CHAPTERONE  SCIENCE SKILLS
WHAT IS SCIENCE?It is a knowledge and the processthat gets us to that knowledge.If it begins with curiosity- it endsin dis...
*Curiosity provides questions.Methods such as observingand measuring provide waysto find answers.
WHAT ISTECHNOLOGY?It improves people’s lives . The use ofknowledge (science) to solve practicalproblems. Advances in one l...
*The goal of science is to expandknowledge. The goal oftechnology is to apply thatknowledge.
LAB REVIEWInquiry Activity P. 1- How do scientist use their observations/Solution: CuCl2Copper(II) chloride + Aluminum →Co...
SECTION 1.1 INTERESTGRABBER (JOURNAL ENTRY)Science improves our Quality of Life.Advances in science have led to devices th...
BRANCHES OFSCIENCEThe study of science is brokendown into social sciences andnatural science.Natural science is usually di...
1: PHYSICAL SCIENCEFocus on non-living thingsA. Physics-The study ofmatter and energy and theinteractions between thetwo t...
B. Chemistry- The study ofcomposition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter.
2: EARTH AND SPACESCIENCEA. Geology-(Earth science)Thestudy of the origin, history, andstructure of Earth.B. Astronomy-(Sp...
3: LIFE SCIENCEThe study of living things.A. Biology- The study of lifeand life processes.
SECTION 1.2 USING ASCIENTIFIC APPROACHScientific Method- An organizedplan for gathering information.Goal- to solve a probl...
STEPS TO THESCIENTIFIC METHOD                             Make an observation                                Ask a questio...
*1. Observation- information that you   gain through your senses.- Repeatable observations are known  as facts.2. Hypothes...
*3. Experiments- used to test hypothesis.- Any factor that can change in an  experiment us called a variable.- Manipulated...
*A controlled experiment is an experiment inwhich only one variable, the manipulatedvariable, is deliberately changed at a...
*4. Analyze data and draw conclusionsBased on the data produced by anexperiment, scientists can draw a conclusionabout whe...
*Theories are never proved.- They may be revised or replaced.Scientific law- A statement that summarizes apattern found in...
*A model is a representation of an object orevent.Scientific models make it easier tounderstand things that might be toodi...
SAFETY IN THE LABWhenever you work in your sciencelaboratory, it’s important to followsafety precautions at all times.Alwa...
SECTION 1.3MEASUREMENT• Scientist often work with very large or very small  numbers.• Instead of writing out all the zeroe...
SI UNITSScientists use a set of measuring unitscalled SI, or the International System ofUnits.SI is built on seven metric ...
*1. The meter [m] for length2. The kilogram [kg] for mass3. The kelvin[K] for temperature4. The second[s] for time5. The m...
*Additional SI units, including volume anddensity, are derived units.Derived units are made from combinationsof base units...
METRIC PREFIXESThe unit for a given quantity is not always aconvenient one to use.The measurement can be written in a more...
FACTOR LABELMETHODEasiest way to convert from one unitof measurement to another is to useconversion factors.Example: kilog...
LIMITS OF MEASUREMENTSPrecision is an assessment of how exact ameasurement is.Significant figures are all the digits that ...
RULES FORSIGNATURE FIGURES1) Digits other than 0 are always significantExample96 = 2 significant numbers0.52 = 2 significa...
RULES FORSIGNATURE FIGURES2) 1 or more final zeros used after the decimal point arealways significant.Example4.00= 3 signi...
RULES FORSIGNATURE FIGURES3)Zeros between two other significant figures (numbers) arealways significant.Example204 = 3 sig...
RULES FORSIGNATURE FIGURES4) Zeros used solely for spacing the decimal point are notsignificant. These zero’s are called p...
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES INCALCULATIONSAddition and SubtractionThe answer can only have the samenumber of digits as the measure...
*Examples:Addition       Subtraction6.43                213.67+2.015             988.445 = 8.44        115.67 =116
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES INCALCULATIONSMultiplication and DivisionThe answer can have only the sameamount of significant figure...
*Examples:Multiplication                 Division12.0 3 sig. figs               2.50  0.04 = 62.54.3 2 sig. figs        ...
TEMPERATURECONVERSIONS• We use Kelvin (K) for SI unit• Do not use a degree mark () before the  K.• We use Celsius (C) fo...
