Avansati u chipuri si cifre

1,291 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
1 Comment
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r2mJpvsPQXs
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,291
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
53
Comments
1
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Avansati u chipuri si cifre

  1. 1. Brenda HoddinottU-01 ADVANCED: FACES & FIGURESIn this lesson you draw a frontal view of a smallchild, with emphasis on correct facial proportions.You use both crosshatching and hatching to definetextures and forms, and utilize a challenging grid tohelp you render the accurate proportions of thevarious parts of her head and face.This lesson is divided into the following five sections: SETTING UP A COMPLEX GRID: Until your artistic eye is well trained, using a grid is a huge help with establishing accurate proportions. OUTLINING A CHILD’S HEAD WITHIN A GRID: As you work, you closely examine the shapes, spaces, and lines within each individual grid square. SHADING LIGHT AND MEDIUM VALUES: The dominant light source, which is to the front and right of Annie’s face, determines where the various light and medium values are located. SHADING FACIAL FEATURES: You add shading to the shadow sections, and more details to the eyes, nose, and mouth. ADDING THE HAIR AND FINAL SHADING: You work from dark to light with HB, 2B, and 4B pencils to add shading to the hair with contour hatching.Suggested drawing supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers,ruler, pencil sharpener, and good quality drawing paper. 21 PAGES – 19 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists from age twelve through adulthood with good drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada 2002 (Revised 2006)
  2. 2. 2 SETTING UP A COMPLEX GRID A grid is a framework of vertical and horizontal reference squares on an image and/or drawing paper, used by artists to either enlarge or reduce the size of the original image. Until your artistic eye is well trained, using a grid is a huge help with establishing accurate proportions. If you prefer to work freehand, simply ignore the instructions and illustrations pertaining to the grid method. Remember to press very lightly with your pencil because all your grid lines and most of your contour lines will need to be erased (or lightened) later. The lines in the following illustrations have been darkened in a computer program and appear much darker that they actually are. ILLUSTRATION 01-01 1) With your ruler and an HB mechanical pencil, draw a rectangle, as your drawing space. Drawing space (sometimes called a drawing format): refers to the area of a drawing surface within a specific perimeter, outlined by a shape of any size, such as a square, rectangle or circle. Mine is 6.5 by 7 inches. Suggested alternative sizes include 9.75 by 10.5 inches, or 13 by 14 inches. 2) Use a ruler to measure and divide your rectangle into 182 equal squares, 13 across and 14 down. For a 6.5 by 7 inch rectangle use half-inch squares. If your rectangle is 9.75 by 10.5 inches, use three-quarter inch squares, and for a 13 by 14 inch format, use one-inch squares. 3) Add letters and numbers to the grid as in the following illustration. Starting from the left, add numbers 1 through 13 to the vertical squares along the top and bottom of the 6.5” sides. Starting from the top, add letters A through N to the horizontal squares down both sides of the 7” sides. Lettering and numbering your grid squares helps you keep track of each square as you draw.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  3. 3. 3 ILLUSTRATION 01-02 OUTLINING A CHILD’S HEAD WITHIN A GRID When working with a grid, think of each square as a separate drawing. As you work, closely examine the shapes, spaces and lines within each individual grid square. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. Form, as applied to drawing, is the illusion of the three-dimensional structure of a shape, such as a circle, square or triangle, created in a drawing with shading and/or perspective.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  4. 4. 4 4) With your HB pencil, very lightly draw the outline of the head, face and ears. The shape of her head is very similar to that of an egg. The ears are located almost halfway between the top of the head and the chin. As you draw, don’t think about what the subject is. Focus on the shapes, and negative and positive spaces that define the lines within each grid square. Constantly double-check your proportions ILLUSTRATION 01-03 5) With your 2H or HB pencil, lightly sketch the eyes, nose, and mouth in their correct places. If you wish, you can print out the following page and add diagonal lines on the facial area of it and your grid, to help you place the features more accurately.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  5. 5. 5 6) Outline the iris, pupil and highlight in each eye. The upper sections of the eyes are approximately halfway between the bottom of the chin and the top of the head, and have double lines around their lower edges to indicate the lower eyelids. The space between the eyes is slightly wider than the width of an eye, and the nose is the same width as the space between the eyes. This child is approximately 8-9 years old. The nose and mouth of a younger child would appear higher on the face, closer to the eyes. As a child matures into an adult, the nose and mouth appear to shift downwards on the face. ILLUSTRATION 01-04Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  6. 