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Humanistic Theories: Carl Rogers

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Humanistic Theories: Carl Rogers

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Humanistic Theories: Carl Rogers

  1. 1. Humanistic Theories:Humanistic Theories: Carl RogersCarl Rogers
  2. 2. Humanistic Theories:Humanistic Theories: Carl RogersCarl Rogers Click Speaker icon to play narration
  3. 3. Humanistic TheoriesHumanistic Theories Carl RogersCarl Rogers
  4. 4. HumanismHumanism • Humanism is often referred to as the “ThirdHumanism is often referred to as the “Third Wave.”Wave.” • Did not like the determinism of PsychoanalysisDid not like the determinism of Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism.and Behaviorism. • Did not like personality theories based uponDid not like personality theories based upon abnormal behavior.abnormal behavior. • Felt human beings were capable of incredibleFelt human beings were capable of incredible acts of creativity, selflessness, and high levels ofacts of creativity, selflessness, and high levels of spirituality.spirituality. Carl RogersCarl Rogers Click Speaker icon to play narration
  5. 5. HumanismHumanism • Believed humans basically “good” andBelieved humans basically “good” and worthy of respect.worthy of respect. • Human beings all have a natural growthHuman beings all have a natural growth mechanism inside of them ifmechanism inside of them if environmental conditions are good.environmental conditions are good. Carl RogersCarl Rogers
  6. 6. Rogers: Core ideasRogers: Core ideas • The SelfThe Self • Self-actualizationSelf-actualization • Organismic valuing processOrganismic valuing process – Davis (1928) infant food study. 8-10 mo. OldDavis (1928) infant food study. 8-10 mo. Old infants.infants. • Conditional vs. unconditional positiveConditional vs. unconditional positive regard.regard. • The “Fully Functioning” person.The “Fully Functioning” person. Carl RogersCarl Rogers Click Speaker icon to play narration
  7. 7. Rogers: Core ideasRogers: Core ideas • The “Fully Functioning” person.The “Fully Functioning” person. • A growing openness to experience – they move away from defensivenessA growing openness to experience – they move away from defensiveness and have no need for subception (a perceptual defense that involvesand have no need for subception (a perceptual defense that involves unconsciously applying strategies to prevent a troubling stimulus fromunconsciously applying strategies to prevent a troubling stimulus from entering consciousness).entering consciousness). • An increasingly existential lifestyle – living each moment fully – notAn increasingly existential lifestyle – living each moment fully – not distorting the moment to fit personality or self concept but allowingdistorting the moment to fit personality or self concept but allowing personality and self concept to emanate from the experience. This resultspersonality and self concept to emanate from the experience. This results in excitement, daring, adaptability, tolerance, spontaneity, and a lack ofin excitement, daring, adaptability, tolerance, spontaneity, and a lack of rigidity and suggests a foundation of trust. "To open one's spirit to what isrigidity and suggests a foundation of trust. "To open one's spirit to what is going on now, and discover in that present process whatever structure itgoing on now, and discover in that present process whatever structure it appears to have"(Rogers 1961appears to have"(Rogers 1961[7][7])) • Increasing organismic trust – they trust their own judgment and theirIncreasing organismic trust – they trust their own judgment and their ability to choose behaviour that is appropriate for each moment. They doability to choose behaviour that is appropriate for each moment. They do not rely on existing codes and social norms but trust that as they are opennot rely on existing codes and social norms but trust that as they are open to experiences they will be able to trust their own sense of right and wrong.to experiences they will be able to trust their own sense of right and wrong. Carl RogersCarl Rogers Click Speaker icon to play narration
