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Avansati t diverse animale

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Avansati t diverse animale

  1. 1. Brenda Hoddinott T-01 ADVANCED: DIVERSE ANIMALSA lovable Soft Coated Wheaton Terrier is the subject of this project, which featuresadvanced drawing techniques for accurately rendering both long and short fur, realistic“puppy dog” eyes, and a shiny textured nose.This project is divided into the following seven sections: Setting Up the Format and Grid Outlining Rosey’s Portrait  Shading a Section of Background  Using Hatching Lines to Draw Fuzzy Ears  Drawing Big Beautiful Brown Eyes  Shading the “Nosey” Of Rosey  Adding Lots of Long Fur to a Face and Chest  Suggested supplies: 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils; vinyl and kneaded erasers; ruler (if you chooseto work with a grid); and smooth hot-pressed watercolor paper (or another good quality paper). Recommended for artists from age 12 to adult with advanced drawing skills, as well as students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators 14 PAGES – 18 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2002 (Revised - July, 2009)
  2. 2. 2SETTING UP THE FORMAT AND GRIDThis drawing is done from a combination of photos and my memory. However, to help youset up proportions (if you are not yet comfortable drawing freehand), I’ve added a gridformat. You use careful observation of spaces and lines within the individual squares tomeasure for accurate proportions. Illustrations that show the progression of my drawingare fairly self-explanatory; hence, you find very little instructional text.I’ve chosen the size 5 by 7 inches with 1 inch squares, but feel free to do a larger drawingby using 1½ inch or 2 inch squares.1) Draw a rectangular drawing Figure 101 format 5 by 7 inches (or 7½ by 10½ inches, or 10 by 14 inches, if Remember to press lightly with your you want a larger drawing). pencil, because all grid lines and most sketch lines will need to be erased. Pressing too hard can also damage the tooth of the paper.2) Divide your rectangle into 35 equal squares, 5 across by 7 down Use 1 inch squares, if you want your as in Figure 101. final drawing to be 5 by 7 inches or larger squares for a larger drawing.3) Mark numbers along the top and letters down the side.OUTLINING ROSEY’SPORTRAITIn this section you draw a detailed outline of Rosey within your drawing space inpreparation for adding shading.4) Draw the basic outline of the head, ears, and shoulders very lightly with your You can add a few diagonal lines to the grid to help you place everything more HB pencil as in Figure 102. accurately. As you draw, don’t think about what the subject is. Focus on only one square at a time and pretend this one square is the total drawing. Examine the shapes, and negative and positive spaces that define the actual lines and their positions within the perimeter of this one square.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  3. 3. 3 Observe whether the lines are straight, curved or angular. Take note of the directions in which curved lines bend, and the length and angle of straight lines in relation to the sides of this particular square. Also, examine the areas where curved lines meet straight lines before you draw. Figure 102 Make sure you draw your lines VERY lightly, preferably with your HB mechanical pencil. My scanner software has darkened this sketch, so that you are able to see my lines (as in Figure 102), but on the actual drawing, the lines are so light that you can barely see them. Take your time and check your proportions often. For my final drawing, I chose to not include the bottom lip and teeth. So, no need to5) Draw the eyes, mustache and nose (Figure 103). draw them! I’m writing this text after the drawing is complete, so you may find a couple of other minor changes on upcoming pages.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  4. 4. 46) Draw the fur between her Figure 103 eyes (called her “fall” or “mane”), and also the wisps of fur above her nose (Figure 104). Figure 104 SHADING A SECTION OF BACKGROUND Crosshatching is an ideal method of shading backgrounds. The values graduate into one another and seem to recede into distant space. As an aside, I prefer to start my shading in the upper left hand corner, and work my way across and down the page, so I don’t smudge the completed sections as I work.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  5. 5. 57) Erase the grid lines in the sections in which you are working and then redraw Use the edge of your vinyl eraser to erase the lines, and very lightly brush away the the sections of the actual sketch, which were erased. eraser crumbs with a soft paintbrush. Then, use your kneaded eraser to gently pat the paper surface to pick up any remaining eraser crumbs.8) Add graduated shading in the upper left corner. Figure 105 Use a 2B pencil for the darker areas closer to the edges, and a HB for the lighter values. You can add all the background shading now, or add sections as you draw each section of fur (as I did).USING HATCHING LINES TO DRAW FUZZY EARSI have chosen a light source slightly from the left front, so the shading is lighter on the left.In addition, cast shadows need to be added to her neck on the right, and the right side ofher nose. My choice of light source also affects where I place the values in her eyes and onher nose. Refer to Figure 106. Remember to erase your grid lines with either your vinyl or9) Using short hatching lines to represent fuzzy shading on the ear. kneaded eraser before you begin each section of shading. Start with your HB pencil and then use your 2B until you are happy with the texture and values. Examine the various directions of my hatching lines. The fur is lighter in some places with white paper showing clearly. The hatching lines are different lengths and values. A few individual wispy and untidy hairs are rendered with thin lines, to keep the fur looking soft and natural.