6. 6 7) With your HB pencil, very lightly refine your drawing of each feature, until your drawing is as close as possible to mine. This step is the most important towards completing a drawing with which you’ll be happy. Take your time; patience is a virtue! Not even super fantastic shading, can rescue a drawing if the proportions are off! Work on only one feature at a time and draw it as well as you can. Observe the fine details of the nose (such as the placement of the nostrils) and the lips (such as the location of each end of the mouth and the curves of the lines which outline the lips), and the ear. An ear is a very intricate part of the head and is for most people even more difficult to draw than an eye. At this point you will appreciate a grid!!! Place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin. 8) Before you continue, examine the placement of the outlines of the individual features and correct any areas that you’re not happy with 9) Erase the grid lines around and below her face. ILLUSTRATION 01-05Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  7. 7. 7 10) With your HB pencil outline the strands of hair around her face. Observe that the various sections of hair are different lengths and thickness so as to give the hair a natural appearance. Some strands of hair appear to cut across and through the eyebrows and ears. On the outer sides of the head, the hair extends outside the outline of the skull. 11) Erase any sections of the eyebrows and ears that are hidden behind or underneath the hair. ILLUSTRATION 01-06Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  8. 8. 8 12) With your HB pencil outline the top and sides of the hair. Take note that the hair is outside the outline of the skull. Also, the edges of the hair show a few untidy strands of hair to keep it looking soft and natural. ILLUSTRATION 01-07 13) Erase the line that outlines the skull and any grid lines still left on your drawing. You can either erase all your grid lines at once, or only those that need to be erased before you begin each section of shading.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  9. 9. 9 ILLUSTRATION 01-08 14) Pat your drawing lightly with your kneaded eraser to pick up any leftover eraser crumbs. What you have at this point is a line or contour drawing. If your final goal was to draw a cartoon or comic book face, you’d be finished. SHADING LIGHT AND MEDIUM VALUES The dominant light source, which is to the front and right of Annie’s face, determines where all the various values are located. Light source refers to the direction from which a dominant light originates. The placement of this light source affects every aspect of a drawing and subsequently tells you where to draw all the light values and shadows. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding various pencils. Smoothly rendered crosshatching graduations give the illusion of depth (or a third dimension) to the drawing. Crosshatching is a technique for rendering an infinite range of values within shading, in which one set of lines crosses over (overlaps) another set. Graduated shading is a continuous progression of graduated values from dark to light or from light to dark.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  10. 10. 10 15) Use an HB pencil to add light and medium values to the ears and the areas on the face that are in shadow, under the strands of hair. At this point you use hatching lines that are diagonal and relatively parallel. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. ILLUSTRATION 01-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  11. 11. 11 16) Add light shading to the remainder of the face while keeping the shading lines as parallel as possible. Before you begin, closely examine the shading around the nose, eyes, mouth and chin. Note that the shading around the sides and lower sections of the face does not extend completely to the edges. ILLUSTRATION 01-10Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  12. 12. 12 17) Complete the shading on the face by transforming the hatching lines into crosshatching. To create crosshatching you simply add more lines that cut through the hatching lines. Observe the darker shadow areas of the shading on the face. 18) Outline the sides of the neck, and add shading to the sections under the chin. ILLUSTRATION 01-11Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  13. 13. 13 SHADING FACIAL FEATURES In this section you finish Annie’s face by working from the forehead down toward the neck. You add additional shading to the shadow sections and more details to the eyes, nose, and mouth. 19) Complete the shading on the forehead and around the eyes. 20) Draw the fine hairs of the eyebrows. ILLUSTRATION 01-12Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  14. 14. 14 21) Shade in the iris, upper and lower eyelids, whites of the eyes, and corners of the eyes. Note that the shading of the iris is darker under the upper eyelid and on the side where the highlight is drawn. Also, the shading lines on the iris all seem to point towards the centre. ILLUSTRATION 01-13Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  15. 