terms. this book. Pencil refers to a broad category of drawing tools So, sit back and relax as that have the medium inside a holder (Figure 03). I tell you about this book and how to use it.
  12. 12. 2 Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak TIP! Illustration is an image (such as a drawing) that is Save all your sketches and used to help explain text. drawings! Icon is an image (such as a drawing) used to Someday, you may want to identify a specific task or information. ArtSpeak look back on your early works sidebars are identified by a cartoon icon of Albert to see how much you’ve Einstein. improved. Text refers to the words I created the drawings in used in writing. Figures 07 and 08 when I was around 14. Luckily, my parents Sketch (noun) is a had saved them for me. simple drawing of the important parts of a subject. A sketch is usually done quickly with simple lines (Figure 04) and (or) shading (Figure 05). Sketch (verb) refers to Figure 04: Simple sketch of a seated man. the process of doing a sketch. Shading (noun) refers to the various values within a drawing that Figure 07: A family living in a log make images appear house in the forest. three-dimensional. Shading (verb) is the process of adding values to a drawing. Values are the different shades of gray you Figure 05: Shading is make when adding added to the same sketch. shading to a drawing. Figure 06: Five values from light to dark. Figure 08: Little girl with a doll.
  13. 13. Introduction 3 Look into this ArtSpeak Book In this section, I tell you about, andShape refers to the outward outline of a three- show you how to identify the variousdimensional object. sidebars, icons, exercises, projects, and illustrations in this book. Figure 09: Shading transforms the shape of a simple circle into Sizing up the the planet Earth. sidebarsClassical drawing refers to the drawing Scattered throughout this book, youmethods invented by ancient Greeks and find five different sidebars (identifiedRomans for creating realistic drawings (called with circle-shaped icons) that arerealism). Classical drawing was later enhanced filled with useful information.by the great artists of the Renaissance.Realism is a ArtSpeakway of drawingin which living ArtSpeak sidebars (Figure 12) definebeings and the drawing words and terms in thisobjects are book, so you can better understanddrawn as they what you read.appear in reallife. The artist Info Tidbittries to drawwhat he or Info Tidbit sidebars (Figure 13)she sees as provide tidbits of information aboutrealistically as art-related subjects, such as thepossible. history of art.Renaissance Figure 10: I used classical drawing methods to copy a work(from the Figure 12: ArtSpeak created by Leonardo da VinciFrench word during the Renaissance. icon is a cartoon offor “rebirth”) Albert Einstein’s face.refers to thechanges withinEuropeanculture fromthe earlytwelfth centuryto the late Figure 13: Info Tidbit icon is a simplesixteenth Figure 11: A lifelike drawing of flower rendered withcentury. an eye is an example of realism. classical drawing techniques.
  14. 14. 4 Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Warning! Figure 14: Warning icon is a scared- Better safe than sorry! Protect your drawings looking cartoon face (or yourself) from potential dangers by with a nose shaped following the advice in these sidebars (Figure like an exclamation mark. 14). Tip! A tip can be more than the pointy end of a Figure 15: Tip icon stick! The tips inside these sidebars (Figure is a cartoon face on a 15) can save you time, energy, and frustration light bulb. by telling you easier ways to do some tasks or how to take better care of your supplies. Art Quote Quotes about art (Figure 16) provide insights Figure 16: Art Quote into the creative minds of well-known artists. icon is an adorable cartoon called a Wooly Woo. Eying action icons In Chapters 7, 9, and 10, you find several action icons. Some ask you to make something and Figure 17: others ask you to gather your drawing supplies Exercises and draw. are identified by an icon of a Shaping up with exercises boy doing exercises. Wherever you see the icon in Figure 17, you find an exercise designed to help you make or use drawing supplies. In addition, an exercise icon may ask you to do a simple sketch or drawing. Step-by-step projects When you see the icon in Figure 18, it’s time to complete a step-by-step project. Projects usually take more time than exercises. Each has two or Figure 18: Step-by-step projects are more illustrated instructions to help guide you. identified with a hand holding a pencil. Action sidebar numbers and letters As you know, an action icon identifies either an exercise or project. Each exercise and project can be identified by the number of the chapter in which it appears. A letter identifies its order within the chapter.