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  6. 6. 6 Figure 106 10) With your HB pencil, add the light shading on the top of her head and draw the fur on the top half of her Take a moment other ear. and observe how dark the fur on her ears looks, when compared to the top section of her fuzzy head (Figure 107). As with most Soft Coated Wheaton Terriers, Rosey had dark gray ears, and her lower face and beard were a combination of dark gray and black fur. The rest of her Figure 107 fur, from the top of her head back to the tip of her tail was a soft reddish wheaten color. When you draw dark fur, you use mostly dark hatching lines. On the other hand, light fur needs to be rendered with lighter values.11) Continue with the background shading along the top section of your drawing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  7. 7. 7DRAWING BIG BEAUTIFUL BROWN EYESIn this section, you begin to give personality to Rosey’s face, by drawing her gorgeous eyes. Use a 2B pencil to add dark areas around the eyes.12) Draw the fur around the eye on the left.13) Shade in the iris (on the left), leaving a white spot for the primary highlight and The shading of the iris is darker a light area for the secondary highlight. under the upper eyelid and on the side where the highlight is drawn. Figure 108 14) With your 6B pencil, shade in the sections of the pupil that are really dark. 15) Complete this eye with HB and Don’t forget the shading in the 2B pencils. “white” of the eye. Figure 10916) Continue drawing the fur between her eyes and around her other eye.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  8. 8. 8 Figure 110 17) Draw the fur under and between her eyes and down Observe closely the direction in toward her nose (Figure 110). which the fur grows in this section. 18) Add shading to the lower section of her other ear (on the right). 19) Complete the shading of the other eye (Figure 111). 20) Add the fur around this eye and make her “eyelashes” a By the way, Rosey little darker on both sides. actually had eyebrows and fur over her eyes that looked like Figure 111 eyelashes! 21) Add more shading to the background on both sides (Figure 112). 22) Shade in the fur on her I moved the back. outline of her back (on the right) up closer to her ear. This is the section of fur on her back that needs to be shaded.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  9. 9. 923) Add more Figure 112 fur to her lower ear on the left, to make it look a little longer.24) Finish the background shading.25) Draw the fur on the left, and add more details to her moustache.26) Draw the small section of chest fur on the left (under the Keep the chin). values light.27) Erase the lower section of the nose and redraw it a little higher Yet one more change. I decided the nose was too low on the face. on the face.28) If you drew the mouth, erase it now (Figure 112).SHADING THE “NOSEY” OF ROSEYThe rest of this drawing is done with HB, 2B and 4B pencils. Use your own discretion as towhich pencil you use for each area. Observe closely the direction in which the fur grows ineach section.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  10. 10. 1029) Use Figure 113 squirkling to add the shading to Refer to the nose. Figure 113. Note the areas that are lighter than others.30) With your 2B pencil, add squirkles and dots to represent the texture of a dog’s nose.31) Draw the fur on the left section of her moustache.ADDING LOTS OF LONG FUR TO A FACE AND CHESTBefore you begin the step-by-step instructions in this lesson, closely examine a close-up ofthe completed drawing of the furry texture of her chest, face, mustache and beard.Observe the following as you plan your shading strategy and decide which pencils (HB, 2Bor 4B) you should use for each area:  The hatching lines are all curved.  The fur grows in many different directions.  Some sections of fur overlap others.  The shading of the fur on her chest is darker, closer to her face, because of the cast shadow created by her head.  The tips of the fur on her mane, mustache and beard are quite dark.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  11. 11. 11 Figure 114 32) Add the shading on the upper right under her mane (the long fur growing from the center section of her snout, also called a Refer to Figures 114 muzzle). and 115. 33) Draw more fur on the left side of her chest, watching closely the direction in which it grows (Figure 116). 