15. 15 22) Use a 6B pencil, to shade in the pupil. 23) With a freshly sharpened HB pencil, draw half as many eyelashes as you think there should be. Note that the upper and lower eyelashes grow in many different directions, are different lengths and thicknesses in some places, are curved, appear thicker closer to the eyelids, and grow from the edges of the upper and lower lids and not the whites of the eye 24) Add darker shading to the sections of the nose that are in shadow, such as the nostrils. ILLUSTRATION 01-14Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  16. 16. 16 25) Add shading to the lips and the sections of the face around the mouth. There are no noticeable lines outlining the lips. The shading follows the natural creases in each lip and is also directed perpendicular to the opening. The darkest shading is next to the line that indicates the opening of the mouth and on the side in shadow. Note the lighter shading and areas left white on the lips, which gives the illusion of form. 26) Compare your drawing to mine and adjust any sections you aren’t happy with. ILLUSTRATION 01-15Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  17. 17. 17 ADDING THE HAIR AND FINAL SHADING You use HB, 2B, and 4B pencils to add shading to the hair with contour hatching. You work from dark to light, beginning with dark values and ending with the very light values. Be careful to not add too much dark shading. Rather, focus on those sections that have light and middle values, or are left white. ILLUSTRATION 01-16 27) With a freshly sharpened 4B pencil, add shading to the hair in the shadow areas. The hatching lines follow the contours of the outlines of the hair and are many different lengths and unevenly spaced. When adding shading to hair, remember to: Keep the hatching lines curved, ragged, and uneven. Keep your pencils very sharp. Vary the density of the lines. Vary the pressure used in holding your pencils. Vary the lengths and thicknesses of the lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  18. 18. 18 28) With freshly sharpened HB and 2B pencils, follow the contours of the head and the outlines of the strands of hair, to add shading to the rest of the hair. ILLUSTRATION 01-17 Refer to Illustrations 01-17 and 01-18. Observe the many different values in the hair, from white for the highlights to very dark in the darkest shadows. Take note of the directions in which the hatching lines curve. Also, they are different lengths and values. The hair is lighter in some places, which indicates a shiny texture. The outside edges of the hair show a few untidy hairs to keep it looking natural. REMEMBER! You can draw the three-dimensional forms of a face more accurately, when you have carefully observed and done drawings from the faces of actual models, such as yourself and your family and friends.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  19. 19. 19 ILLUSTRATION 01-18 REMEMBER! There is no right or wrong way to draw! As an artist, you can draw the forms and features of a frontal view of a face in many different ways, such as drawing just the light and shadow areas, or outlining with detailed lines and then adding shading. Take time to experiment with different ways of drawing, until you find the styles with which you are most comfortable. 29) Touch up any areas you’re not happy with. Refer to my final drawing on the next page. If an area is too light, you can make it darker by adding more shading. To make a section lighter, stretch your kneaded eraser until it becomes soft, and then gently pat the shading that is too dark. Use your vinyl eraser to clean up any smudges or fingerprints on your drawing paper. 30) Put today’s date on the back, sign your name and pat yourself on the back!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  20. 20. 20 ILLUSTRATION 01-19Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  21. 21. 21 Choose another lesson from the intermediate or advanced levels, grab a new piece of paper and draw some more! Only practice, practice and more practice will help you improve your drawing skills. BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. These sites are respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  22. 22. ON MELISSA Brenda Hoddinott U-02 ADVANCED: EYE ON MELISSA In this project, you draw an eye, with a focus on correctly rendering the structures of the anatomical forms surrounding the orbital cavity.You add shading in layers by working from light to dark, while rendering a highly detailedhuman eye with a combination of three graduated shading techniques - hatching, crosshatching,and squirkling.Eyes are the most expressive facial feature. The shapes and sizes of people’s eyes can helpidentify their gender, age, and cultural origin. In a portrait, the eyes alone can often identify whothe person is. The eye in this project belongs to a beautiful young lady named Melissa, who is thedaughter of my friend Crystal Basta.This lesson is divided into four sections: STRUCTURAL INSIGHTS INTO EYES: In order to understand how to draw an eye correctly, you need to be aware of its basic construction behind the small section you can see. KEEPING AN EYE ON PROPORTIONS: You sketch the various parts of the eye proportionately correct. ADDING LIGHT AND MIDDLE VALUES: Hatching and crosshatching graduations bring out the three-dimensional forms of the skull around the eye. You also lay down light and medium values to enhance the forms of the fleshy sections around the eye. DARK VALUES AND FINAL DETAILS: You add dark values to provide more contrast to the facial forms, and then add the final details such as eyelashes.Suggested drawing supplies for this project include: good quality white drawing paper, graphitepencils, kneaded and vinyl erasers, pencil sharpener, and a sandpaper block. 