  15. 15. Introduction 5 For example, the first action sidebar in ► AC T I ON 7 A ◄ Chapter 7 is marked 7A (A is the first letter of the alphabet). As Figure 19: The first exercise in Chapter 7 helps you make out a shopping list for buying drawing supplies. you can tell by the icon (Figure 19), this one is an exercise. The number and letter 10C (C being ► AC T I ON 1 0 C ◄ the third letter of the alphabet) identifies the third action in Figure 20: Action 10C takes you step-by-step Chapter 10. The icon through the process of drawing a cartoon puppy named Mugly Wigglebottom. identifies a project.A few words on illustrationsYou are not expected to draw all the illustrations in this book! Most drawings are intended toillustrate and help you understand the topics being discussed.As an added bonus, you maybecome inspired by examiningthe skills you are working toachieve.For example, maybe one ofyour artistic goals is to drawrealistic animals (check outFigure 21).Each illustration in this book ismarked with a number basedon its placement within achapter.For example, the first illustrationin Chapter 1 (a drawing ofmountains on page 9) is markedFigure 101.Likewise, the fourth illustrationin Chapter 6 (a cartoon artistpracticing his drawing skills onpage 50) is marked Figure 604. Figure 21: A challenging drawing of a Shih Tzu who goes by the name of Panda. Do you happen to know the name of a good orthodontist?
  16. 16. 6 Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Insights into the parts In this section, you find out what’s inside each of the three parts of this book. Part 1: Get Ready! Sit back and relax as I tell you about the drawing supplies you need to complete the exercises and projects in this book. Part 2: Get Set! In this part, I help you set up a comfortable place to draw. You find out about proper lighting, ideal drawing surfaces, good posture for drawing, and various ways to hold your pencil. You also have the option of making an artist’s portfolio and viewfinder frame. Part 3: Go Draw! The first two parts of this book prepare you for the activities in this part. Nine fun exercises and projects challenge you to put your drawing supplies to work as you learn several basic drawing skills and techniques. How to Use this Book This book is designed to be read in order - from beginning to end. However, human nature being what it is, I offer the two following options: Plan A Slowly work through the entire book in sequence, doing each exercise along the way. Each new piece of information, skill, or technique prepares you for the next. If an exercise or project is too difficult, go back and try it again (and again if you need to), until you are happy with the results. By the time you reach the end of the book, you’ll be ready for Drawing Book 2: Lines and Spaces. Plan B Read through this book in no particular order. Enjoy the illustrations and try your hand at the various exercises and projects that appeal to you. You will encounter a few challenges with terminology (this is why you have a glossary in the back of the book), and some projects beyond your current skill level. When you begin to feel totally overwhelmed and frustrated, go back to plan A and work through the book from beginning to end!
  17. 17. Part 1: Get Ready! 7 PART 1GET READY!► Simple history of drawing► Process of learning to draw► Fun history of graphite► Grades of graphite► Differences between B and H grades► How grades affect the look of drawings► Graphite and charcoal drawing mediums► Wood-encased, mechanical, and woodless pencils► Drawing powders and sticks► Textures, sizes, and weights of drawing papers► How to select and protect the tooth of paper► Vinyl and kneaded erasers► Pencil sharpeners and sandpaper► Pencil case, portfolio, viewfinder frame, and ruler► Manikins, display boards, and spray fixative
  18. 18. 8 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started
  19. 19. Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 9 Chapter 1Welcome to Drawing*****************************************************************On a simple sheet of drawing paper, the tallest trees on earth grow toward the sky. Inanother drawing, ogres and trolls are chasing one another through a dark, magical forest.How about a snow dragon dancing with polar bears and penguins? Or stone faces standingguard over a river valley in another galaxy far away?How many stone faces can you find in the drawing in Figure 101? Figures 102 and 103show you a couple just to get you started.Figure 101: You won’t find this scene anywhere on planet Earth. I wonder if any other life forms besides stone faces live here?
