Understanding computers ch 1


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Understanding computers ch 1

  1. 1. Understanding Computers Basic Computers L. Stack
  2. 2. Vocabulary Words <ul><li>Hardware :The equipment that makes up a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU): hardware that directs how information flows in, out, and through a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Drive: a tool, built into the computer, for storing data and instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard: the set of keys with numbers and letters used to type information into a computer. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Vocabulary Words <ul><li>Mouse: a pointing tool that you move with your hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor: a screen that shows information on a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Input: the information that is put into a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Output: the information that comes out of a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Software: a set of instructions that tells a computer what to do. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Vocabulary Terms <ul><li>Processing – entering data into the computer </li></ul><ul><li>Storage – saving data, programs, or output for future use. </li></ul><ul><li>Data – Raw, unorganized facts </li></ul><ul><li>Information – Data that has been processed into a meaningful form </li></ul><ul><li>Communication – The transmission of data from one device to another. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is a computer? <ul><li>A computer is a machine that uses a set of instructions to do many kinds of jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>A computer can do math. </li></ul><ul><li>It can collect, store, and display information. </li></ul><ul><li>It can help write, draw and play games. </li></ul><ul><li>It can also let you communicate with people all over the world. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Computers in Your Life <ul><li>Before 1980 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers were large and expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very few people had access to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers were mostly used for high-volume processing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microcomputers in the early 80s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inexpensive personal computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer use increased dramatically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 80% of US households include a computer, and most use computers at work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic devices are converging into single units with multiple capabilities </li></ul></ul>Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 4 th Edition
  7. 7. Types of Computers <ul><li>Personal Computers , PC, Macs, Desktops, Lap tops and Netbooks. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers on the Go consumer kiosks ATM machines. Portable computers and Web-enabled mobile devices </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframe Very large computer </li></ul><ul><li>Supercomputer very fast computer </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Computers <ul><li>A personal computer or PC : is a small computer made to be used by one person at time. </li></ul><ul><li>It can do a few jobs at one time. </li></ul><ul><li>People often use personal computers at home, in school or on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes personal computers can be linked together to allow more than one person to share or access the same information. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mainframe <ul><li>A mainframe is a very large computer compared to a personal computer. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be as big as a refrigerator. </li></ul><ul><li>They can store huge amounts of information and can do many jobs at the same time. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Supercomputers <ul><li>Supercomputer is a very fast computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Supercomputers are used to do jobs at the fastest speed possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Often called crunchers. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Uses for Personal Computers <ul><li>School / Home </li></ul><ul><li>Take computerized tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Present computerized reports. </li></ul><ul><li>Write letters </li></ul><ul><li>Play video games. </li></ul><ul><li>Buy things on the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Chat on line </li></ul><ul><li>Send e-mails </li></ul><ul><li>Home/ Work </li></ul><ul><li>Send e-mails. </li></ul><ul><li>Track inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Create memos </li></ul><ul><li>Create agendas </li></ul><ul><li>Create presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Record keeping </li></ul>
  12. 12. Uses of Mainframes <ul><li>Telephone companies </li></ul><ul><li>TV studios </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation departments control traffic signals, railroads and subways </li></ul><ul><li>Banks keep track of money </li></ul><ul><li>Supermarket keep track of goods and prices </li></ul><ul><li>Companies keep track of work records, print bills and track customer payments. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Uses of Supercomputers <ul><li>Weather forecasting predict weather. </li></ul><ul><li>Air Traffic controllers locate and track air plains. </li></ul><ul><li>NASA launches rockets and guides the space shuttles. </li></ul><ul><li>Artist make animated graphics. </li></ul><ul><li>Sportscasters figure sport teams statistics </li></ul>
  14. 14. Computers Then <ul><li>Precomputers Dr. Herman Hollerith’s Punch Card Tabulatin Machine and Sorter used to process the 1890 U.S. Census data. </li></ul><ul><li>First –Generation Computers 1946-1957 The were very big and powered by thousands of vacuum tubes. ENAIAC </li></ul>
  15. 15. Computers <ul><li>Precomputers </li></ul><ul><li>First Generation Computer </li></ul>
  16. 16. ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. <ul><li>One of the first computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Built in 1945 by J. P. Echert JR. and J. W. Mauchly. </li></ul><ul><li>Much larger than today's computers made up of 40 separate units. </li></ul><ul><li>Weighed as much as four adult African elephants . </li></ul><ul><li>Had to set thousands of switches and rewrite the machine. Worked for 9 years. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Computers <ul><li>Second Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Third Generation </li></ul>
  18. 18. Computers <ul><li>Fourth Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth Generation </li></ul>
  19. 19. Parts of a computer <ul><li>All the equipment that makes up a computer is called the computers hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU) or Processor </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Case </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul>
  20. 20. Computer Parts
  21. 21. Functions of Hardware <ul><li>CPU </li></ul><ul><li>CPU directs how information flows in, out and through the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the part that does the math and other jobs performed by the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also called the processor. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Drive </li></ul><ul><li>The hard drive is a tool for storing data and instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>It is built into the computer’s case. </li></ul><ul><li>A hard drive is like a filing cabinet. It h olds information until you need it. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Hardware functions <ul><li>Keyboard / Mouse </li></ul><ul><li>The keyboard is a set of keys with numbers and letters, used to type information into the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>The mouse is a pointing tool that you move with your hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the keyboard and mouse let you tell the computer what you want it to do </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor / Printer </li></ul><ul><li>The monitor is a screen that shows information on a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Printer lets you make paper copies of the work you do on the computer. </li></ul>