12 PAGES – 15 ILLUSTRATIONSRecommended for artists from age 12 to adult with good drawing skills, and fine art educators in home school, academic and recreational environments. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2005 (Revised 2006)
  23. 23. 2 STRUCTURAL INSIGHTS INTO EYES Eyes are the most expressive feature. The shapes and sizes of people’s eyes can help identify their gender, age, and cultural origin. Eyes alone can often identify who the person is. ILLUSTRATION 02-01 Check out lesson P-05 Intermediate: Eyelashes on an Eye! A frontal view of an eye, with a focus on correctly rendering eyelashes, provides a completely different perspective on drawing a highly realistic human eye. In order to understand how to draw an eye correctly, you need to be aware of its basic construction behind the small section you can see. The iris and pupil take up most of the visible section of an eye, with only a little of the whites showing. The largest section of the eyeball is hiding inside the orbital socket in the frontal section of the skull.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  24. 24. 3 I use very simple names to identify each part of an eye, and the facial anatomy surrounding it. Refer to the next drawing and find each of the following. 1. The arch-shaped group of hairs, above the eye, is known as an eyebrow. 2. A fold in the skin, above the eye is called an upper eyelid crease. 3. The upper eyelid is a movable fold of skin that opens and closes to protect the eyeball. 4. A small triangular shape in the inside corner of the eye, is called the inner corner. 5. The white of the eye (the visible section of the eyeball) is light, but not really white. 6. A highlight is the brightest area where light bounces off the surface of the eye. 7. Eyelashes are fine hairs that grow from the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids. 8. The pupil of an eye is the darkest circular shape within the iris. 9. The iris is the colored circular section of the eyeball surrounding the pupil. 10. The lower eyelid is a fold of skin protecting the lower section of the eyeball. ILLUSTRATION 02-02 KEEPING AN EYE ON PROPORTIONS In this section, you sketch the various parts of the eye proportionately correct. Suggested drawing supplies for this project include: good quality white drawing paper, graphite pencils, kneaded and vinyl erasers, pencil sharpener, and a sandpaper block.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  25. 25. 4 1) Use an HB pencil to lightly sketch a circle as the outline of Melissa’s eyeball. Drawing a circle freehand becomes quite simple when you’ve devoted lots of time to practicing this skill. Try rotating your paper and looking at your drawing from different perspectives. This little trick often allows you insight into the problem areas. Looking at the reflection of your circle in a mirror will also help you to see areas in need of fixing. 2) Sketch another circle (the iris) positioned inside and slightly toward the upper right of the eyeball. ILLUSTRATION 02-03 ILLUSTRATION 02-04 3) Sketch a curved line (the edge of the upper eyelid) through and across the eyeball and iris. 4) Add another curved line to mark the edge of the lower eyelid. ILLUSTRATION 02-05 ILLUSTRATION 02-06Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  26. 26. 5 ILLUSTRATION 02-07 5) Sketch another circular shape inside the iris as the pupil. Take note that a tiny section of the pupil is above the line that marks the edge of the upper eyelid. Whenever you draw eyes, keep the initial sketch lines very light so they can be erased later. No part of an eye should be drawn with dark bold lines. ILLUSTRATION 02-08 6) Lightly sketch the edge of the face. The upper (slightly curved) line identifies the form of the upper bone structure surrounding the orbital socket. 7) Use your kneaded eraser to lighten (or erase) the original sketch lines above and below the eye.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  27. 27. 6 ILLUSTRATION 02-09 8) Lightly sketch a few lines to mark the location of the eyebrow. 9) Add another line around the outer edge of the lower eyelid and the small visible section of the upper eyelid (on the left) to represent the thickness of the flesh of the eyelids. 10) Sketch a small horizontal comma- shape below the inner corner of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 02-10 11) Add two small circular shapes as the highlights. 12) Lightly sketch a horizontal oval- shape above the inner corner of the eye. While some of these shapes may currently seem out of place, they will be used to help map the shading, as you will see in the next section. Before you continue, check over your sketch to make sure nothing is left out.