  20. 20. 10 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started In this chapter, you learn 32,000 years of art history by reading a thousand words. (Obviously, a very shortened version of history!) You also find out the real truth behind the silly gossip that you Figure 102: Imagine yourself strolling Figure 103: See the face of a regal need a magical peacefully along this path, unaware of the male warrior gazing toward the right. talent to become creature with the huge open mouth waiting Can you find his nose, mouth, chin, an artist. for lunch to walk by. and an eye? ArtSpeak Portfolio is a case in which artists store (or History is a written record of the past; carry) drawings and papers to protect them mostly about the lives and activities of from damage. human beings and their environments. For example, historians (people who study and write about history) have documented that Figure 104: Leonardo da Vinci was born In Action 7B in Italy in the year 1452. in Chapter 7, I show you how to Archaeologist is a make a simple portfolio. person who studies ancient peoples Prehistoric describes the period in time before by finding and language was used to write and record history. documenting the things they left behind. (As an aside, many archeologists have excellent drawing skills.) Figure 105: Prehistoric humans drew Figure 106: A drawing of pictures like an old arrowhead that looks these on the similar to some that were walls of caves. discovered by archeologists.
  21. 21. Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 11A Brief History of DrawingDrawing is a universally understood language; a form of communication that is free ofsuch rules as correct spelling or proper grammar. This section offers a brief backgroundon drawing - from the cave drawings of prehistoric humans, to the masterpieces of theRenaissance.In the time Figure 107: Copies ofof the prehistoric cavecaveman drawings created by cavemen (orArtists have been cavewomen).drawing for at least32,000 years.Archaeologistshave discovered Figuremany of their 108:drawings on the Drawing based onwalls of caves. an actual prehistoricThe drawings drawingin Figure 107 discoveredare similar to on a stone inprehistoric Africa.drawings found onthe walls of caves inFrance.These drawings tell us a lot about ArtSpeakhow prehistoric humans lived.In other words, the drawingsrecorded their stories without Style refers to an artist’s approach to his or herspoken language or written own art. An artist’s style may be based on his orwords. her personal preferences and art education.During prehistoric times in Africa, For example, realism is a well-known style.drawings of simple human figures(Figure 108) were added to burial Technique is a well-known method (such asstones. a specific way to do shading) that is used to accomplish a particular activity or task.You can try your hand at drawing For example, more than one shading technique may bea human figure the way some suitable for a specific drawing. Hence, an artist’s choice of aprehistoric people did, in Action shading technique (or techniques) is generally based on his10A in Chapter 10. or her skill level and what works best to capture the subject.
  22. 22. 12 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Mural is a drawing or painting on a wall, ceiling, or other Mummy portrait is a painting of large surface. a man, woman, or child that was discovered attached to the face Murals have been discovered on the walls of prehistoric caves and inside ancient Egyptian tombs. of a burial mummy. Many date back to the Roman occupation Fresco is an artwork painted on a thin layer of plaster of Egypt. that covers a wall or ceiling. The drawing in Figure 110 is copied from a mummy portrait that was Frescos that date back more than 3500 years have been discovered discovered in Egypt. in Greece. The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (in Rome) is also a fresco that was painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512. Visual art refers to artworks Sculpture is a three-dimensional artwork that is made of (such as drawings, paintings, a material such as bronze, rock, or marble. and sculptures) that can be appreciated by the sense of Sculptor is an artist who creates sculptures. sight. A very well-known sculptor of the Renaissance was Michelangelo, For example, all the drawings in this and one of his most famous sculptures is the Statue of David. book are considered visual art. The birth of classical art Long before the Renaissance, ancient Greek and Roman artists created realistic artworks of nature, animals, and people. The discovery of several of these artworks helps us understand the styles and techniques of the artists, as well as how people lived during these times. Archeologists have found the remnants of murals and frescos painted on walls of buildings in ancient Greece and Rome. Many show major deterioration, but others are remarkably well preserved. Figure 109 is a drawing of an antelope, copied from a fresco that had been buried under volcanic ash in Greece for more than 3500 years. Figure 109: The smoothly flowing lines of this drawing capture an antelope as it appeared on an ancient fresco.
