Upcoming SlideShare
×

# Avansati u chipuri si cifre

1,291 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
1 Comment
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No

Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
Views
Total views
1,291
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
53
1
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

### Avansati u chipuri si cifre

3. 3. 3 ILLUSTRATION 01-02 OUTLINING A CHILD’S HEAD WITHIN A GRID When working with a grid, think of each square as a separate drawing. As you work, closely examine the shapes, spaces and lines within each individual grid square. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. Form, as applied to drawing, is the illusion of the three-dimensional structure of a shape, such as a circle, square or triangle, created in a drawing with shading and/or perspective.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
5. 5. 5 6) Outline the iris, pupil and highlight in each eye. The upper sections of the eyes are approximately halfway between the bottom of the chin and the top of the head, and have double lines around their lower edges to indicate the lower eyelids. The space between the eyes is slightly wider than the width of an eye, and the nose is the same width as the space between the eyes. This child is approximately 8-9 years old. The nose and mouth of a younger child would appear higher on the face, closer to the eyes. As a child matures into an adult, the nose and mouth appear to shift downwards on the face. ILLUSTRATION 01-04Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
7. 7. 7 10) With your HB pencil outline the strands of hair around her face. Observe that the various sections of hair are different lengths and thickness so as to give the hair a natural appearance. Some strands of hair appear to cut across and through the eyebrows and ears. On the outer sides of the head, the hair extends outside the outline of the skull. 11) Erase any sections of the eyebrows and ears that are hidden behind or underneath the hair. ILLUSTRATION 01-06Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
8. 8. 8 12) With your HB pencil outline the top and sides of the hair. Take note that the hair is outside the outline of the skull. Also, the edges of the hair show a few untidy strands of hair to keep it looking soft and natural. ILLUSTRATION 01-07 13) Erase the line that outlines the skull and any grid lines still left on your drawing. You can either erase all your grid lines at once, or only those that need to be erased before you begin each section of shading.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
10. 10. 10 15) Use an HB pencil to add light and medium values to the ears and the areas on the face that are in shadow, under the strands of hair. At this point you use hatching lines that are diagonal and relatively parallel. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. ILLUSTRATION 01-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
11. 11. 11 16) Add light shading to the remainder of the face while keeping the shading lines as parallel as possible. Before you begin, closely examine the shading around the nose, eyes, mouth and chin. Note that the shading around the sides and lower sections of the face does not extend completely to the edges. ILLUSTRATION 01-10Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
12. 12. 12 17) Complete the shading on the face by transforming the hatching lines into crosshatching. To create crosshatching you simply add more lines that cut through the hatching lines. Observe the darker shadow areas of the shading on the face. 18) Outline the sides of the neck, and add shading to the sections under the chin. ILLUSTRATION 01-11Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
13. 13. 13 SHADING FACIAL FEATURES In this section you finish Annie’s face by working from the forehead down toward the neck. You add additional shading to the shadow sections and more details to the eyes, nose, and mouth. 19) Complete the shading on the forehead and around the eyes. 20) Draw the fine hairs of the eyebrows. ILLUSTRATION 01-12Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
14. 14. 14 21) Shade in the iris, upper and lower eyelids, whites of the eyes, and corners of the eyes. Note that the shading of the iris is darker under the upper eyelid and on the side where the highlight is drawn. Also, the shading lines on the iris all seem to point towards the centre. ILLUSTRATION 01-13Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
15. 15. 15 22) Use a 6B pencil, to shade in the pupil. 23) With a freshly sharpened HB pencil, draw half as many eyelashes as you think there should be. Note that the upper and lower eyelashes grow in many different directions, are different lengths and thicknesses in some places, are curved, appear thicker closer to the eyelids, and grow from the edges of the upper and lower lids and not the whites of the eye 24) Add darker shading to the sections of the nose that are in shadow, such as the nostrils. ILLUSTRATION 01-14Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
16. 16. 16 25) Add shading to the lips and the sections of the face around the mouth. There are no noticeable lines outlining the lips. The shading follows the natural creases in each lip and is also directed perpendicular to the opening. The darkest shading is next to the line that indicates the opening of the mouth and on the side in shadow. Note the lighter shading and areas left white on the lips, which gives the illusion of form. 26) Compare your drawing to mine and adjust any sections you aren’t happy with. ILLUSTRATION 01-15Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
