(A) Seed-shattering habits of rice panicles. Photos taken after grabbing rice panicles. (Left) Nonshattering-type cultivar, Nipponbare. (Right) Shattering-type cultivar, Kasalath, in which the seed has shattered. (B) Chromosomal locations of QTLs for seed-shattering degree, based on an F2 population from a cross between Nipponbare and Kasalath. Positions of circles indicate positions of QTLs, and circle size indicates the relative contribution of each QTL. Red circles, Nipponbare alleles contributing to nonshattering habit; blue circles, Kasalath alleles contributing to nonshattering. qSH1 is marked on chromosome 1 with the nearest DNA marker (C434). (C) NonÐseed-shattering habits of Nipponbare, Kasalath, and NIL(qSH1). Breaking tensile strength upon detachment of seeds from the pedicels by bending and pulling was measured (10). Increase in value indicates loss of shattering. NIL(qSH1), a nearly isogenic line carrying a Kasalath fragment at the qSH1 locus in the Nipponbare background, as shown in fig. S1A. (D) Photo of a rice grain. White box indicates position of abscission layer formation. (E to G) Nipponbare. (H to K) Kasalath. (L to N) NIL(qSH1). (E), (H), and (L) Longitudinal sections of positions corresponding to white box in (D). Arrows point to the partial abscission layer of Kasalath in (H), the complete abscission layer of NIL(qSH1) in (L), and the corresponding region of Nipponbare in (E). (F), (I), and (M) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photos of pedicel junctions after detachment of seeds. (G), (J), (K), and (N) Close-up SEM photos corresponding to white boxes in (F), (I), and (M). (G) Broken and rough surface of Nipponbare when forcedly detached. (N) Peeled-off and smooth surface of NIL(qSH1) upon spontaneous detachment. In Kasalath, rough center surface (K) and smooth outer surface (J) are observed. Scale bars: 500 µm in (E), (H), and (L); 100 µm in (F), (I), and (M); 10 µm in (G), (J), (K), and (N). http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/312/5778/1392?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&andorexacttitleabs=and&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&volume=312&firstpage=1392&resourcetype=HWCIT
Modern examples of dehiscent wild einkorn wheat ear (A) and spikelet (B). Detail of spikelet with smooth wild abscission scar (C), indehiscent domestic ear (D), and detail of spikelet with jagged break (E) are shown. The bar chart (F) gives relative frequencies of subfossil finds with the absolute figures. Records from Aswad and Ramad (6) are of barley; the other four sites are of wheat. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/311/5769/1886
Research <ul><li>OED </li><ul><li>Noun : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The act of searching (closely or carefully) for or after a specified thing or person.
a. A search or investigation directed to the discovery of some fact by careful consideration or study of a subject; a course of critical or scientific inquiry. b. Without article: Investigation, inquiry into things. Also, as a quality of persons, habitude of carrying out such investigation.
Investigation or pursuit of a subject. R are. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verb :
trans . To search into (a matter or subject); to investigate or study closely. Also, to engage in research upon (a subject, a person, etc.). </li></ul><li>So: Search, and re-search! </li></ul>
Google it. <ul><li>Research </li><ul><li>883,000,000 hits (2009/09/09) </li><ul><li>885,000,000 hits (2007/6/26) </li></ul></ul><li>Why is research important? </li><ul><li>1, 570,000,000 hits (2009/09/09) </li></ul><li>Research process (or, strategy) </li><ul><li>345 million hits... </li></ul><li>Scientific method? </li><ul><li>12,700,000 </li></ul><li>btw ... don't Google --> google scholar ? </li></ul>
How to create new knowledge (or evaluate old stuff) <ul><li>Historical perspective.
How to do research <ul><li>Identify a topic </li><ul><li>Harder than it sounds... </li></ul><li>Find background information </li><ul><li>Libraries, books and articles (oh my!)
Evaluate quality of sources </li></ul><li>Citations
What happens when you can't find the answer? </li></ul>
Don't forget <ul><li>Knowledge is a function of BOTH method and context . </li><ul><li>We assume a certain level of logic and mechanism.
We also assume that rational principles govern the world.
We further assume that humans are logical and capable of deducing these principles. </li><ul><li>[Now – That's a leap of faith!] </li></ul></ul></ul>
Four Easy Steps <ul><li>Observation and description of a phenomenon or group of phenomena.
Formulation of an hypothesis to explain the phenomena. Often, the hypothesis often takes the form of a causal mechanism or a mathematical relationship.
Use of the hypothesis to predict the existence of other phenomena, or to quantitatively predict the results of new observations.
Performance of empirical tests of the predictions by appropriately designed experiments and, preferably, several independent experimenters. </li></ul>
What's Important? <ul><li>What did Albert Einstein think? </li><ul><li>“Imagination is more important than knowledge.”
“The important thing is to never stop questioning.”
“The independence created by philosophical insight ... is the mark of distinction between a mere artisan or specialist and a real seeker of the truth.” </li></ul><li>Another way to put it: </li><ul><li>"Invention, my dear friends, is 93% perspiration, 6% electricity, 4% evaporation and 2% butterscotch ripple." </li><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>W. Wonka </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
The Problem 2005, Kaplan's Americas Hottest Colleges, Newsweek
The REAL Problem; (and the SOLUTION) <ul><li>How much time do American students spend in school?? </li><ul><li>High School ( 900 hrs / year)
College (16 hrs/week * 15 weeks/ semester * 2 semesters) </li><ul><ul><li>480 hrs / year </li></ul></ul></ul><li>How much time do American students spend??? </li><ul><li>1,023 hrs / year on television
Heterochrony </li></ul><li>Biogenetic Law (1866) </li><ul><li>“Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny” </li></ul></ul>
"The ocean is a wilderness reaching 'round the globe, wilder than a Bengal jungle, and fuller of monsters, washing the very wharves of our cities and the gardens of our sea-side residences." - Henry David Thoreau, 1864
Haeckel and the radiolarians <ul><li>Haeckel described, classified, and painted over 3000 species of radiolarians.
CREDIT: COURTESY FIRST RUN/ICARUS FILMS </li></ul>
Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny <ul><li>Haeckel noticed that vertebrate embryos pass through a series of similar stages in embryonic development.
Wait a minute … What’s domestication? <ul><li>Economic Use such as meat, fur, eggs, milk, labor companionship!! </li></ul><ul><li>The breeding, care and feeding of the animal are under the continuous control of man </li></ul><ul><li>Any situation where artificial selection has replaced, in part, natural selection </li></ul>