Sophomores are for the birds! <ul><ul><li>G. F. Barbato </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Poultry Science </li></ul...
Research <ul><li>OED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noun : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The act of searching (closely or carefull...
Google (or Wiki!) it. <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 5,460,000,000 hits (2006/6/26) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
How to create new knowledge (or evaluate old stuff) <ul><li>Historical perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Await revelation. </...
How to do research <ul><li>Identify a topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harder than it sounds... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Find bac...
and ... Don't forget <ul><li>Knowledge is a function of BOTH context and method. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We assume a certain...
Four Easy Steps <ul><li>Observation and description of a phenomenon or group of phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation o...
What's Important? <ul><li>What did Albert Einstein think? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Imagination is more important than knowle...
Fertilization Model
Sperm binding: Antibodies
Sperm binding experiments Photo Comparison: On the left is a sample of the control group, which included several thousand ...
Learning Anatomy
Anyone can do this !!
Having fun with anatomy! http://michaelpaulus.com/gallery/v/character-Skeletons/
Learning Anatomy??? ... or ...
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2007 DUS Sophomores and Research

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Talk given on 10/4/2007 at "Sophomore Year" advising conference at PSU.

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2007 DUS Sophomores and Research

  1. 1. Sophomores are for the birds! <ul><ul><li>G. F. Barbato </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Poultry Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduate Programs in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal Science and Genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pennsylvania State University </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Research <ul><li>OED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noun : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The act of searching (closely or carefully) for or after a specified thing or person. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. A search or investigation directed to the discovery of some fact by careful consideration or study of a subject; a course of critical or scientific inquiry. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Without article: Investigation, inquiry into things. Also, as a quality of persons, habitude of carrying out such investigation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investigation or pursuit of a subject. R are. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verb : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trans . To search into (a matter or subject); to investigate or study closely. Also, to engage in research upon (a subject, a person, etc.). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So: Search, and re-search! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Google (or Wiki!) it. <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 5,460,000,000 hits (2006/6/26) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>93,000,000 in June, 2005!! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Why is research important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>845,000,000 hits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research process (or, strategy) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>345 million hits... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How big is it, really ? </li></ul>
  4. 4. How to create new knowledge (or evaluate old stuff) <ul><li>Historical perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Await revelation. </li></ul><ul><li>Await enlightenment. </li></ul><ul><li>Fake it. </li></ul><ul><li>Methodical evaluation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How to do research <ul><li>Identify a topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harder than it sounds... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Find background information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries, books and articles (oh my!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate quality of sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Citations </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when you can't find the answer? </li></ul>
  6. 6. and ... Don't forget <ul><li>Knowledge is a function of BOTH context and method. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We assume a certain level of logic and mechanism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We also assume that rational principles govern the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We further assume that humans are logical and capable of deducing these principles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[Now – That's a leap of faith!] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Four Easy Steps <ul><li>Observation and description of a phenomenon or group of phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation of an hypothesis to explain the phenomena. Often, the hypothesis often takes the form of a causal mechanism or a mathematical relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of the hypothesis to predict the existence of other phenomena, or to quantitatively predict the results of new observations. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance of empirical tests of the predictions by appropriately designed experiments and, preferably, several independent experimenters. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What's Important? <ul><li>What did Albert Einstein think? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Imagination is more important than knowledge.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“The important thing is to never stop questioning.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“The independence created by philosophical insight ... is the mark of distinction between a mere artisan or specialist and a real seeker of the truth.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Another way to put it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Invention, my dear friends, is 93% perspiration, 6% electricity, 4% evaporation and 2% butterscotch ripple.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>W. Wonka </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Fertilization Model
  10. 10. Sperm binding: Antibodies
  11. 11. Sperm binding experiments Photo Comparison: On the left is a sample of the control group, which included several thousand bound sperm. On the right is a sample of the assay that included an antibody to block ZP1 and ZP3 binding. In this sample there were less then 500 bound sperm.
  12. 12. Learning Anatomy
  13. 13. Anyone can do this !!
  14. 14. Having fun with anatomy! http://michaelpaulus.com/gallery/v/character-Skeletons/
  15. 15. Learning Anatomy??? ... or ...

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