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  28. 28. 7 ADDING LIGHT AND MIDDLE VALUES In this section you use hatching and crosshatching graduations to bring out the three-dimensional forms of the skull around the eye. You also lay down the light and medium values to enhance the forms of the fleshy sections around the eye, and add shading to the iris. 13) Add shading to the facial areas around the eye, the white of the eye, the upper and lower eyelids, the iris, and the inner corner of the eye. Use 2H and HB pencils and hatching graduations to visually separate the various parts of the eye. Take note of how all the hatching lines are curved to follow the perceived contours of the facial forms. The small shapes above and below the inner corner of the eye (added in the last section) are left white for now, and will remain very light in value. A few tiny lines radiate outward from the perimeter of the pupil onto the iris. ILLUSTRATION 02-11 You can indicate the color of the iris of an eye, by using different values. Brown eyes are very dark in value, almost as dark as the pupil. Hazel, blue, or green eyes are mostly shaded with middle values. Pale blue, green, or gray eyes are very light in value and contrast sharply to the dark pupil.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  29. 29. 8 You can make the transition from one value to the next barely noticeable, by drawing the individual lines of your hatching and crosshatching in different lengths. Sometimes a short line, placed inside a space between two other lines, helps make the transition look smoother. 14) Layer some darker sections of shading over the hatching lines with crosshatching. Your goal in this step is to further bring out the three-dimensional forms by using a full range of values from very light to almost black. Most artists prefer to work from light to dark. By drawing your light values first, you can then layer your medium shading on top of your light shading. This layering creates a nice smooth transition between different values. The darkest values are then built in layers on top of the medium values. Continue using 2H and HB pencils and pay attention to the sections that have curved crosshatching lines. The values automatically become darker with the addition of the crosshatching. Be careful to leave lots of lighter sections. ILLUSTRATION 02-12Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  30. 30. 9 For crosshatching, I personally prefer to turn my drawing paper (or sketchbook) around in various directions as I draw, so that I am always using my natural hand motion (mine is from the lower left toward the upper right). You may also wish to try holding your arm in different positions as you draw. 15) Add medium values to further enhance the various forms around the eye. Use HB and 2B pencils and keep the tips freshly sharpened with either a pencil sharpener or sandpaper block. Don’t rush! Take your time and slowly build the values steadily darker where needed. Pay close attention to which sections need to be left lighter. A strong contrast in different values creates the lifelike illusion of a three dimensional reality. 16) Add darker values in the shadow sections of the iris and white of the eye. I’ve used squirkles to shade some darker sections of the iris, such as around the perimeter and under the upper eyelid which is in shadow. ILLUSTRATION 02-13Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  31. 31. 10 DARK VALUES AND FINAL DETAILS In this section, you add dark values to provide more contrast to the facial forms and then add the final details such as eyelashes. 17) With a 2B pencil add dark shading to the areas that are in shadow, such as the inner and outer corners of the eye. 18) Use freshly sharpened HB and 2B pencils to draw the details of the eyebrows. 19) Add shading to the pupil with 4B and 6B pencils, leaving the highlights white. ILLUSTRATION 02-14 20) Use an HB pencil to draw only half as many eyelashes as you think there should be. Eyelashes are rendered with thin curved lines of different lengths, are unevenly spaced, and appear thicker closer to the eyelids. They grow from the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids (not the whites of the eye), and are drawn in groups rather than several single lashes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  32. 32. 11 Always draw eyelashes in the direction in which they grow, from the eyelid outward. Begin at the base of the eyelash and press firmly with your pencil. Slowly release the pressure you apply as your curved line extends toward the tip. Gently lift your pencil from the paper when the tip of the line is very thin and light in value. 21) Add some faint thin lines extending onto the whites from the corners of the eye to look like tiny blood vessels. 22) Check over the shading and touch up any sections where the graduations do not flow smoothly into one another. To make areas lighter mold your kneaded eraser to a wedge, and gently and selectively pat the shading lines. To make a section darker, simply add more thin crosshatching lines in between others. ILLUSTRATION 02-15Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  33. 33. 12 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. These sites are respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  34. 