  23. 23. Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 13In addition to murals, frescos,coins, and pottery; severalbreathtaking, realistic sculpturesand paintings of people havesurvived the ravages of time.One of my favorite ancientpaintings is a mummy portrait ofa young man, possibly a Romansoldier (Figure 110). I couldn’tresist the challenge of drawingsomeone who lived more than2,000 years ago.The unknown artist used classicaltechniques to make the faceappear three-dimensional. Figure 110: My goal was to create a drawing that looked like the ancient painting. I decided to include the flaws of the old wooden panels on which it was painted.Remembering theRenaissanceThe beginning of the Renaissance is identified by the very popular rebirth of classicaldrawing throughout Europe. During this time, classical drawing techniques were greatlyimproved and many new techniques were born.Throughout the Renaissance, art students were encouraged to study and practicethe techniques of the most highly skilled artists (called “masters”). Some of the morededicated art students experimented with new ways of drawing and ended up creating newtechniques. Hence, many students of the masters eventually became masters themselves.Between 1480 and 1527, during the time known as the High Renaissance, many veryfamous artists (called “great masters”) further developed drawing as the most important ofall visual arts. Great masters, such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Hans Holbein, andAlbrecht Dürer, created the most magnificent masterpieces our world has ever known.Even today, students of art all over the world are still learning from the masters of theRenaissance. Classical drawing techniques are considered the foundation of all visual artsincluding painting, sculpture, and digital art.Figures 111 and 112 demonstrate classical drawing techniques from the High Renaissance.
  24. 24. 14 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 111: This classical drawing of a youth is Figure 112: Classical drawing copied from a work by Michelangelo. techniques are used in a drawing of a young girl (based on a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci). The Inside Scoop on Drawing Throughout the process of learning to draw, you automatically learn to observe, appreciate, and better understand the world around you. As your drawing abilities become stronger, creativity is also enhanced. Check out the artist’s model and compare him to the Figure 113: An artist uses his creativity to make a few drawing (Figure 113). changes to the body of the model in his drawing.
  25. 25. Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 15Drawing is an action wordMusic students can’t learn to play piano by reading a music book without actually applyingtheir knowledge to the action of playing a piano. People who expect to know how to skiafter reading a book on skiing are not going to have any success until they actually goskiing. Both of these activities require some sort of action in order to be learned.Drawing is also an action word. The process of reading this and every other art book fromcover to cover cannot improve your drawing skills. You need to actually draw to achievestrong skills. In other words, you must put your knowledge into practice!YOU can draw!Drawing is an easily acquired skill that everyone can learn. All you need is some vision anda way to hold a drawing tool. Talent is nothing more than a word that describes the processin which you accept your ability to become a good artist. Simply put, learning to draw doesnot require a magical force to have been born within you.The closest relatives of drawing are printing and writing. Just as you learned to draw theletters of the alphabet, you can also learn to draw objects, people, and other subjects.Drawing provides a way for you todocument how you see the world.Being able to draw also allows you Figure 114:to take up other visual arts (such as A photodigital art and painting) more easily of a horsethan people who cannot draw. in a field as viewedYou can also learn to draw from your through the legsimagination. With a little creative of anotherthought, artists can even change horse.what they seein the real worldinto somethingcompletelydifferent!Compare myreference photoin Figure 114 tothe drawing inFigure 115. Figure 115: The horse hasmagically turned into a unicorn!