34) Add her beard under the opening of her mouth. Figure 115Take note of thedark shading usedto define theopening of hermouth and on theends of her beard.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  12. 12. 12 Figure 116 35) Add the rest of the fur to her chest (Figure 117). Note how dark the fur is in the shadow area on her neck and chest, under her face. Figure 11736) Refer to the final drawing (Figure 118) and finish drawing the fur on the right side of her face and beard.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  13. 13. 13 Use your kneaded eraser molded to a narrow wedge, to pull a few lighter areas of beard fur from the dark shading.37) Correct any areas that you’re not happy with and sign your name! Figure 118 In Loving Memory ROSEY (Windyflats Rose Dohmit) December 16, 1998 - December 30, 2000 Died of a genetic illness (PLE) that is very common today in purebred dogs.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  14. 14. 14 As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic BRENDA HODDINOTT artist (retired), and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including her favorites: graphite and paint. Brenda is the author of Drawing for Dummies (Wiley Publishing, Inc., New York, NY) and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN). She is currently writing two books on classical drawing. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong drawing and painting skills through self-directed learning.During her twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, variouscriminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including the RoyalCanadian Mounted Police. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from theRoyal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membershipfrom “Forensic Artists International”.In 2003, Brenda retired from her careers as a forensic artist and teacher to work full timewriting books and developing her website (Drawspace.com). This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilitiesthroughout the world.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  15. 15. Brenda HoddinottT-02 ADVANCED: DIVERSE ANIMALSIn this project, you draw a lovable Dalmatian withrealistic eyes and a shiny textured nose, withemphasis on the forms of her fur and individualfeatures, as defined by a dominant light source.Curriculum is designed to enhance skills with: drawing a detailed outline within a complex grid;identifying accurate proportions; planning shading strategies; rendering the forms of a dog’scranial and facial anatomy; and shading graduated values with crosshatching and hatching.A complex grid (optional) helps you to identify the proper placement of the outlines of variousparts of your drawing subject. However, if you are comfortable drawing a complex subjectfreehand, please ignore the references to a grid in this lesson.This project is divided into the following three sections: TIPS FOR WORKING WITH A GRID: You use careful observation of spaces and lines within individual squares to measure for accurate proportions. DRAWING THE OUTLINE: You draw a detailed outline of Shadow within your drawing space in preparation for adding shading. SHADING SHADOW: Hatching is used to add a furry texture, and enhance the three- dimensional forms of the understructures of her head and neck. Crosshatching works well to bring out the texture of her collar. Squirkling provides a realistic texture to her nose.Suggested drawing supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers,sandpaper block, ruler (if you choose to work with a grid), and good quality drawing paper. 13 PAGES – 20 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists and aspiring artists, from age 12 to adult with good drawing skills, including the shading techniques used for hatching fur. The curriculum of this lesson is easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2007
  16. 16. 2TIPS FOR WORKING WITH A GRIDA grid, an invaluable drawing tool to help set up accurate proportions, necessitates carefulobservation of spaces and lines within individual squares. A grid is a framework of vertical andhorizontal reference squares on an image and/or drawing paper, used by artists to either enlargeor reduce the size of the original image. Proportion is the relationship in size of one componentof a drawing to another or others.Keep the following in mind as you work your way through this project: Focus on only one square at a time and pretend this one square is the total drawing. As you draw, don’t think about what the subject is. Focus on the shapes, and negative and positive spaces that define the actual lines. Examine the outlines and their positions within the perimeter of this one square. Note the shape of the spaces on either side of each line. Observe whether the lines are straight, curved or angular. Take note of the directions in which curved lines bend, and the length and angle of straight lines in relation to the sides of this particular square. Take note of the areas where curved lines meet straight lines.Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles.Negative space refers to the background around and/or behind a drawing subject such as objects,people, or animals. Positive space refers to the space occupied by the drawing subject and/or its(or his or her) various parts. Curved lines are created when a straight line curves (or bends).DRAWING THE OUTLINEThroughout this section you draw a detailed outline of Shadow within a square drawing space inpreparation for adding shading. Drawing space (also called a drawing surface or a drawingformat) is the area in which you render a drawing within a specific perimeter. It can be the shapeof the paper or outlined by any shape you draw, such as a square, rectangle, or circle. Press very lightly with your pencil as you draw the grid lines and outlines (contour lines) of the dog’s head. All grid lines and some outlines will need to be erased later. Pressing too hard can also damage the tooth of the paper. I used an HB mechanical pencil, and only the weight of the pencil itself created the lines. My scanner software has darkened my grid lines and outline so you can see them; in fact, my lines are so faint they are barely visible.Contour lines are created when the shared edges of spaces and/or objects meet. Contour lines candefine complete objects or small sections or details within drawing subjects.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  17. 17. 3 FIGURE 2-01 1. Use a ruler to lightly render a square drawing format. Mine is 7 by 7 inches, but feel free to do a larger drawing by using larger squares. 2. Draw the grid, using numbers along the top and letters down the side. This grid has 49 squares, 7 across by 7 down. The numbers and letters help you keep track of where you are working within the grid. Use a FIGURE 2-02 sandpaper block to keep the point of your pencil freshly sharpened. Take your time, and check your proportions often. If you accidentally draw something in the wrong square, simply erase and redraw it. 3. Draw the basic outline of the head and ears very lightly with your HB pencil.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  18. 18. 4 FIGURE 2-03 4. Draw the outline of the neck and collar. 5. Add the small section of her back that is visible. 6. Draw the inside flaps of her ears. FIGURE 2-04 FIGURE 2-05 Examine the close-up section of an oil painting (by me) in Figure 2-04, and a photograph taken by my daughter, Heidi, in Figure 2-05. Shadow has unusual eyes for a dog; one iris is blue and the other is brown.7. Draw circles as the outlines of the irises of her eyes (Refer to Figure 2-06). The iris of an eye is the large colored circular shape.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  19. 19. 58. Add triangular shapes as the inner corners of her eyes. A very tiny section of the white of the eye is visible within this tiny triangle. The white of the eye (sometimes called the eyeball) is the largest spherical section of the eye that is light in value but not really white.9. Draw her nose and mouth. FIGURE 2-0610. Draw the smallest circles that will be the highlights, the partial circles that indicate the pupils of the eyes, and the details of the collar (refer to Figure 2-07).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  20. 20. 6A highlight is the brightest area of an object; usually, the section that is closest to the lightsource. The pupil of an eye is the dark circular shape, within the iris, that adjusts its size underdifferent lighting conditions.Light source refers to the direction from which a dominant light originates. In this portrait ofShadow, the light source is from the right front, so the overall shading is lighter on the right.Also, cast shadows will be added to her neck and the side of her nose resulting from this lightsource. A cast shadow is a dark area on a surface, adjacent to where the light is blocked by anobject. This light source will also affect where I place the values in her eyes and on her nose. FIGURE 2-07When you’ve finished drawing the detailed sections, take a moment to check carefully thateverything is in the correct place, and drawn the right size in relation to the grid lines. Erase andmodify any sections you aren’t happy with.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  21. 21. 7SHADING SHADOWThere are many ways to add shading to a drawing. I am right-handed and prefer to start myshading in the upper left hand corner, and work my way across and down the page so as not tosmudge my completed sections. Don’t forget to erase your grid lines before you begin adding shading! Then, redraw all sections of the outline that were accidentally erased. Use the edge of your vinyl eraser to erase the lines and then very lightly brush away the eraser crumbs with a soft paintbrush. After that, use your kneaded eraser to gently pat the paper surface to pick up any remaining eraser crumbs.11. Using a 2B pencil for the darker areas and a HB for the lighter values, add the shading to the left side of the drawing, beginning in the upper left corner. The background is done with hatching. A helpful hint for drawing parallel hatching lines is to use a ruler to lightly draw a few parallel diagonal guidelines before you add shading. FIGURE 2-08 As a right-handed person, my natural hand movement is from the lower left to the upper right. The hatching lines in this background are rendered from the lower right to the upper left, as a left- handed person would naturally be inclined to draw them. Hence, I had to turn my drawing sideways so I could take advantage of my natural hand movement as I added shading to the background.