18. 18. 18 28) With freshly sharpened HB and 2B pencils, follow the contours of the head and the outlines of the strands of hair, to add shading to the rest of the hair. ILLUSTRATION 01-17 Refer to Illustrations 01-17 and 01-18. Observe the many different values in the hair, from white for the highlights to very dark in the darkest shadows. Take note of the directions in which the hatching lines curve. Also, they are different lengths and values. The hair is lighter in some places, which indicates a shiny texture. The outside edges of the hair show a few untidy hairs to keep it looking natural. REMEMBER! You can draw the three-dimensional forms of a face more accurately, when you have carefully observed and done drawings from the faces of actual models, such as yourself and your family and friends.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
20. 20. 20 ILLUSTRATION 01-19Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
23. 23. 2 STRUCTURAL INSIGHTS INTO EYES Eyes are the most expressive feature. The shapes and sizes of people’s eyes can help identify their gender, age, and cultural origin. Eyes alone can often identify who the person is. ILLUSTRATION 02-01 Check out lesson P-05 Intermediate: Eyelashes on an Eye! A frontal view of an eye, with a focus on correctly rendering eyelashes, provides a completely different perspective on drawing a highly realistic human eye. In order to understand how to draw an eye correctly, you need to be aware of its basic construction behind the small section you can see. The iris and pupil take up most of the visible section of an eye, with only a little of the whites showing. The largest section of the eyeball is hiding inside the orbital socket in the frontal section of the skull.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
24. 24. 3 I use very simple names to identify each part of an eye, and the facial anatomy surrounding it. Refer to the next drawing and find each of the following. 1. The arch-shaped group of hairs, above the eye, is known as an eyebrow. 2. A fold in the skin, above the eye is called an upper eyelid crease. 3. The upper eyelid is a movable fold of skin that opens and closes to protect the eyeball. 4. A small triangular shape in the inside corner of the eye, is called the inner corner. 5. The white of the eye (the visible section of the eyeball) is light, but not really white. 6. A highlight is the brightest area where light bounces off the surface of the eye. 7. Eyelashes are fine hairs that grow from the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids. 8. The pupil of an eye is the darkest circular shape within the iris. 9. The iris is the colored circular section of the eyeball surrounding the pupil. 10. The lower eyelid is a fold of skin protecting the lower section of the eyeball. ILLUSTRATION 02-02 KEEPING AN EYE ON PROPORTIONS In this section, you sketch the various parts of the eye proportionately correct. Suggested drawing supplies for this project include: good quality white drawing paper, graphite pencils, kneaded and vinyl erasers, pencil sharpener, and a sandpaper block.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
25. 25. 4 1) Use an HB pencil to lightly sketch a circle as the outline of Melissa’s eyeball. Drawing a circle freehand becomes quite simple when you’ve devoted lots of time to practicing this skill. Try rotating your paper and looking at your drawing from different perspectives. This little trick often allows you insight into the problem areas. Looking at the reflection of your circle in a mirror will also help you to see areas in need of fixing. 2) Sketch another circle (the iris) positioned inside and slightly toward the upper right of the eyeball. ILLUSTRATION 02-03 ILLUSTRATION 02-04 3) Sketch a curved line (the edge of the upper eyelid) through and across the eyeball and iris. 4) Add another curved line to mark the edge of the lower eyelid. ILLUSTRATION 02-05 ILLUSTRATION 02-06Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
26. 26. 5 ILLUSTRATION 02-07 5) Sketch another circular shape inside the iris as the pupil. Take note that a tiny section of the pupil is above the line that marks the edge of the upper eyelid. Whenever you draw eyes, keep the initial sketch lines very light so they can be erased later. No part of an eye should be drawn with dark bold lines. ILLUSTRATION 02-08 6) Lightly sketch the edge of the face. The upper (slightly curved) line identifies the form of the upper bone structure surrounding the orbital socket. 7) Use your kneaded eraser to lighten (or erase) the original sketch lines above and below the eye.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
27. 27. 6 ILLUSTRATION 02-09 8) Lightly sketch a few lines to mark the location of the eyebrow. 9) Add another line around the outer edge of the lower eyelid and the small visible section of the upper eyelid (on the left) to represent the thickness of the flesh of the eyelids. 10) Sketch a small horizontal comma- shape below the inner corner of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 02-10 11) Add two small circular shapes as the highlights. 12) Lightly sketch a horizontal oval- shape above the inner corner of the eye. While some of these shapes may currently seem out of place, they will be used to help map the shading, as you will see in the next section. Before you continue, check over your sketch to make sure nothing is left out.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