34. Brenda HoddinottU-03 ADVANCED: FACE AND FIGURESThis article explores the process of modifying a photo,choosing different shading techniques for the varioustextures, and using graduations to fade the lowersection of a head and shoulders portrait from theshading into the nothingness of the paper.This article is divided into the following six sections: PLANNING THE PROJECT: This section discusses the proposed modifications to my reference photo. SETTING UP PROPORTIONS AND VALUES: My primary goal is to render a rough sketch of the overall proportions, and establish a small section of the drawing with a full range of values from very light to the darkest dark. CREATE TEXTURES WITH SHADING: I work on various components of the drawing to establish diverse textures appropriate for each. COMPLETING THE HAT: I work from the top of the drawing downward to complete each section of the drawing, beginning with the hat. DRAWING HER HAIR AND EAR: I use a full range of values to render her ear and the hair below the brim of the hat. CREATING THE FORMS OF THE FACE AND FEATURES: I use 2H, HB, and 2B pencils to add mostly light and middle values to the face, nose, lips, and mouth. ADDING THE FINAL DETAILS: I use 2H and HB pencils to graduate light values downward and outward from the neck.You will find no step-by-step directions in this article. Rather, find yourself a comfy seat andread, until you get to the very end that is; at this point, you receive a drawing challenge!  13 PAGES – 33 ILLUSTRATIONS Recommended for artists with advanced drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – January, 2007
  35. 35. 2 PLANNING THE PROJECT This section discusses proposed modifications to the reference photo. If you decide to work along with me, but from your own photo, make sure you choose a large one with clear and in focus facial features. Figure 01: The adorable little Miss Claire This photo was taken of my beautiful 18-month-old niece, Claire by my sister-in-law, Francine. I prefer to make modifications to a photo in the planning stages, before I actually start to draw. After playing with the photo for a few minutes, I decide that the composition is more expressive and aesthetically pleasing with her head tilted more toward the left. Figure 02: Claire’s facial expression is enhanced by simply tilting the photo. After experimenting with compositional options by placing a viewfinder frame on my photo, I finally decide to go with a portrait format rather than a landscape. At this point, I like everything about the composition except the angle of the neck and shoulders. I decide to draw the neck and shoulders from the original (not the tilted) photo. Figure 03: A vertical (also called portrait) format is chosen. I used Photoshop to copy and paste the neck and shoulders from the first photo Photoshop onto the tilted photo. I added a stronger shadow behind her neck and shoulder to better see the outline. After a few touches with the eraser and rubber stamp tools, I have my final composition. Finally, I auto adjust the colors, and then change the file to grayscale, so as to better see the values. Figure 04: The reference photo is modified to enhance composition, and then changed to grayscale.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  36. 36. 3 SETTING UP PROPORTIONS AND VALUES In this part, my primary goal is to render a rough sketch of the overall proportions, and establish a small section of the drawing with a full range of values from very light to the darkest dark. My paper is more of a cream color than white, so I rendered the scans in color rather than grayscale. First, I do a rough sketch, just so I know how much space the drawing takes up on my paper. My sketch was darkened in Photoshop so you can see the lines, which in fact are very faint. Figure 05: Claire’s proportions are very lightly sketched with a 2H pencil. Then, I sketch the outlines of the various parts of the eye on the right, and the highlight with a 2H pencil. Figure 06: An eye is neatly outlined. Shading is added to the eye. Light values are rendered with a 2H pencil; middle values, such as those used for the iris, eyelashes, and upper eyelid crease, are created with an HB and 2B; and the pupil is shaded with a 6B. The eyelashes are rendered by using curved hatching lines of various thicknesses and lengths. Note that they appear thicker closer to the eyelids. Figures 07 and 08: An assortment of pencils from 2H to 6B, help create a full range of values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  37. 37. 4 I plan to use squirkling for the shading of the hat, face, and neck, hatching for her hair, and crosshatching for the tiny section of the dress that is visible. When drawing young children, I prefer to use mostly light and middle values for their faces and features, with the exception of the focal points, the eyes. Figure 09: Light values identify the forms of the face around the eye. CREATE TEXTURES WITH SHADING I’m now ready to plan my shading strategy and get started on the really fun stuff! In this part, I work on various components of the drawing to establish diverse textures appropriate for each. The hat’s bumpy texture is easily created with loosely rendered squirkle graduations. I begin with the top section and work my way downward. Figures 10: Light and middle values are added to the hat with 2H and HB pencils. I continue the shading and outline the embroidered flowers on the front of the hat. The hat’s texture is enhanced by adding numerous C-shapes throughout the fabric (see the close-up in Figure 12 on the next page). Figure 11: Three flowers are outlined, and darker shading is added to the left with HB and 2B pencils.