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  22. 22. 8 FIGURE 2-09 12. Add shading to the FIGURE 2-10 ear on the left. The hatching lines curve in various directions. 13. Add shading to the dark shadow sections inside this ear. 14. With your HB pencil, add shading to the top of the head. The hatching lines are curving in various directions around the forms and are different lengths and values.Curved hatching lines are integral to rendering the forms of the cranial and facial bone structures. FIGURE 2-11 Examine the values of this fur, and take note that the white paper is showing through in some sections. Also the overall values are darker on the left.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  23. 23. 915. Draw the spots on the top of the head and add the fur around her eyes.16. Use your 2B pencil to darken some areas around the perimeter of the eyes and some of the spots on the left of the drawing. FIGURE 2-12 17. Shade in the irises and the whites of the eyes. Refer to Figure 2-13. The shading of the irises is darker under the upper eyelid and on the side where the highlight is drawn. Conversely, the side of the iris opposite the highlight is lighter. Leave the highlights white. FIGURE 2-13 FIGURE 2-14 Don’t forget to add shading to the inner corners (the whites). 18. Add more background shading on the top of the drawing 19. With your HB pencil, add middle values to the ear on the right.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  24. 24. 1020. Shade in the FIGURE 2-15 pupils with a 6B pencil.21. Draw the fur between and surrounding her eyes.22. Shade in the middle section of the background on the right. FIGURE 2-16 FIGURE 2-16 23. Add darker shading to her other ear with HB and 2B pencils. The black spots are not as dark on the right as on the left. 24. Draw the fur on the center sections of her face and snout. FIGURE 2-1725. Draw the fuzzy outlines of the fur around her mouth and chin.26. Draw the fur on the left section of her neck under the chin.27. Add shading to this tiny section of her collar.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  25. 25. 1128. Finish the shading on her mouth and chin.29. Add the spotted fur on her neck and back (note the directions in which it grows).30. Finish the background on the right (it becomes darker closer to the bottom).31. Use crosshatching to add shading to her collar. FIGURE 2-18 FIGURE 2-19 32. Use squirkling to add the shading on the nose. 33. With your 2B pencil add lots of dots to represent the texture of a dog’s nose. Take a few minutes to compare your drawing to mine (Figure 2- 23), fix any areas that you’re not happy with, and sign your name!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  26. 26. 12 FIGURE 2-20CHALLENGEThere are only three ways to improve your drawing skills… Practice, practice and more practice!Find a close-up photo of the face of another spotted animal, such as a leopard, giraffe, or cowand draw a realistic, close-up portrait of him or her. Use the shading techniques taught in thisproject. Another challenging option is to draw the close-up view of the face of a giraffe namedDandy in T-04 Advanced: Diverse Animals.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  27. 27. 13Brenda HoddinottAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizesdiverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, contécrayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. Brenda HoddinottBiographyBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.Learn-to-draw booksDrawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is availableon various websites and in major bookstores internationally.The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of theYear Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page bookis available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  28. 28. Brenda HoddinottT-03 ADVANCED: DIVERSE ANIMALSIn this project, you first establish accurate proportions and outline the various shapes and formsof an adorable young owl named Hooter; you then use graduated hatching techniques tocharacterize the various textures and define the forms.This project is divided into the following two sections: PUTTING PROPORTIONS ON PAPER: You examine the structures of a wing and feather, and then sketch the proportions of the owl. While the structures of feathers and wings are very complex, drawing realistic looking birds is not difficult. ADDING SHADING AND TEXTURE: You use hatching to add values to the body to represent the texture of feathers. The hatching lines used to draw feathers are ragged and uneven with lines of various lengths and thicknesses. Finally, you draw the details of the eyes and add a wood texture to the tree branch.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, kneaded and vinylerasers, and various graphite pencils such as 2H, 2B, HB, 4B, and 6B. 15 PAGES - 23 ILLUSTRATIONSThis project is recommended for artists, aged twelve to ninety-nine, who have good drawingskills, and also for home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, Revised 2006