29. 29. 8 You can make the transition from one value to the next barely noticeable, by drawing the individual lines of your hatching and crosshatching in different lengths. Sometimes a short line, placed inside a space between two other lines, helps make the transition look smoother. 14) Layer some darker sections of shading over the hatching lines with crosshatching. Your goal in this step is to further bring out the three-dimensional forms by using a full range of values from very light to almost black. Most artists prefer to work from light to dark. By drawing your light values first, you can then layer your medium shading on top of your light shading. This layering creates a nice smooth transition between different values. The darkest values are then built in layers on top of the medium values. Continue using 2H and HB pencils and pay attention to the sections that have curved crosshatching lines. The values automatically become darker with the addition of the crosshatching. Be careful to leave lots of lighter sections. ILLUSTRATION 02-12Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
30. 30. 9 For crosshatching, I personally prefer to turn my drawing paper (or sketchbook) around in various directions as I draw, so that I am always using my natural hand motion (mine is from the lower left toward the upper right). You may also wish to try holding your arm in different positions as you draw. 15) Add medium values to further enhance the various forms around the eye. Use HB and 2B pencils and keep the tips freshly sharpened with either a pencil sharpener or sandpaper block. Don’t rush! Take your time and slowly build the values steadily darker where needed. Pay close attention to which sections need to be left lighter. A strong contrast in different values creates the lifelike illusion of a three dimensional reality. 16) Add darker values in the shadow sections of the iris and white of the eye. I’ve used squirkles to shade some darker sections of the iris, such as around the perimeter and under the upper eyelid which is in shadow. ILLUSTRATION 02-13Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
31. 31. 10 DARK VALUES AND FINAL DETAILS In this section, you add dark values to provide more contrast to the facial forms and then add the final details such as eyelashes. 17) With a 2B pencil add dark shading to the areas that are in shadow, such as the inner and outer corners of the eye. 18) Use freshly sharpened HB and 2B pencils to draw the details of the eyebrows. 19) Add shading to the pupil with 4B and 6B pencils, leaving the highlights white. ILLUSTRATION 02-14 20) Use an HB pencil to draw only half as many eyelashes as you think there should be. Eyelashes are rendered with thin curved lines of different lengths, are unevenly spaced, and appear thicker closer to the eyelids. They grow from the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids (not the whites of the eye), and are drawn in groups rather than several single lashes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
33. 33. 12 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. These sites are respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
35. 35. 2 PLANNING THE PROJECT This section discusses proposed modifications to the reference photo. If you decide to work along with me, but from your own photo, make sure you choose a large one with clear and in focus facial features. Figure 01: The adorable little Miss Claire This photo was taken of my beautiful 18-month-old niece, Claire by my sister-in-law, Francine. I prefer to make modifications to a photo in the planning stages, before I actually start to draw. After playing with the photo for a few minutes, I decide that the composition is more expressive and aesthetically pleasing with her head tilted more toward the left. Figure 02: Claire’s facial expression is enhanced by simply tilting the photo. After experimenting with compositional options by placing a viewfinder frame on my photo, I finally decide to go with a portrait format rather than a landscape. At this point, I like everything about the composition except the angle of the neck and shoulders. I decide to draw the neck and shoulders from the original (not the tilted) photo. Figure 03: A vertical (also called portrait) format is chosen. I used Photoshop to copy and paste the neck and shoulders from the first photo Photoshop onto the tilted photo. I added a stronger shadow behind her neck and shoulder to better see the outline. After a few touches with the eraser and rubber stamp tools, I have my final composition. Finally, I auto adjust the colors, and then change the file to grayscale, so as to better see the values. Figure 04: The reference photo is modified to enhance composition, and then changed to grayscale.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
36. 36. 3 SETTING UP PROPORTIONS AND VALUES In this part, my primary goal is to render a rough sketch of the overall proportions, and establish a small section of the drawing with a full range of values from very light to the darkest dark. My paper is more of a cream color than white, so I rendered the scans in color rather than grayscale. First, I do a rough sketch, just so I know how much space the drawing takes up on my paper. My sketch was darkened in Photoshop so you can see the lines, which in fact are very faint. Figure 05: Claire’s proportions are very lightly sketched with a 2H pencil. Then, I sketch the outlines of the various parts of the eye on the right, and the highlight with a 2H pencil. Figure 06: An eye is neatly outlined. Shading is added to the eye. Light values are rendered with a 2H pencil; middle values, such as those used for the iris, eyelashes, and upper eyelid crease, are created with an HB and 2B; and the pupil is shaded with a 6B. The eyelashes are rendered by using curved hatching lines of various thicknesses and lengths. Note that they appear thicker closer to the eyelids. Figures 07 and 08: An assortment of pencils from 2H to 6B, help create a full range of values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com