TEMPERATURECONVERSIONSConversion Examples:Formula           ExampleC + 273.15 = K   25C + 273.15 = 298.15 KK – 273.15 = ...
TEMPERATURECONVERSIONSFormula                   ExampleF = 9/5 C + 32    F = 9/5 28C + 32 = 82FC = 5/9(F – 32)   C...
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    1. 1. CHAPTERONE SCIENCE SKILLS
    2. 2. WHAT IS SCIENCE?It is a knowledge and the processthat gets us to that knowledge.If it begins with curiosity- it endsin discovery.The fun part of science is that youdon’t know what you will find.
    3. 3. *Curiosity provides questions.Methods such as observingand measuring provide waysto find answers.
    4. 4. WHAT ISTECHNOLOGY?It improves people’s lives . The use ofknowledge (science) to solve practicalproblems. Advances in one lead to advances inthe other (interdependent)
    5. 5. *The goal of science is to expandknowledge. The goal oftechnology is to apply thatknowledge.
    6. 6. LAB REVIEWInquiry Activity P. 1- How do scientist use their observations/Solution: CuCl2Copper(II) chloride + Aluminum →Copper +Aluminum chlorideA single replacement reaction is whatoccurred in the lab.The aluminum replaced the copper inthe solution.
    7. 7. SECTION 1.1 INTERESTGRABBER (JOURNAL ENTRY)Science improves our Quality of Life.Advances in science have led to devices thatmake our lives easier and more pleasant. Forexample, the microwave oven makes itpossible to prepare meals and snacks inminutes rather than hours.1. Name five household devices that makeyour life easier or more pleasant.2. Go through your list and describe howeach devices function was accomplishedbefore its invention.
    8. 8. BRANCHES OFSCIENCEThe study of science is brokendown into social sciences andnatural science.Natural science is usually dividedinto 3 branches.
    9. 9. 1: PHYSICAL SCIENCEFocus on non-living thingsA. Physics-The study ofmatter and energy and theinteractions between thetwo through forces andmotion
    10. 10. B. Chemistry- The study ofcomposition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter.
    11. 11. 2: EARTH AND SPACESCIENCEA. Geology-(Earth science)Thestudy of the origin, history, andstructure of Earth.B. Astronomy-(Space science)The study of the universe beyondEarth, including the sun, moon,planets, and stars.
    12. 12. 3: LIFE SCIENCEThe study of living things.A. Biology- The study of lifeand life processes.
    13. 13. SECTION 1.2 USING ASCIENTIFIC APPROACHScientific Method- An organizedplan for gathering information.Goal- to solve a problem or tobetter understand an observedevent.
    14. 14. STEPS TO THESCIENTIFIC METHOD Make an observation Ask a question Develop a hypothesis Test hypothesis with an experimentTest with more experiments Revise hypothesis Analyze data and draw conclusionsHypothesis is supported Hypothesis is not supported Develop a theory
    15. 15. *1. Observation- information that you gain through your senses.- Repeatable observations are known as facts.2. Hypothesis- is a proposed answer to a question.- has to be testable- can be an if, than statements.
    16. 16. *3. Experiments- used to test hypothesis.- Any factor that can change in an experiment us called a variable.- Manipulated variable- the variable that causes a change in another variable.- Responding variable- the variable that changes in response to the manipulated variable.
    17. 17. *A controlled experiment is an experiment inwhich only one variable, the manipulatedvariable, is deliberately changed at a time.- It exams the relationship between the manipulated and responding variables.- Controlled variables- all variables being held constant.
    18. 18. *4. Analyze data and draw conclusionsBased on the data produced by anexperiment, scientists can draw a conclusionabout whether the evidence supports ordisproves the hypothesis.Once a hypothesis has been supported inrepeated experiments, scientists can begin todevelop a theory.A scientific theory -is a well-tested explanationfor a set of observations or experimentalresults.
    19. 19. *Theories are never proved.- They may be revised or replaced.Scientific law- A statement that summarizes apattern found in nature.* A scientific law describes an observedpattern in nature without attempting toexplain it. The explanation of such a patternis provided by a scientific theory.
    20. 20. *A model is a representation of an object orevent.Scientific models make it easier tounderstand things that might be toodifficult to observe directly.Communication- this is done throughoutthe process.