  26. 26. 16 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Info Tidbit ArtSpeak Developing your own style Underdrawing is a loosely rendered sketch that is created as a guide for a To develop a personal style of your own, you final drawing (or painting). first need to learn as many techniques as possible. The techniques that you like best Figure 116 shows an underdrawing of a horse. help determine your unique style. My drawing techniques reveal that I have been a student of the masters for most of my life. For instance, Leonardo da Vinci often My sketch of a horse’s head (Figure used the technique of doing an underdrawing 116) demonstrates the classical with metalpoint (refer to definition on page technique of lightly rendering an 18) before beginning a drawing or painting. underdrawing before beginning a final drawing (Figure 117). Figure 116: A very faint underdrawing identifies the basic shapes of a horse’s head. Figure 117: The style I use to draw a horse’s head is similar to the styles of the drawings of the masters demonstrated in Figures 111 and 112. Strong drawing skills eventually come to everyone who works hard. Always take joy in your good drawings, and learn from those that you don’t like. You CAN draw! With lots of patience and hard work, you can become as good as you can imagine.
  27. 27. Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 17 Chapter 2Getting a Grasp on Graphiteand Grades*****************************************************************Something called “graphite” is the best friend of many artists who love to draw. In thischapter, I share a little bit of fun information about graphite and its history.You also learn about the gradesof graphite. (When it comes tographite, a B grade is not betterthan an H!) ArtSpeakIn addition, you examine drawingsrendered with different grades ofgraphite to give you an idea of how Graphite is a soft black form of opaque (non-B and H pencils affect the look of transparent) carbon found in nature. It is oftendrawings. mixed with clay to make various types of drawing tools for artists. Clay is a naturally occurring material thatTraveling Back becomes hardened when dried. Grade refers to the softness or hardness ofin Time with the mixture used in the manufacture of drawing mediums.GraphiteIn this section, you discover a fewfascinating tidbits about the historyof graphite.Some graphite drawings createdhundreds of years ago are still Figure 201: The base value of five different grades ofaround today. Hence, graphite has graphite.survived the test of time.
  28. 28. 18 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Another great thing about graphite is its ability to be erased. Therefore, many mistakes can be fixed. ArtSpeak Stylus (sometimes How the “lead” pencil got called leadpoint or its name metalpoint) refers to a thin metal stick used Before the discovery of graphite, ancient artists for drawing. Styluses made drawings with long, thin rods (referred to made of lead have as “styluses”). Styluses were made from a soft been traced back to metal, such as lead, and so they became known ancient Rome. as “leadpoint”. During the A stylus worked by leaving a thin deposit of Renaissance, styluses metal on the surface of paper, producing a fine were also made from gray line. silver, gold, or copper. Some styluses had a fine point at one end and a Figure 202: The earliest blunter point at the opposite end so artists could stylus was a thin metal stick draw both thin and thick lines. made of lead. Leadpoint is considered the ancestor of the modern graphite pencil. The term “lead pencil” is often incorrectly used to describe graphite pencils that are made of graphite and clay (and contain no WARNING! lead whatsoever). On the other hand, graphite pencils Stay away from poor-quality do produce a warm-toned gray line graphite! that looks very similar to the marks made by leadpoint. When most people think of drawing, an ordinary graphite pencil comes to mind (like the ones used During the Renaissance, the by schoolchildren). However, a word of caution: masters created many beautiful these pencils are not designed for drawing! intricate drawings with only a stylus. Inexpensive graphite may work well for writing, but can scratch your drawing paper instead of Artists also used styluses to do going on smoothly. underdrawings for more detailed drawings (and paintings). Professional drawing pencils are made with a higher quality mixture of graphite and clay and When you look closely at old make marks that flow more smoothly. drawings, you can often find a few of the faint lines from the On the downside, they are usually more underdrawings. expensive than pencils made for writing.
  29. 29. Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 19The link between graphite and sheepGraphite was discovered in England somewhere between 1500 and 1560. Farmers arethought to be the first people who found a practical use for graphite. They used a lump ofgraphite to mark their sheep so they could easily identify their flocks. Check out the cartoondrawing of a sheep in Figure 203.News of the discovery of graphitesoon traveled far and widethroughout the known world,and graphite quickly became avaluable drawing medium withinartistic communities.Artists often sharpened a chunkof graphite into a point and setit into a metal holder. Thesesharpened chunks became thevery first graphite pencils!Making theGradeAs you now know, graphitepencils are made with a mixtureof graphite and clay. Graphite is Figure 203: A cartoon sheep proudly displaysvery black and soft and makes a big “X” marked on her wool with graphite.dark marks. Clay is hard andmakes light marks.To make shopping a little easier, pencils are labeled with a number-letter code dependingon the amounts of graphite and clay in the mixture. For example, a 6B pencil has moregraphite than clay and makes very dark marks. A 2H pencil has less graphite and thereforemakes very light marks.Many art supply stores carry a broad range of grades. An HB grade is in the middle andcan be called either an H or a B (Figure 204).Figure 204: A computer-generated image shows the base value of 17 different grades of graphite.