  8. 8. Rogers: Core ideasRogers: Core ideas • The “Fully Functioning” person.The “Fully Functioning” person. • Freedom of choice – not being shackled by the restrictionsFreedom of choice – not being shackled by the restrictions that influence an incongruent individual, they are able to makethat influence an incongruent individual, they are able to make a wider range of choices more freely. They believe that theya wider range of choices more freely. They believe that they play a role in determining their own behaviour and so feelplay a role in determining their own behaviour and so feel responsible for their own behaviour.responsible for their own behaviour. • Creativity – it follows that they will feel more free to beCreativity – it follows that they will feel more free to be creative. They will also be more creative in the way they adaptcreative. They will also be more creative in the way they adapt to their own circumstances without feeling a need to conform.to their own circumstances without feeling a need to conform. • Reliability and constructiveness – they can be trusted to actReliability and constructiveness – they can be trusted to act constructively. An individual who is open to all their needs willconstructively. An individual who is open to all their needs will be able to maintain a balance between them. Even aggressivebe able to maintain a balance between them. Even aggressive needs will be matched and balanced by intrinsic goodness inneeds will be matched and balanced by intrinsic goodness in congruent individuals.congruent individuals. Carl RogersCarl Rogers Click Speaker icon to play narration
  9. 9. Rogers: Core ideasRogers: Core ideas • The “Fully Functioning” person.The “Fully Functioning” person. • they experience joy and pain, love and heartbreak,they experience joy and pain, love and heartbreak, fear and courage more intensely. Rogers' descriptionfear and courage more intensely. Rogers' description ofof the good lifethe good life:: • ““This process of the good life is not, I am convinced, a life forThis process of the good life is not, I am convinced, a life for the faint-hearted. It involves the stretching and growing ofthe faint-hearted. It involves the stretching and growing of becoming more and more of one's potentialities. It involves thebecoming more and more of one's potentialities. It involves the courage to be. It means launching oneself fully into the stream ofcourage to be. It means launching oneself fully into the stream of life.life. (Rogers 1961(Rogers 1961[7][7])) Carl RogersCarl Rogers Click Speaker icon to play narration
  10. 10. Rogers: Core ideasRogers: Core ideas • The SelfThe Self – 3 Aspects of self3 Aspects of self • Real SelfReal Self • Perceived SelfPerceived Self • Ideal SelfIdeal Self Real Self Ideal SelfPerceived Self Click Speaker icon to play narration
  11. 11. Rogers: Core ideasRogers: Core ideas • The Self- CongruencyThe Self- Congruency • Example: I am a good student, I see myself thatExample: I am a good student, I see myself that way, I enjoy it, I strive to become even more ofway, I enjoy it, I strive to become even more of a scholar.a scholar. Carl RogersCarl Rogers Click Speaker icon to play narration
  12. 12. Rogers: Core ideasRogers: Core ideas • The Self- IncongruencyThe Self- Incongruency • Example: I strive to be a good student,Example: I strive to be a good student, I don’t like studying, people see me asI don’t like studying, people see me as a student though.a student though. Real Self Ideal Self Perceived Self Click Speaker icon to play narration
  13. 13. (Person Centered)--Carl Rogers(Person Centered)--Carl Rogers • The therapist tries to create a safeThe therapist tries to create a safe supportive environment in which thesupportive environment in which the patient (client) feels safe to grow.patient (client) feels safe to grow. • Achieved through:Achieved through: – WarmthWarmth – GenuineGenuine – Unconditional positive regardUnconditional positive regard – EmpathyEmpathy Click Speaker icon to play narration
  14. 14. Person Centered TherapyPerson Centered Therapy • Critique—PositiveCritique—Positive • Talked about the positives in ourTalked about the positives in our personalities.personalities. • Effective Psychotherapy, simple to learn.Effective Psychotherapy, simple to learn. • Generated much discussion and research.Generated much discussion and research. • If we had a national religion, it would beIf we had a national religion, it would be Humanism. Very influential.Humanism. Very influential. Carl RogersCarl Rogers
  15. 15. Person Centered TherapyPerson Centered Therapy • Critique—NegativeCritique—Negative • No real modifications in theory since 1953.No real modifications in theory since 1953. • Too Optimistic? Look at the headlines. Is mankindToo Optimistic? Look at the headlines. Is mankind really that good?really that good? • Organismic Valuing Process really doesn’t work.Organismic Valuing Process really doesn’t work. Food makes us feel good but too much can kill us.Food makes us feel good but too much can kill us. • Incredibly Self centered. Makes us selfish.Incredibly Self centered. Makes us selfish. Carl RogersCarl Rogers
  16. 16. Humanistic Theories:Humanistic Theories: Carl RogersCarl Rogers

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