  29. 29. 2 PUTTING PROPORTIONS ON PAPER While the structures of feathers and wings are very complex, drawing realistic looking birds is not difficult. You begin this project by examining the structures of feathers and a wing, and sketching the proportions of the owl. A basic understanding of the anatomy of a wing and feathers is very helpful if you run into problems trying to accurately render a drawing of a bird. The next two drawings show the basic construction of a feather. The long skinny thing down the center of the feather is called a shaft and the wide end is referred to as a quill. Many years ago writers would dip the quill end (which has a hollow center) into ink, thereby transforming the feather into a pen. ILLUSTRATION 3-01 ILLUSTRATION 3-02 Feathers differ in size and texture depending on where they are located on the bird’s body. The following words describe the various types of feathers: Tiny, soft, and downy feathers are located on his head, chest and feet. Medium-sized, soft, and short feathers, with narrow quills, are generally found on the upper section of the wing. Long and firm, but relatively soft to the touch feathers, with wide quills and noticeable shafts, make up the middle and lower sections of the wings. ILLUSTRATION 3-03 This drawing shows the basic construction of a wing. While I established this schematic for a drawing I was doing of an angel, the basic wing structure is similar to that of various types of birds from a tiny delicate Humming Bird to a magnificent Bald Eagle.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  30. 30. 3 Sketching accurate proportions is the foundation of realistic drawing. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. If the proportions are off, no amount of beautiful shading or fancy pencil marks can save your drawing. My drawing is tiny (6 by 7 inches), but you may prefer try a larger drawing format such as 9 by 12, or 12 by 14 inches. Drawing format refers to the area of a drawing surface within a specific perimeter, outlined by a shape of any size, such as the page of a sketchbook. ILLUSTRATION 3-04 1) Lightly sketch an egg-shape for the owl’s body, tilted slightly toward the left of your drawing space. Here’s proof that the egg came first! (Grin) Don’t press too hard with your pencil. You need to erase these lines later. Make sure you leave room to later add the owl’s head, the wing to the right, and the feet and tree branch below. ILLUSTRATION 3-05 2) Draw a horizontal oval (the head) that overlaps the body. ILLUSTRATION 3-06 3) Add a wing that extends from the bottom of his head at an angle toward the lower right. Take note of the following: The overall shape of the wing appears to be an upside-down elongated teardrop. The wing seems to point toward the lower right corner with its tip. The wing becomes gradually narrower until it finally ends in a slightly rounded point.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  31. 31. 4 ILLUSTRATION 3-07 4) Draw a V-shape on the face with curved lines at the top of each side of the V. The lower tip of the V- shape will be the beak of the owl and the outward curves extending from the top of each side of the V represent the upper sections of the eyes. 5) Add a small upside-down U-shape above the tip of the beak. Refer to the drawing below. ILLUSTRATION 3-08 6) Sketch a few fluffy feathers under the wing. 7) Add two oval shapes to represent the feet. Observe that the foot on the right appears to be much larger than the other. However, in real life when viewing an owl from the front, both feet would be the same size. In that this foot is closer to the viewer, perspective dictates that it needs to be drawn bigger than the one farther away.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  32. 32. 5 ILLUSTRATION 3-09 8) Outline the owl’s eyes. Note that the eyes appear as partial circles because the inside center section of each is hidden behind the feathers between the eyes. Each is a partial large circle with a smaller circle inside. 9) Add an angular branch of a tree for the owl to sit on. Double check the proportions of your sketch before you begin shading, by visually measuring the shapes of the positive and negative spaces. Observe the lengths, angles, and curves of the various lines which outline the owl and the tree branch. ADDING SHADING AND TEXTURE You begin this section of the project by adding values to the body with hatching lines. You then add the texture of feathers, draw the details of the eyes, and add a realistic wood texture to the tree branch. The hatching lines used to draw feathers are ragged and uneven with lines of various lengths and thicknesses. While some hatching lines are dark and others are light, you still need to maintain an overall difference of values from light to dark. Assume that the light source in this drawing is from the upper left. Subsequently the overall values on the left will be lighter than on the right. Have another look at the drawing of the wing (Illustration 3-03). Observe that the feathers are in layers with the shortest feathers close to the body. The feathers become progressively longer with the thinner, more defined feathers being on the tips of the wing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com

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