  30. 30. 20 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Trying to draw with 17 different pencils can be a nightmare! Besides, some grades make almost identical marks. Artists can draw a full range of values (Figure 205) with only five grades of graphite: 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B. For example, the advanced drawing of a replica of a medieval dagger (Figure 206) is drawn with only these five grades. Whenever you draw, your goal is to choose whichever grades of pencils can best give you the results you want. For drawings needing a softer touch, you Figure 205: may prefer to use mostly H grades. On the A range of other hand, B grades may work better for different drawing subjects needing a darker, bolder values can approach. be created by each of And more often than not, a combination of these five B and H grades is a perfect choice. grades of graphite. Figure 206: A realistic drawing of a dagger is created with 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B grades of pencils.
  31. 31. Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 21Hard is lightHard pencils can’t make very dark values. However, they can create light to medium marks(Figure 207) that work well for some drawings. Figure 207: Values created with four H pencils (HB is considered the darkest hard pencil).As a rule, hard (H) pencils:► Have a hard, brittle medium ArtSpeak► Make light to medium marks► Wear down slowly Pupil of an eye is the tiny, dark, circular part of an eye that adjusts its size under► Need very little sharpening different lighting conditions.► Create very thin to medium-width lines Figure 208: An arrowThe lines made by H pencils are points to themostly thin and delicate; hence, pupil of an eye.they work best for small to mediumdrawings (unless, of course, you havelots of patience).The drawing in Figure 209 isalmost completely renderedwith four different grades of TIP!hard pencils. Always lay your graphite pencils somewhere safe so they don’t fall! Info Tidbit Graphite is quite fragile - especially the softer grades. When a pencil falls to the floor, the graphite inside the The word pencil comes from core breaks, and the pencil becomes very difficult to the Latin word pencillus (which sharpen. Small pieces of broken graphite can jam up means “little tail”). the inside of the sharpener.
  32. 32. 22 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started I used a 2B (soft) pencil for only a few dark accents, Figure 209: This drawing of such as the pupils of his eyes and tiny sections of a friend (Christopher Church) playing a violin took more than a the darkest shadows. month to complete with 6H, 4H, 2H, HB, and 2B pencils. Soft is dark B pencils tend to “B” soft, and can make very dark marks because they have more graphite than clay. However, by pressing very gently with B pencils, you can also create light and medium values. Figure 210 shows the base value of four B grades of graphite. Figure 210: Values created with four B pencils (HB is the lightest B pencil).
  33. 33. Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 23Generally speaking, B grades ofpencils:► Have a soft medium► Make light, medium, and dark marks► Wear down quickly► Need to be sharpened frequently► Can make thin to thick linesThe darker marks Figure 211: Loosely rendered sketch of a side-on view of a young man.created by B pencils areideal for loosely renderedsketches on medium tolarge sheets of paper.Check out the sketch ofthe young man (Figure211) created with only 2Band 4B pencils.If you are patient, anddon’t mind constantlysharpening their points,B pencils can alsowork well for renderingdetailed subjects onsmall sheets of paper. Figure 212:B pencils were used for Drawingthe small drawing of a of a peachpeach in Figure 212. using HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils.Combiningsoft and hardgrades Info TidbitWhen you draw a subjectwith lots of light and darkvalues, you may need to My favorite brands of graphite pencils are made in Germany,use both B and H grades and are sold under the names Staedtler and Faber-Castell.of pencils.