    21. 21. SAFETY IN THE LABWhenever you work in your sciencelaboratory, it’s important to followsafety precautions at all times.Always follow your teacher’sinstructions and the textbookdirections exactly.
    22. 22. SECTION 1.3MEASUREMENT• Scientist often work with very large or very small numbers.• Instead of writing out all the zeroes in such numbers, you can use a shortcut called scientific notation.• Scientific, notation is a way of expressing a value as a product of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10.• For example, the number 300,000,000 written in scientific notation is 3.0 x 10 8• Using scientific notation makes very large or very small numbers easier to work with.
    23. 23. SI UNITSScientists use a set of measuring unitscalled SI, or the International System ofUnits.SI is built on seven metric units, know asbase units.
    24. 24. *1. The meter [m] for length2. The kilogram [kg] for mass3. The kelvin[K] for temperature4. The second[s] for time5. The mole [mol] for amount of substance6. The ampere [A] for electric current7. The candela [cd] for luminous intensity
    25. 25. *Additional SI units, including volume anddensity, are derived units.Derived units are made from combinationsof base units.Density- is the ratio of an object’s mass toits volume.Density= Mass = M units are g/L Volume V
    26. 26. METRIC PREFIXESThe unit for a given quantity is not always aconvenient one to use.The measurement can be written in a morecompact way using a metric prefix.A metric prefix indicates how many times aunit should be multiplied or divided by 10.Chart on page 17
    27. 27. FACTOR LABELMETHODEasiest way to convert from one unitof measurement to another is to useconversion factors.Example: kilograms to pounds- Use the conversion 2.1kg = 1lb-It is a ratio of equivalentmeasurements that is used to converta quantity from one unit to another.
    28. 28. LIMITS OF MEASUREMENTSPrecision is an assessment of how exact ameasurement is.Significant figures are all the digits that are knownin a measurement, plus the last digit that isestimated.The fewer the significant figures, the less precisethe measurement is.The precision of a calculated answer is limited bythe least precise measurement used in thecalculation.Another important quality of measurement isaccuracy, which is the closeness of a measurementto actual value of what is being measured.
    29. 29. RULES FORSIGNATURE FIGURES1) Digits other than 0 are always significantExample96 = 2 significant numbers0.52 = 2 significant numbers
    30. 30. RULES FORSIGNATURE FIGURES2) 1 or more final zeros used after the decimal point arealways significant.Example4.00= 3 significant figures - it is an exact measurement.0.520 = 3 significant figures (sig Figs)
    31. 31. RULES FORSIGNATURE FIGURES3)Zeros between two other significant figures (numbers) arealways significant.Example204 = 3 sig figs.10.06 = 4 sig figs.3.040 = 4 sig figs
    32. 32. RULES FORSIGNATURE FIGURES4) Zeros used solely for spacing the decimal point are notsignificant. These zero’s are called place holdersExample400 = 1 sig fig400. = 3 sig fig0.002 = 1 sig fig
    33. 33. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES INCALCULATIONSAddition and SubtractionThe answer can only have the samenumber of digits as the measurement withthe least number of digits to the right of thedecimal place.
    34. 34. *Examples:Addition Subtraction6.43 213.67+2.015  988.445 = 8.44 115.67 =116
    35. 35. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES INCALCULATIONSMultiplication and DivisionThe answer can have only the sameamount of significant figures as themeasurement with the least number ofsignificant figures.
    36. 36. *Examples:Multiplication Division12.0 3 sig. figs 2.50  0.04 = 62.54.3 2 sig. figs 3 1= 151.6 = 52 answer 2 sig. figs answer 60 1 sig. fig
    37. 37. TEMPERATURECONVERSIONS• We use Kelvin (K) for SI unit• Do not use a degree mark () before the K.• We use Celsius (C) for metric system• We use Fahrenheit (F) in the United States
    38. 38. TEMPERATURECONVERSIONSConversion Examples:Formula ExampleC + 273.15 = K 25C + 273.15 = 298.15 KK – 273.15 = C 315.00 – 273.15 = 41.85C
    39. 39. TEMPERATURECONVERSIONSFormula ExampleF = 9/5 C + 32 F = 9/5 28C + 32 = 82FC = 5/9(F – 32) C = 5/9(77F –32) = 25C9/5 = 1.85/9 = 0.55

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