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  38. 38. 5 The C-shapes are lighter in value wherever the base shading is light. Conversely, the C-shapes are more plentiful and very dark in the darkest shadow sections. Figure 12: The wonderful texture of the hat is created with squirkles and tiny C-shapes. Claire’s second eye is rendered in much the same way as the other. Figure 13: The shading for the other eye is completed. I outline a few strands of hair and add a dark shadow on her forehead, under the brim of her hat. The texture of the eyebrows is created with short curved hatching lines. Finely rendered squirkles define the facial forms around the eye. Figure 14: The visible sections of her face and hair are shaded with a full range of values. The shadow side of her cheek and nose are shaded with HB and 2B pencils. To keep her face looking soft in the shadow sections, I use mostly light and middle values; dark values are added very sparingly (Refer to Figure 15 on the next page).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  39. 39. 6 The forms of her face on the left are enhanced with dark shading. A thin section of light shading represents the reflected light along the edge of her face. Figure 15: A foundation of shading has identified several facial forms. Hatching lines are perfect for capturing the texture of an embroidered satin stitch. Figure 16: Directional guidelines create a shading map for the flowers. An HB pencil and hatching help bring out the texture and forms of the flowers. Figure 17: Hatching lines provide the illusion of a hand stitched design of flowers.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  40. 40. 7 Crosshatching graduations work beautifully for creating the textures of numerous fabrics. Figure 18: Crosshatching and 2H and HB pencils provide texture to the shoulder section of Claire’s sundress. COMPLETING THE HAT With all the shading techniques identified for the diverse textures, I now work from the top downward to complete each section of the drawing, beginning with the hat. Squirkling combines with C-shapes for shading the hat. The hatching of the embroidered flowers provides a distinctive contrast in textures. Figure 19: The main section of the hat is complete. The brim of the hat needs to illustrate the soft folds and bends of the fabric. The shadow sections are darker than in the photo. My goal is to capture a more natural lighting than that of a flash on a camera. Figure 20: The darkest shadows on the hat are under the brim on the left.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  41. 41. 8 Figure 21: An overview of the various values and textures used throughout the drawing. At first glance, the stitching appears rather large for the hat; however, keep in mind that the hat is on the tiny head of a baby. Figure 22: The brim of the hat on the left is made up of mostly middle and dark values. Figure 23: A shading map is sketched for the complex section on the right that has her ear and fine strands of hair overlapping the hat.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  42. 42. 9 Figure 24: Dark values are used for the shadows of the sections of hair and hat, under the brim on the right. Figure 25: The center section of the brim is rendered with mostly light values. The shading of the hat is completed with 2H, HB, 2B, and 4B pencils. Figure 26: A full range of values, from very light to almost black, create the illusion of a three-dimensional hat. DRAWING HER HAIR AND EAR In this section, I use a full range of values to render her ear and the hair below the brim of the hat. Shadows on the center sections of her forehead, are not as wide or dark as the shadows on the sides. Figure 27: The strands of hair on her forehead are lightly sketched.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  43. 43. 10 The ear on the right is shaded softly with 2H and HB pencils, so as to not take attention away from the eyes. Figure 28: Curved lines complete the hair and squirkling brings out the forms of the ear. CREATING THE FORMS OF THE FACE AND FEATURES In this section, I use 2H, HB, and 2B pencils to add mostly light and middle values to the face, nose, lips, and mouth. Figure 29: Shading accentuates the three-dimensional forms of the lower sections of the face. I completely erased the outlines around the lips and teeth before added shading. The two front teeth are very light in value. Figure 30: A rim of light values around her mouth, especially on the right, accentuates the forms of the mouth and lips.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  44. 44. 