  34. 34. 24 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started And what animal could show you a combination of B and H pencils better than a zebra (Figure 213)? The white stripes are shaded with 2H, HB, and 2B, and the black stripes are drawn with HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B. Figure 213: A drawing of a baby zebra (named Spot) is created with both H and B grades of graphite. Finding out your grade When you go to an art store, expect to be surprised by how many different brands of pencils are available. Figure 214: Professional pencils often look identical, even At first glance, different though the grades are different (Figure 214). grades of But don’t be fooled! The grade of the graphite drawing pencils may is written somewhere on the wood part of each all look the pencil (Look closely at Figure 215). same. Figure 215: Can you see the grade written on these three brands of pencils?
  35. 35. Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 25 Chapter 3More Drawing Mediums*****************************************************************In addition to graphite pencils, you need tobegin learning to draw with mediums that arespecifically designed for artists. As with most ArtSpeakactivities, the better the tools, the happier youare with the outcomes. Charcoal is a drawing mediumIn this chapter, I tell you about a few popular made from burnt organicdrawing mediums. I show you what each looks material (such as wood). Aslike, and the kind of marks it makes. with graphite, charcoal comes in various grades. Charcoal pencils have a thin cylindrical stick of compressed charcoal inside a wooden casing. Charcoal sticks are made by compressing powdered charcoal into round or rectangular sticks. Figure 302: A few different types of charcoal that are designed for drawing.Figure 301: Shopping for drawing mediums is a big challenge whenyou have to choose from so many different types.
  36. 36. 26 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Drawing stick (1) is made by compressing and shaping a medium (such as graphite or charcoal) into a cylindrical or rectangular chunk. Woodless pencil (2) is a thick cylindrical stick of graphite wrapped in a vinyl casing. Mechanical pencil (3) has an internal mechanism that pushes a thin graphite lead, from the tiny tube inside the holder, through the tip. Wood-encased pencil (4) (better known Figure 303: Four types of drawing tools: (1) sticks, (2) woodless as a regular pencil) has a thin cylindrical pencil, (3) mechanical pencils, and (4) wood-encased pencils. stick of graphite or charcoal inside a wooden casing. Figure 304: Pencils last Sandpaper block is an artist’s tool with longer if you sharpen only tear-off sheets of fine sandpaper used to their points on sharpen the points of pencils. a sandpaper block. Picking out Proper Pencils In this section, I discuss three types of drawing pencils: wood-encased, mechanical, and woodless. Several drawings invite you to compare the abilities of these pencils. Wood-encased pencils Art Quote Graphite pencils are ideal for either simple, loosely rendered drawings or very complicated, intricate drawings on small to medium-sized surfaces. Every child is an artist. The problem is how to remain an Charcoal pencils are fantastic for medium to artist once he (she) grows up. large drawings on large sheets of paper. Pablo Picasso
  37. 37. Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 27 Graphite pencils Graphite pencils are a favorite Figure 305: drawing tool of many artists. Most art supply stores Some artists prefer to draw carry a huge with a slightly worn-down selection of pencil point (Figure 306). professional- quality, Others constantly sharpen thewood-encased drawing graphite points to make thin pencils. marks (Figure 307). Figure 306: Marks made with the worn-down points of graphite pencils. Figure 307: Thin lines drawn with freshly sharpened graphite pencils. The drawing in Figure 308 was created with graphite pencils. The pencil points were slightly worn down to shade the eyes. A sandpaper block kept the pencil points nice and sharp to do the scraggly feathers. You can sharpen the points of regular pencils with a pencil sharpener, some fine sandpaper, or a sandpaper block. Charcoal pencils Charcoal pencils are a lot more messy than graphite, but (thanks to the wooden holder) less messy than sticks ofFigure 308: Cartoon drawing of an emu is created with regular pencils. charcoal.