11 Before I continued on to her dress and upper body, I took several breaks, coming back after each and making tiny adjustments to sections that didn’t look quite right. For example, I made the lower edge of her cheek on the left smaller, touched up the mouth on the left, and softened the shading of the outer corners of the eyes. Figure 31: A few touch-ups are added to the face, and shading creates the cast shadows under her chin. Light values create a foundation for shading the forms of her upper body. ADDING THE FINAL DETAILS In this section, I use 2H and HB pencils to graduate light values downward and outward from the neck. Very little shading is added to her dress and upper body; rather, graduations of light values allow these sections to fade gently into the cream-colored paper. Figure 32: Gradations of light values gently fade away into the nothingness of the paper.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  45. 45. 12 Figure 33: I check over my drawing carefully, erase a few smudges, and touch up a few small sections of shading. CHALLENGE One of the most common problems with beginner portraits is created when the lower section of the portrait comes to an abrupt stop, rather than graduated into the nothingness of the paper. This abrupt stop often creates a visual line that takes attention away from more important aspects of the drawing. CHALLENGE: Render a head and shoulders portrait from a photograph, using the technique of fading out the edges of the lower sections (introduced in this lesson).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  46. 46. 13 Brenda Hoddinott As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching ar t is to f ocus pr imarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently intr oducing the technical and academic. Hence, in cr eating a passion f or the subject matter , the quest f or knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< BIOGRAPHY Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  47. 47. VIEW OF AN Brenda Hoddinott U-04 ADVANCED: FACES & FIGURES In this project you explore the basic shapes of a shoulder, arm, and hand, and then add graduated shading with hatching and crosshatching to illustrate their three dimensional forms. Skills incorporated into this lesson include: identifying accurate proportions, drawing with contour lines, and adding graduated values with hatching and crosshatching. This project is divided into two sections:  OUTLINING SHAPES: You visually identify and sketch the exterior shapes and forms of a shoulder, arm, and hand, as defined by bones, fat, and muscles.  DEFINING FORMS WITH SHADING: You identify where the highlights and the light and dark values are located, and use hatching and crosshatching to realistically illustrate the various forms. Suggested supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers, pencil sharpener, sandpaper block, and good quality drawing paper, such as smooth hot-pressed watercolor paper. 9 PAGES - 17 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists with advanced drawing skills and considerable experience with hatching and crosshatching. The curriculum of this lesson is easilyimplemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2007
  48. 48. 2OUTLINING SHAPESEvery artist who aspires to include people in his or her drawings needs to become proficient indrawing the various components of human anatomy.Arms come in many shapes FIGURE 4-01 FIGURE 4-02and sizes, from the shortchubby arms of a tiny infantto the long, well-defined,muscular arms of an athleticadult. This lesson focuses onthe arm of an adult male withhighly defined anatomicalforms.1) Use a ruler to outline a long thin rectangular drawing space, 2 by 8 inches.2) Add three horizontal lines to divide the rectangle into four squares, 2 by 2 inches.3) Lightly sketch the outlines of the individual shapes of the shoulder in the first square. Refer to Figure 4-01. Visually measure the proportions, how large or small some parts are when compared to others.4) Outline the upper arm in the second square. Refer to Figure 4-02.5) Add a line to mark the edge of the tiny section of the body on the right.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  49. 49. 3 FIGURE 4-03 FIGURE 4-04 6) Add the outline of the lower section of the arm. Refer to Figure 4-03. Most of the lower section of the arm falls within the third square. 7) Outline the main section of the hand in the fourth square. Refer to Figure 4-04. 8) Add the thumb and fingers. Refer to Figure 4-05. 9) Sketch an oval-shape to mark the location of the form of the side of the hand. FIGURE 4-0510) Erase the horizontal grid lines (Refer to Figure 4-06).11) Lighten all your sketch lines with your kneaded eraser, until they are very faint.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  50. 50. 4 FIGURE 4-06 FIGURE 4-07 12) Neatly outline the shape of the arm and its various forms in more detail. Refer to Figures 4-06 to 4-10. Use the rough sketch only as a guideline. Very few of the sketch lines will be the same as this outline. The shapes inside the outlines of the arm mark the locations of the forms of muscles and bones. As you draw, examine the: lengths of the lines various directions in which the lines curve proportions of the various parts to one another FIGURE 4-08At this point you can either leave the rough sketchlines visible, or you can carefully erase them.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  51. 51. 513) Lighten your lines again with your kneaded eraser, as in Figure 4-11. FIGURE 4-09 FIGURE 4-10 FIGURE 4-11Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

×