  38. 38. 28 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Wonderful black marks can be made with charcoal (Figure 310), which is much softer than graphite. Hard grades of charcoal can be carefully sharpened in a pencil sharpener with an oversized opening. If you want thin lines, you need to keep the point sharpened with a sandpaper block. Figure 309: Most charcoal pencils are a little thicker than graphite pencils. Soft grades of charcoal simply crumble and break when you try to sharpen them in a pencil sharpener. A heavy-duty utility knife works best for cutting away some of the wood so you can sharpen the exposed charcoal with a sandpaper block. Charcoal is fun to work with and is ideal for drawing anything - including people, scenery, and objects. Check out the charcoal drawing in Figure 311. Figure 310: Various marks made by a charcoal pencil. WARNING! Utility knives are VERY dangerous! Utility knives are as sharp as razors! One small slip of the knife can cause permanent damage to your hand or fingers. They should only be used by responsible adults who are handy with tools. So, if you don’t want to “draw blood,” ask someone to help you sharpen charcoal pencils. (And, remember to tell that person to be very careful!) You may even want to completely stay away from charcoal pencils and use charcoal sticks instead. They are a little messier, but can do everything a pencil can do (and more).
  39. 39. Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 29 Figure 311: A loosely rendered Other fun pencil charcoal sketch of Christopher Church mediums playing his violin. Two other types of pencil mediums that are well worth having are: mechanical pencils (they never need sharpening) and woodless pencils. Mechanical pencils Mechanical pencils (Figure 312) are a super alternative to pencils that need to be sharpened constantly. The marks they make stay approximately the same size, even after hours of drawing. A professional-quality mechanical pencil designed for drawing is expensive; but in the long run, it tends to be more economical than constantly buying wood- encased pencils. When well cared for, a mechanical pencil can last a very long time; I have several Figure 312: that are more than 15 years A sampling of mechanical pencils. old. TIP! Purchase only professional-quality mechanical pencilsYou can find inexpensive novelty mechanical pencils in many stores. However, professional mechanicalpencils that are designed for drawing can only be found in art supply stores. Most are expensive, butthey tend to last much longer than the department store variety.
  40. 40. 30 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Mechanical pencils come in different sizes. A 0.5 mm is the most popular size and works best for drawing on small to medium-sized sheets of paper. A 0.7 mm is a great choice for sketching loosely or drawing on a large surface (or both). A mechanical pencil can be loaded with leads of different grades ranging from very hard to soft. (However, you should load only one grade at a time.) Leads of the same grade are sold in a single package, so, you may have to buy a package of each of the grades you want to use. Woodless graphite pencils Obviously, woodless pencils do not have a wooden casing! A thick rod of graphite is surrounded by a thin (usually vinyl) casing; hence, your hands stay clean as you work. Woodless pencils rarely need to be sharpened in a pencil sharpener. A few strokes on sandpaper and the points are sharp! They can make lots of different marks (Figure 314), and are great for subjects needing wider, bolder strokes than regular pencils. When the points are sharpened, they can also make very thin lines (Figure 315). Figure 313: Drawing of an unusual glass bottle completely rendered with 0.5 mm mechanical pencils and various grades of leads. TIP! Before you buy leads for a mechanical pencil, check the size! Read the label on each package of leads you want to buy, to make sure they are the right size for your mechanical pencil. For example, 0.7 mm leads are too big to fit through the pointed end of a 0.5 mm mechanical pencil. Figure 314: Marks made with a woodless pencil.
  41. 41. Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 31 Sticks and Stones (oops!) Powders Graphite and charcoal sticks are not considered pencils, but they are well worth having. Both are messy, but lots of fun! For instance, you can rub a charcoal or graphite stick on sandpaper to make powdered charcoal or graphite (Figure 316). Then, you simply dip your finger into the powder and draw! Or, (if messy isn’t your style) you mayFigure 315: A wood-encased graphite pencil worked well for creating three prefer to wrap yoursketches of my grandson, Brandon. finger in a piece of paper towel first. Sticks are great for rendering any subject, and especially for medium to large sketches and drawings. Surprisingly, charcoal and graphite sticks are one of the few art mediums that work well when broken! The crisp edges of broken pieces are fantastic for rendering thin, strongFigure 316: Drawing powder can be made from graphite or lines. The flat ends and sides can becharcoal sticks. used for broad strokes (Figure 317).

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